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Psych of sport midterm 4
Terms in this set (98)
1. Social norms
2. Mere presence
5. Social support from specific people
What are the 5 social influences?
Pressure to perform given action/behaviour
What people ought to (should) do. What we usually focus on in PA promotion
What others are doing. Linked to increased PA (office workers)
What is the key predictor of athletes effort in their sport and is most associated with the norm of the friend group
Mere presence of others
What influences performance (increasing or decreasing)
Increase in effort when people are watching
Self-reported effort (Social facilitation)
Lower perceived exertion when next to someone who gives impression that the task is easy
Teams tend to play better when they're playing at _____ vs playing _______
Increases collective efficacy
What does home field advantage impact prior to competition?
1. Increased pressure to win
2. Increased cost of not winning (arousal may exceed optimal levels i.e. too pumped)
3. Heightened self-awareness
What are some reasons as to why home field may be a disadvantage
Gender effects (moderator)
When the sex of a tester acts as a moderator for their self-reported exertion
Intimacy and density (how tightly packed the crowd is)
Associated with audience, what leads to increased arousal?
Topic of audience, what had a negative impact for visiting team?
Familiarity, travel, crowd
What contributes to the home team advantage
-Thoughts, feelings, behaviour
- Ripple effect of group emotions (if you get angry one the bench, may rub off on the other athletes aka ripple effect)-impact on engagement also separate groups from collection of people
What can groups promote or undermine?
Groups are not just a collection of people but they are.....
Sports teams: norms, roles, status. Group decision making, interaction, communication
Exercise class: self-categorization, usually develop a social structure
What is the difference between the groups of sports teams and exercise class
Increased _____ produces dominant response, enhances performance of skilled person and decreases that of novice
A dynamic process reflected in the tendency of a group to stick together and remain united in the pursuit of its instrumental objectives and/or for the satisfaction of member affective needs
Attraction to group task (ATG-t)
Attraction to group and group members to satisfy task completion needs
Attraction to group social (ATG-S)
Attraction to the social group and group members to satisfy social needs
Group integration task (GI-T)
Bonding within the group to satisfy task completion
Group integration social (GI-S)
Bonding within the group to satisfy social needs
1. Personal (satisfaction/match, behaviour/commitment)
2. Leadership (on and off ice, importance of "team)
3. Team (success, cliques?, communication, commitment to TEAM goals)
How do we make sure we have "team chemistry"?
What are the two environmental factors influencing cohesion?
-Functional, more resources
-Social, greater chance of meeting interesting people
What are the benefits of increasing group size?
No, few opportunities too interact, less effective communication
Are big groups beneficial?
Similarity of oneself to other members
How does group composition influence cohesion?
Women feel less comfortable in groups where men are majority (women only gyms)
-Obese individuals (compromised adherence with non-obese individuals)
-Specific patient populations (cancer, cardiac rehab, diabetes)
-Skill level (novice exercisers)
What are 3 more factors associated group composition which influences cohesion?
What are the five steps of group development?
-Determine group task/goal
-Struggle with learning new system
-Agreeing upon common goals
-Establishing norms and roles
-Focus on performance
-Duties of members are over
Reduction of individual effort such as group projects in school
1. Cannot evaluate independent output
2. Low perceived importance
3. Little personal involvement
4. No group standards for comparison
5. other group members are strangers
6. Other members expected to perform well
7. Perceives personal contribution to be redundant
7 factors to increase social loafing
1. Individual tasks that are unique and meaningful
2. Monitor individual performance
3. Provide individualized feedback
4. Highlight importance of individual contributions
How to reduce social loafing?
Adherence (amongst adults and youth), endorsing norms and roles (more energy expenditure)
What does team building increase?
Attitudes, social support, self-efficacy
Cohesion influences performance by....
Halo effect, getting along better win you are winning (performance has stronger influence on later cohesiveness)
Performance influences cohesion by ....
Buddy up (task), high five, parties, don't expect social tranquility all of the time (social interactions
How does team building provide opportunities for interaction?
