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Terms in this set (125)
Term for any technique that results in extremely fast freezing
What are the methods of quick freezing?
What does immersion freezing employ?
A brine solution to get temps below point of freezing water
How will the meat be with any of the quick freezing methods?
Frozen meat with small ice crystals and extremely low bacterial ,yeast, or mold growth
Why is drip loss less for thin pieces of meat than thicker?
Bc thick pieces will freeze slowly in centre, moisture will be drawn out and frozen between fibres while thin pieces freeze so rapidly that the moisture is trapped within the fibres
How long should meat be held before being frozen?
48 hours for beef, other meats 24 hours to allow changes necessary for drip loss of frozen meats to a minimum
Fresh vs frozen storage time
Fresh should be eaten within days, frozen good for several weeks
What is another advantage of freezing meats?
they become more tender
What temp should frozen meats be held at?
-10F to 0F
Desiccation of part of the surface of frozen meat, a result of improper packaging that allows air to be in contact with the meat surface
What kind of packaging is good for freezing meat?
Air tight, resistant to damage
What happens when there's tears in frozen packaging?
Formation of tough dry area called freezer burn that will never return to normal
Freeze drying process and use
Freezing meat then sublimating ice to produce lightweight product that does not require refrigeration for storage; dehydrated soup with meat
What was passed in 1890?
Meat Inspection Act
Wholesome Poultry Products Act
Wholesome Meat Act
What do the wholesome acts do?
Meats in intrastate be inspected at least as rigorous as standards for interstate
What did the early legislation ensure?
slaughtered under sanitary conditions, animals free of disease
What did the FSIS implement in 1996?
Pathogen Reduction and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points Final Rule
What did the 1996 implementation require each plant to include?
1. HACCP-based process controls
2. Microbial testing for E coli, which is an indicator of fecal contamination
3. Pathogen reduction performance standards to assure that Salmonella cont. below national baseline
4. Sanitation standard operating procedures
Who is responsible for inspection of meat and poultry?
How can states get an inspector?
Elect or have own within state, or use federal
Only __ inspectors are authorized to inspect meat for interstate commerce
What does inspection include?
assessment of slaughterhouse, packaging operation, health of animal, packaging plant, etc.
What is wrong with the inspection stamp?
Only tells you that the meat was safe for consumption at the time of inspection, no guarantee for subsequent handling
What is one potential hazard that not revealed by inspection?
Trichinella spirali, parasitic worm in pork of hogs fed uncooked garbage
How can you kill Trichinae spirals?
frozen storage 20 days, heating to 170F, processing until 137F internal temp
What are the 3 grading options meat packers have?
1) federal grading
2) packer grading
3) no grading
When do packers use their own grading system?
What are the grade of beef established by?
U.S department of Agriculture, federal unit also administers enforcement
What grad eo beef encompasses a wide range of quality?
What is the top grade of beef and where does it go?
U.S Prime, restaurants
What does the prime and choice cuts get?
Continuous strip of the shield, so its visible on outer side
How is pork rated?
high U.S No.1 to No.4, based on yield than quality bc only minimal differences
What is pork grading for and why?
Wholesale markets, indicate relative yield of 4 major lean cuts, but not evident in retail case
What is USDA utility pork?
Soft and watery, not available to consumers
The __ of lam varies far more than work does
How is lamb graded?
6 quality grades (USDA prime thought USDA Cull)
How is mutton graded?
USDA Choice to Good, utility, Cull; yield is 1-5 depending on amount of fat outside and inside
Where does meat cut choice decision occur?
Planning of menu
What are the 2 facts for selecting meats
Time and budget: tender and less tender cuts
The classification of a particular cut of meat is dependent upon?
1) location on the carcass
2) type of meat
What portions of animals will be most tender?
Those that receive little exercise (tenderloin on any animal, or any grade)
What are tender cuts of beef?
Rib, short loin, sirloin
What are less tender cuts of beef?
Shoulder, rump, belly
The rump of USA Prime beef is classified as __, while USDA Choice and lower grades yield rump as ___ tender
tender, less tender
Pork is usually classified as __, regardless of cut
what is the tenderness of veal?
