-An illness transmitted to humans through food or water.
-approximately 4 million cases of food borne illness in Canada ( underestimated for every case that is reported, hundreds of cases go unreported.)
- estimated that only 3% of cases occur in food processing. So it is important to pay attention to proper food handling techniques at home
-often be mistaken for a viral illness, like a 24-hour flu.
-elderly, young infants and pregnant women have a greater risk of developing food borne illness
-three types of hazards
Biological: e.g., bacteria, mold, viruses, parasites and toxins
Chemical: both naturally occurring (e.g., plant toxins) and added (e.g., antibiotics)
Physical: foreign matter, e.g., glass, plastic.
-can be caused be infection or intoxication
- leading cause of food borne illness in North America; -4 million cases annually
- can be found in the environment (water, soil, insects), in animal feed and in the intestines of animals (especially poultry)
-come in contact with:
Meat - raw or undercooked, especially poultry
Eggs - raw and undercooked and their products (e.g., homemade Caesar salad dressing, raw cookie dough).
Unpasteurized (raw) milk and milk products such as milk cheeses (e.g., some soft cheese like feta can contain raw milk)
Sprouts (uncooked seed and bean sprouts)
Unwashed raw fruits and vegetables and their products (e.g., unpasteurized juice or cider)
Human feces can also be a source. Once a person is infected with Salmonella, it is shed their feces.
-Contaminated foods typically do not look, smell or taste any different. Thorough cooking of foods kills, as does a disinfectant cleaner or sanitizer (e.g., bleach) used on countertops, cutting boards, knives, etc.
- takes about 1-3 days before symptoms are seen . Typical symptoms include nausea, headache, diarrhea, abdominal pain, chills, fever, vomiting and dehydration, and it can be fatal in infants, elderly and those with a compromised immune system.
-typical duration of symptoms is 1-4 days, can last up to 7 days, with most people recovering without treatment.
-Long term complications can include severe arthritic symptoms.
-Prevention: cook eggs and poultry thoroughly, pasteurize milk, irradiate chicken, proper hand washing, appropriate kitchen clean up, avoid cross contamination.
- common bacterium present in the nasal passages, throats and on the hair and skin of 30-40% of healthy people and animals. also found in the air, dust, sewage, water, milk, food or on food equipment
-can cause boils, pimples, other skin infections and toxic shock syndrome.
-Food handlers are usually the main source of food contamination in food poisoning outbreaks.
-Contamination comes from people preparing food while they have colds / sore throats (sneezing or coughing near food), eye infections, or infected skin cuts
- Foods at highest risk of contamination are those that are made by hand and require no cooking.
-People can pass on, however people sick with the toxin are not able to pass on the toxin to others.
-has the ability to make seven different toxins, toxin produced by the bacteria that actually causes illness.
-multiply rapidly at room temperature to produce toxins that are resistant to heat and cannot be destroyed by cooking. can be killed by very high heat (121°C in moist heat for at least 15mins, dry heat - 160-170°C for at least 1 hour). also by a sanitizing agent. will not be killed by boiling a food.
-Foods frequently contaminated include meats, poultry, egg products, salads/sandwich fillings with mayonnaise (e.g., egg, tuna, chicken, potato, and macaroni), bakery products such as cream-filled pastries, cream pies, and chocolate éclairs, and milk / milk products.
-takes about 30 minutes to eight hours before symptoms are seen.
-Typical symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and dehydration. more severe cases, headache, muscle cramping, and temporary changes in blood pressure and pulse rate may occur. Although it is rarely fatal, it could be fatal in infants, elderly and those with a compromised immune system.
-typical duration of symptoms is usually 24 - 48 hours, however they can last up to 3 days, with most people recovering without treatment.
-Prevention: not allowing infected persons to prepare food, thorough heating and cooling of food, proper hand washing, appropriate kitchen clean up, avoid cross contamination.
-relatively new strain of E. coli commonly found in cattle (especially dairy cattle). lives in the large intestine of animals (e.g., cows, pigs, dogs, cats, etc.) and can also live in the intestinal tract of humans.
-often referred to as "hamburger disease" because of its strong connection with beef. It can also be found in food or water that has come in contact with fecal matter
-Foods that commonly cause include raw or undercooked meat and raw (unpasteurized) milk (may contain bits of fecal debris from the udder of the cow), Unpasteurized fruit juices
- a surface contaminant, meaning that it is only found on the surface of the food product and does not penetrate into the centre.