Sacrifices (aka, help out group members for benefit of group)
Team building allows individuals to have the opportunities to make ____ for the group
-Feelings of distinctiveness (create group name or group uniform)
-Group norms (adopting a common goal and work ethic)
-Assign group roles/ positions (responsibilities for particular tasks)
Describe team building
Fosters greater interdependence; acquit each player for the responsibilities of other players (and the importance of these roles)
What does assigning group roles/positions do?
Clarity of leader's role in different size groups affects _____
Expect ____ approach for larger classes
Expect ____ approach for smaller classes
-As you add people to pull on a rope, the lower the percentage of work gets. (tug of war)
-Why does this happen?- Coordination losses OR reduced individual motivation
-Performance leveled off with higher group size
-Loss in performance due to loss of motivation
-Decreased sense of personal accountability
Negative effects within group (Ringleman study)
-Exercise leader physical educators
-Coaches/leaders in sport
What are the 5 meta-analysis of social influences on PA
Has consistent effects on PA. Joining program with ___ less likely to dropout. Also seen in rehab context. Emotional and companionship (instrumental can also be important)
Couples often engage in similar _____ behaviours
One of the most important determinants of activity for children
-Instrumental: organizing, paying, driving
-Informational: teaching kids
-Companionship: playing with kids
-Validation: role models, parent's activity associated with kids activity
What are the 5 components of activity for children
Parents may use ______ to encourage kids to restart PA after lapse
Lapses are due to ______ and seen as due to a lack of ______
T/F: changing one partners behaviour can be linked to change in other partners behaviour
Informational- what and how
Instrumental- planning activity
What types of support do fitness instructors/personal trainers provide?
-Greater enjoyment of class
-Stronger intentions to join similar classes
Trainers have different delivery styled impacts. Participants of enriched classes have....
_____ condition led to greater participant confidence in there ability during exercise
Participants confident in their _____ attend more exercise classes
Communication confidence- offer praise
Having a trainer recognize goals and limitations of a client led to...
Exercise leaders serve as _____
cognitions, affect and behaviour
____, _____ and ____ are impacted after a single fitness class in most instances
It is important to know ______ and to have a ____ approach when training athletes
____ contributes to exercise behaviour and exercise attitudes
What is the most important type of influence?
Perceived assistance, information, caring from others
Tangible, practical assistance such as driving spotting and paying
______ support not always well received (hovering)
Encouragement, caring (praising)
Directs, advice, feedback (you want to keep your HR up, you're doing it right)
Availability to exercise with someone (friend, family member, exercise buddy/group)
Comparing oneself to others (gauge process)
An increase ____ support and _____ support leads to increase physical activity. Can also be more important for women than men
Insufficiently active baseline
Instrumental support associated with becoming physically active
Sufficiently active at baseline
Instrumental and emotional support associated with maintaining physical activity
_____ undermines self-efficacy. It is also a vicious cycle of decline in physical activity
Important to promote programs that increase both _______ and physical activity for older adults
Overprotectiveness is a ____ for support
Overprotectiveness is most often seen with _____ patients or with _____
- Controlling behaviour
What are the steps that lead to burnout?
Coaches who are _____ and have shared goals with athletes have ____ levels of burnout
-Considers himself part of the team
-Leader's values on and off the field
Characteristics of star performers
Compliance to instructions/stay on task by using rewards and punishments (short-term effects)
Laissez faire Leadership
What type of leadership is hands-off where group members make the decisions (lower productivity and focus)
Three types of leadership
Characteristics of transformational leadership
Instills pride, sets good example, earns respect, morals
Optimism, enthusiasm, shared vision
Accountability, feeling of worth/value/contribution, helps focus for improvement
Encourages "followers" (forgotten child) to be creative, solve problems, conveys trust.
-Meaningfulness of their work
What do transformational leaders improve amongst followers
1. Remorse (saying you're sorry)
2. Responsibility (ownership of mistake)
3. Empathy (recognizing impact of mistake)
4. Restitution (making things right)
5. Plan of action (moving forward)
5 parts to an apology
-Higher self-determined motivation
-Intentions to be active
Students who see teachers using transformational teaching have...... which leads to class PA
How do you change behaviour?
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