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Terms in this set (78)

- leading cause of food borne illness in North America; -4 million cases annually
- can be found in the environment (water, soil, insects), in animal feed and in the intestines of animals (especially poultry)
-come in contact with:
Meat - raw or undercooked, especially poultry
Eggs - raw and undercooked and their products (e.g., homemade Caesar salad dressing, raw cookie dough).
Unpasteurized (raw) milk and milk products such as milk cheeses (e.g., some soft cheese like feta can contain raw milk)
Sprouts (uncooked seed and bean sprouts)
Unwashed raw fruits and vegetables and their products (e.g., unpasteurized juice or cider)
Human feces can also be a source. Once a person is infected with Salmonella, it is shed their feces.
-Contaminated foods typically do not look, smell or taste any different. Thorough cooking of foods kills, as does a disinfectant cleaner or sanitizer (e.g., bleach) used on countertops, cutting boards, knives, etc.
- takes about 1-3 days before symptoms are seen . Typical symptoms include nausea, headache, diarrhea, abdominal pain, chills, fever, vomiting and dehydration, and it can be fatal in infants, elderly and those with a compromised immune system.
-typical duration of symptoms is 1-4 days, can last up to 7 days, with most people recovering without treatment.
-Long term complications can include severe arthritic symptoms.
-Prevention: cook eggs and poultry thoroughly, pasteurize milk, irradiate chicken, proper hand washing, appropriate kitchen clean up, avoid cross contamination.
- common bacterium present in the nasal passages, throats and on the hair and skin of 30-40% of healthy people and animals. also found in the air, dust, sewage, water, milk, food or on food equipment
-can cause boils, pimples, other skin infections and toxic shock syndrome.
-Food handlers are usually the main source of food contamination in food poisoning outbreaks.
-Contamination comes from people preparing food while they have colds / sore throats (sneezing or coughing near food), eye infections, or infected skin cuts
- Foods at highest risk of contamination are those that are made by hand and require no cooking.
-People can pass on, however people sick with the toxin are not able to pass on the toxin to others.
-has the ability to make seven different toxins, toxin produced by the bacteria that actually causes illness.
-multiply rapidly at room temperature to produce toxins that are resistant to heat and cannot be destroyed by cooking. can be killed by very high heat (121°C in moist heat for at least 15mins, dry heat - 160-170°C for at least 1 hour). also by a sanitizing agent. will not be killed by boiling a food.
-Foods frequently contaminated include meats, poultry, egg products, salads/sandwich fillings with mayonnaise (e.g., egg, tuna, chicken, potato, and macaroni), bakery products such as cream-filled pastries, cream pies, and chocolate éclairs, and milk / milk products.
-takes about 30 minutes to eight hours before symptoms are seen.
-Typical symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and dehydration. more severe cases, headache, muscle cramping, and temporary changes in blood pressure and pulse rate may occur. Although it is rarely fatal, it could be fatal in infants, elderly and those with a compromised immune system.
-typical duration of symptoms is usually 24 - 48 hours, however they can last up to 3 days, with most people recovering without treatment.
-Prevention: not allowing infected persons to prepare food, thorough heating and cooling of food, proper hand washing, appropriate kitchen clean up, avoid cross contamination.
-relatively new strain of E. coli commonly found in cattle (especially dairy cattle). lives in the large intestine of animals (e.g., cows, pigs, dogs, cats, etc.) and can also live in the intestinal tract of humans.
-often referred to as "hamburger disease" because of its strong connection with beef. It can also be found in food or water that has come in contact with fecal matter
-Foods that commonly cause include raw or undercooked meat and raw (unpasteurized) milk (may contain bits of fecal debris from the udder of the cow), Unpasteurized fruit juices
- a surface contaminant, meaning that it is only found on the surface of the food product and does not penetrate into the centre.
-12 - 18 hours before symptoms are seen, however it can take up to 8 days in some cases.
-Typical symptoms include nausea, vomiting, watery and bloody diarrhea, abdominal pain, and dehydration. more severe cases, headache, muscle cramping, and temporary changes in blood pressure and pulse rate may occur. - rarely fatal, it could be in infants, elderly and those with a compromised immune system.
-typical duration of symptoms is usually 2 - 9 days, with most people recovering without treatment. 2-7% of cases lead to a condition called hemolytic uremic syndrome, acute kidney failure, resulting in a need for dialysis and in some cases, blood transfusions in ICU.
-Prevention: cook meat thoroughly, especially ground meat, pasteurize milk and fruit juices, avoid cross contamination, e.g., do not use platters that held raw meat for cooked food, proper hand washing, and appropriate kitchen clean up.