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Science Chapter 6: Hydrosphere(Earth and Space Module)
Terms in this set (33)
What is hydrosphere ?
Earths outer layer of water . (All phases: liquid, solid and gas) (2/3 earth= water= the blue planet)
What is the hydrosphere composed of ?
Salt water (fish): 97.5%
Fresh water: 2.5%
79% fresh water frozen in glaciers
In lakes and rivers : 21%
Inland waters: freshwater bodies are found where ?
Freshwater bodies found on continents ( unite rivers, lakes and groundwater )
What is watershed ? What are synonyms for watershed ?
And area of land whose lakes and rivers all empty into the same larger body of water. Drainage basin, catchment area(area of land where water is being drained) .
What is watershed divides ?
Sloped area of land where the water can be drained (flow down ), the natural boundaries that make up the limits of a watershed unusually high , sloped ground . The natural slope of the land causes the water to flow in the same direction .
What is subwatershed ?
Watershed inside a larger watershed
Factors that impact watersheds : what are the 5 factors and their explanation ?
1. Slope and shape of the land (topography)- higher the slope more the water flow (increase)
2.type of rock found on the land (geology)(type of depth,structure)- rocks that are crushed or have holes will have better water flow(than through compact clay , bolder)(increase)
3.frequency rain or snow (climate)(precipitation)- more snow or rain causes even a better water flow(increase)
4. Vegetation(plant, trees)- wooded areas will slow the water flow (rainwater runoff is slowed by wooded areas on river banks)(decrease)
5. Agriculture , industrial or urban development- dams can prevent water flow entirely (from flowing freely)(decrease)
What are the 5 oceans ?
1) Pacific Ocean
What factors affect the oceans water temperature and depth ?
Mixed layer(fish live) = < 200m, heated by sunlight
Thermocline (rapid temperature drop) => 200m, no solar energy,cold , transition zone(temperature decreases with depth)
Deeper water > 1000m, cold and dark
When do the oceans loose heat? What loses temperature more slowly and what does it cause ?
Oceans lose some heat during the winter. Water loses heat more slowly than land causing less pronounced temperature differences .
Latitude : where is it warmer rather than in temperate zones?
Warmer at the equator than in temperate zones
Why is their a relationship between the depth of the water and the temperature ?
Because of the penetration of the sunlight (top of ocean , a lot of sun light exposure , bottom none)
Ocean Parameter( salinity ) : what is salinity ? How is the salt dissolved in the ocean , rivers , lakes ?
Salinity is the amount of salt dissolved in a liquid . The seawater hits against the rocks and dissolves the salt found in the rocks . Also, rivers and lakes and tributaries run along rocks to accumulate rocks .
What does groundwater accumulate ? What does not evaporate ? What causes a decrease in salinity ? What causes an increase in salinity ?
It accumulates salt . Salt does not evaporate . Poiles have glaciers and ice packs that melt which dilute the seawater causing a decrease in salinity(more water less salinity) . In areas closer to the equator (warmer waters) the water evaporates causing and increase in salinity.
What is ocean current ? What are the 2 ocean currents ?
The movement of seawater in a certain direction . Surface and subsurface current .
What is surface current caused by / move /found in / below? How deep was subsurface / what was is caused by ?
Caused by the winds , move horizontally ,found in the first 400m of water and below surface . Subsurface was not controlled by wind , deep currents (800m++) and caused by variation sin density between layers of water.
How does a liquid have a high density ? What is density ?
As temperature decreases in a liquid , the substances volume decreases resulting in a higher density (colder the water , higher the density and it will sink). Density: (mass) size ( d=m/v)
How is water at the poles ? What happens as salinity increases?
Water at the poles is cold and sink to the bottom of the ocean floor (more salt more dense). As salinity increases , density increases.
What is the density of water that has a low and high density of salinity ?
Water that has low salinity has a density of 1 g/L, water that has a higher salinity (ocean water) can have a density of 35g/L.
How do surface and subsurface currents move / are connected ? What is Thermohaline circulation ?
Surface and subsurface currents are connected and move around the earth like huge conveyor belt, the conveyor belt is caused by thermohaline . Thermohaline circulation = ocean waters are in constant motion -continuous circulation caused by waves, tides and mostly by currents that carry ocean waters all around the world .
How do Atlantic surface water move / where ? How does the ocean water become saltier ?
Atlantic surface water moves slowly northward through the equatorial and tropic zones . As it becomes warmed, evaporation happens and it becomes saltier.
Loss of heat causes the water to do what / it results in what ?
Loss in heat causes water to sink more resulting in cold waters along the North American border.
Why is thermohaline circulation important ?
Moves warm surface waters downward and forces cold , nutrient rich water upwards. It also regulates earth's climate.
What is Crysopshere / what does it include ?
Consists of all frozen water on earth's surface . It includes , pack ice, glaciers, frozen lakes and rivers,vas expanses of snow and the ice is permafrost .
What is pack ice ? What happens when the upper layer of water reaches the north and south poles ? What does pack ice do with the seasons ? Who is pack ice important for and what is global warming causing ?
Ice floating on the oceans near the north and south poles (on the ocean top). When the upper layer of water reaches the north and south poles it expands on contact with cold air . Pack ice expands and contracts with the seasons. It is important for wildlife spaciest like polar bears and bridges seals and is weakened by global warming causing polar bears to drown. (Small amount of salt in pack ice) (does not impact sea level , impacts thermohaline circulation)
What are glaciers ? How do they differ from pack ice ? Is the water of a glacier drinkable ? Do glaciers float on water ?
A glacier is a mass of ice formed on land due to compressed snow. They differ from ice packs because ice packs are formed on water. Yes, it is drinkable cause it is not saline. No , they do not float on water.
What are the 2 environmental impacts of melting glaciers ?
1. The glacier melting causes more ice to fall into the water resulting in the sea level to rise . This is problematic for countries where the land is at sea level .
2. Thawing of this ice releases high amounts of fresh water (non saline water) which mixes into the Gulf Stream . This causes the water to become less dense so it does not sink which slows down the ocean currents and could potentially cease the thermohaline circulation .
How are icebergs formed ? What percentage are icebergs underwater ?
An iceberg is formed when snow accumulates on glaciers compressing lower layers and turning them into ice. When the ice leaks out and breaks off and falls into the sea it forms an iceberg . They are 90% underwater.
Where is hydraulic energy from? True or false, Quebec generates almost all its electricity from hydroelectric power ? What type of source is hydraulic power/ what do the dam sites require ?
It is the energy from moving water. True. It is a renewable resource , however the dam sites require flooding of forests.
How does hydroelectricity work ?
A) dam built across river to hold back water
B) water level rises- fils huge artificial reservoirs
C)pressure put on dam - dam gates are opened
D)water rushes through large pipes that lead to turbines , turbines spin
E) connected to alternators that convert the mechanical energy into an electric current
What type of energy are engineers using for electrical power ? Buoys that rise and fall can turn what / which results in what ?
Engineers are trying to find ways of using the energy of the ocean current (areas near ocean) for electrical ocean . Buoys that rise and fall could turn turbines resulting in electrical power.
What can underwater turbines in the ocean do ?
Underwater turbines in the ocean could use the ocean currents to turn the turbines and generate power(like a wind mill does with wind )
What are the advantages and disadvantages of underwater turbines ?
Advantage : cant see them, don't take up space , dont hear them
Disadvantage: fish could get chopped up , more expensive to install .
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