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Categorical Syllogisms
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Key Concepts:
Terms in this set (14)
Categorical Syllogism
a deductive argument containing two premises and a conclusion, all of which are categorical propositions
Major Term
term that occurs in the predicate of the conclusion
Minor Term
term that occurs in the subject of the conclusion
Middle Term
term that occurs in both the premises, but not in the conclusion
Major Premise
the premise containing the major term
Minor Premise
the premise containing the minor term
Putting it in Standard Form
1. find the conclusion
2. identify the major, minor, and middle term, as well as the minor and major premises
3. substitute S for the minor term, P for the major term, and M for the middle term
4. Make sure the remaining proposition are each one of the four standard for categorical propositions
5. Put the major premise first, then the minor premise, then the conclusion
Validity Tests
- venn diagram tests
- rules of validity
Venn Diagram Test
- in a valid syllogism, the conclusion asserts no more than what is already contained in the premises
- valid: don't need to add anything for the conclusion
- invalid: you need to add something to make the conclusion true
Distribution
if the statement makes an assertion about all members of the class designated by the term
Distribution of the Subject Term
- universal
- particular affirmative
Distribution of the Predicate Term
- only distributed in negative propositions
- undistributed if affirmative
Rules of Validity
1. the middle term must be distributed at least once
2. if a term is distributed in the conclusion, it must be distributed in its premise, but not the other way around
3. the premises cannot both be negative
4. if either premise is negative, the conclusion must be negative, and if the conclusions is negative, one premise must be negative
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THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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