-12 - 18 hours before symptoms are seen, however it can take up to 8 days in some cases.
-Typical symptoms include nausea, vomiting, watery and bloody diarrhea, abdominal pain, and dehydration. more severe cases, headache, muscle cramping, and temporary changes in blood pressure and pulse rate may occur. - rarely fatal, it could be in infants, elderly and those with a compromised immune system.
-typical duration of symptoms is usually 2 - 9 days, with most people recovering without treatment. 2-7% of cases lead to a condition called hemolytic uremic syndrome, acute kidney failure, resulting in a need for dialysis and in some cases, blood transfusions in ICU.
-Prevention: cook meat thoroughly, especially ground meat, pasteurize milk and fruit juices, avoid cross contamination, e.g., do not use platters that held raw meat for cooked food, proper hand washing, and appropriate kitchen clean up.
-very potent. 1 tsp could wipe out the population of New York City.
-anaerobic bacteria found widely distributed in nature; soil, water, on plants, in intestinal tract of animals and fish. It produces the most powerful toxin which blocks nerve function called botulism.
-can be found in improperly home canned or commercially canned foods, especially low acid home canned foods (e.g.,vegetables). Because it is an anaerobic bacteria, it is found in things that are tightly sealed with little oxygen
-Products with bulging cans should never be consumed, it is the bacteria growing inside that is producing gas, causing the can to bulge
-Honey can also be a natural source (never feed babies honey)
-12 - 24 hours before symptoms are seen, however it can be as long as 72 hours before symptoms present. Typical symptoms include double vision, inability to swallow, speech difficulty and progressive paralysis, which can result in death. Long term complications can include fatigue and shortness of breath. Treatment is required to prevent death; a person must have an anti-toxin administered.
-Prevention: sterilize canned foods. Home canned foods should be processed using a pressure cooker. Home canned foods should be boiled for 10 minutes prior to consuming to increase safety.
-Refrigerate leftovers promptly.
-Follow the 2-hour rule, foods should be stored in the fridge within 2 hours of preparation.
-Store leftovers in small shallow dishes, using several if necessary. When food is put into a large container, it is not able to cool to 40*C quickly enough
-Remove stuffing from poultry and store separately
-Reheat foods adequately (so solid foods should be steaming, and liquids should boil).
-Discard foods past their expiry date or past their safe food storage time.
-Do not consume food that is suspect. Follow the principle of "when in doubt, throw it out".
-For mold growth, discard soft foods with mold (e.g., bread, fruit). -For solid foods (like brick cheese), you need to trim off at least 1 inch off past where any mold has grown, as mold will inject toxins into the food that cannot be seen on the surface.
-a chemical used in the production of hard, clear plastic called polycarbonate. used in a variety of food containers (e.g., reusable water bottles, infant bottles, food storage containers, outdoor table wear and glasses). also used in the production of epoxy resins, which are used to line the inside of food and beverage cans. Small amounts may leach out into the food or water stored in these containers, however this exposure is of no risk to Canadians, with the exception of newborns and infants, where the level of exposure can reach that seen in animal studies to cause adverse health effects. can have estrogen-like activity in the body and may be an endocrine-disrupting agent. The recommendations that Health Canada gives to parents are:
Do not put boiling or very hot water into polycarbonate baby bottles (as this can cause BPA to leach at a higher rate). Allow boiled water or liquids to cool to lukewarm before placing in the baby bottle.
Allow polycarbonate bottles to cool to room after sterilization / cleaning before adding infant
Polycarbonate plastic fits in the "other plastic" category for recycling, which is classified by the number '7'.
-First recognized in 1968 in Norwalk, Ohio, water was the suspected source.
-Shellfish, water contaminated with sewage and infected food handlers can spread these viruses. -Heating will destroy the virus, so mainly seen in ready to eat foods that do not require heating prior to consumption.
-takes about 1-2 days before symptoms are seen, however symptoms can be seen as quickly as 12 hours
-The virus is shed in the feces during the time before symptoms are seen, and can be found in the stool and vomit during illness and for several days after recovery.
-Typical symptoms include nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea (gastroenteritis), as well as fever, headache and stomach pain.
-duration of symptoms is 1-2 days.
-It is often known as the stomach flu and is highly contagious. These viruses can survive fairly high levels of chlorine (so bleach solutions are not necessarily effective in killing the virus) and can have high survival rates on surfaces, such as door handles, sinks, counters, railings, etc.
-Prevention: cook shellfish thoroughly, follow proper sanitation procedures, and most importantly proper hand washing.
-Outbreaks caused commonly seen in areas where people are in close contact, including hospitals, schools, personal care homes, daycares and cruise ships.
-toxins produced by molds growing on foods.
- seen on foods because of their fuzzy growth (bloom). They grow best at room temperature, however need less moisture to grow than bacteria do. Toxin production is stimulated at lower temperatures (-1 to -10°C).
- 300 mycotoxins identified, some of which are carcinogenic (cancer causing).
-Symptoms of mycotoxins range from food borne illness symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting), to kidney disorders, liver cancer, bone marrow destruction and gangrenous ergotism, a condition characterized by a burning sensation in the hands and feet. This condition can progress to loss of circulation, and can result in amputation.
-One of the best known mycotoxin is aflatoxin, which is made by the mold Aspergillus flavus. This mold can infect nuts (especially peanuts), flour, wheat and soybeans. Aflatoxin is a potent liver carcinogen.
-Prevention: it is difficult to completely avoid contamination. Therefore, health regulations permit small levels in foods.
caused by consumption of tropical herbivorous reef fish (e.g., grouper and red snapper), as well as larger fish who prey on these fish. It is heat stable, so cooking the fish does not prevent. Symptoms develop approximately 3-5 hours after consumption and include diarrhea, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. Neurological symptoms typically follow, including hot/cold inversion (i.e., think that foods are the opposite temperature than they are) muscle aches, tingling and numbness of the lips, itching, metallic taste, dryness of the mouth, dizziness, chills, sweating, blurred vision, and temporary blindness. These symptoms can reoccur in an individual up to 25 years after the original poisoning. -involves an immune response to a food substance (specifically the proteins in that food) called antigens.
-In Canada, food allergies affect about 5-6% of children and about 3-4% of adults.
-immune system mistakes the protein in a food for being harmful, and so the body makes antibodies called immunoglobulin E (IgE) the first time it is exposed to the protein. Then, when the body is re-exposed to that food protein, the IgE is released, along with histamine, which can cause reactions in the skin (e.g., hives, itching), respiratory system (e.g., runny nose, difficulty breathing), gastrointestinal tract (vomiting, diarrhea), cardiovascular system (e.g., drop in blood pressure), and oral cavity (swelling of the lips/tongue, itching and irritation of the mouth, swelling and tightening in the throat). Food allergies can be serious enough to cause death in some cases. The most severe symptom seen is called anaphalaxis, which affects about 1-2% of Canadians.
-a life threatening reaction to a food substance that affects multiple body systems.
-symptoms include swelling of the throat, difficulty breathing, circulatory collapse, abdominal cramps, vomiting, diarrhea, coma and death. Symptoms tend to develop rapidly,
-treat anaphylaxis, epinephrine (also called adrenaline) is administered via injection (e.g., EpiPen®) at the initial onset of symptoms. It is recommended that those who suffer from anaphylaxis carry epinephrine with them at all times. After the epinephrine has been administered, the person needs to go immediately to the hospital for thorough assessment and further treatment.
- immune disorder that is characterized by damage to the intestinal tract caused by exposure to gluten (a protein found in wheat, rye, barley and triticale).
-Gluten consumption causes damage to the lining of the small intestines, impacting the body's ability to absorb nutrients.
-Symptoms vary typically include iron deficiency anemia (because of poor absorption caused by damage to the lining of the small intestine), abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, fatigue and weight loss. Because of the reduction in absorption of nutrients, long term, for osteoporosis. also develop a skin rash (itchy and burning) called dermatitis herpetiformis.
- 1 in 133 Canadians has celiac disease. There is some genetic link to celiac disease; about 10% of those with a relative with celiac disease will develop the disease themselves.
-treatment for celiac disease is to follow a gluten free diet for life. This means that a person must read food ingredient lists for all foods to determine if gluten is in the product, or phone the food manufacturer.