Moderately tender bc there is reasonably high proportion of connective tissue and little fat
What are less tender cuts of lamb?
Shank of the leg, neck, shoulder, breast
How can you identify cuts of meat in the store?
Size of cuts, colour of muscles, character of at
How do the sizes vary when looking at cuts?
Biggest beef, veal, pork, lmab
Colours of cuts
beef red, veal light-moderate pink, pork pinkish grey, lamb dark red
Fat in cuts/types of meat
beef hard fat and white or yellowish, veal very little fat, pork softest of fats pink colour, lamb is hardest and is white
First cuts (wholesale) to provide large sections, yet small enough to be handled by the butcher
Meat cuts available to consumers
How can you identify a specific cut of meat?
The bone: round bone= leg, T bone= backbone
Single serving of:
- boneless cuts
- Small bones
- Average bones
- Large bones
Boneless: 1/4 lb
small bones: 1/3 lb
Average bone: 1/2 lb
Large bone 2/4-1lb
What should buyers compare when looking at same cuts?
Bone size and fat, both are discarded
The __ the texture appears, the more tender is the cut
What is another clue to selecting the optimum quality and freshness?
How should you store canned hams?
in the fridge unopened unless it days its not necessary, haven't gotten the correct heat treatment
What temp should meat compartment be at in fridge?
What temp should freezer at long term storage be set at?
Need separate freezer at 0F (-17.8C)The acid act on the proteins in the meat
How do marinades make meat more tender?
The acids act on the proteins in meat
Can you re-use marinades?
No, good medium for harmful bacteria, should be boiled
How should you cook tender meats?
Dry heat methods
How should you cook tougher meats?
Moist heat methods
How is composition of tender meats related to cooking method?
Tender cuts are mostly muscle proteins, these are fairly soluble and will come closer together as they denature, making the meat more tough
What are the methods of moist heat cookery?
Roasting, Broiling, Pan broiling, pan drying, deep-fat frying
How is composition of tough meats related to cooking method?
Tough meats mostly collagen; the long cooking time relaxes the collagen molecules to release individual gelatine strands
What are the 2 basic methods of moist heat cookery?
Braising and cooking in liquid (stewing)
Testing for doneness is tender cuts?
Testing for doneness is tougher cuts?
Fork test; means meat has been cooked to well done
What are some factors that may vary cooking time?
Amount of bone, fat, and dimensions of cut
When should roasting be used?
Large cuts of tender meat such as a rib roast
How do you assemble for roasting?
Shallow pan, thermometer in centre, no cover
- use plastic thermometer when close to being done
What are characteristics of a longer roast at lower temp?
Less drip loss, less shrinkage, increased juiciness,
What can be done prior to roasting?
What additional time should be included when roasting?
10-20 minutes at room temp for meat to firm up before slicing
Whats another technique people do in relation to roasting?
Sear or brown at 500F before roasting at 300F: high drip and evaporative loss
cooking by direct heat, usually at a distance of about three inches; fat is allowed to drain away from the meat
Broiling is the only preparation utilizing..
direct heat to cook meat
What are the two ways of broiling?
Charcoal of hibachi (heat underneath "upside down") or oven or special broiler compartments
Where does heat come from traditionally in broiling?
From top onto upper surface
Meat size for broiling
inch to more thick, uniform in size; thinner cuts too dry
Best cuts for broiling
Porterhouse, T bone, club, rib steaks of beef, cured ham slices, lamb chops, bacon
Requires special broiler pan to collect fat on bottom, minimizes smoking of fat and reduces fire
What can happen to cuts of meat when broiler and how do you prevent this?
Meat curls, pockets of fat collect on surface and present fire hazard; score the edges of the steak at 1 inch intervals, cutting through the connective tissue entirely (shrinking it)
How should you position meat when broiling? Well done?
3 inches form the heat source; well done should be lowered
Technique of broiling
- first side until half done
- second side until done
- door ajar
- thermometer if thick enough or incision to check
How can you add flavour to broiling?
Marinate for at least hour, acid fruit juices tenderize
What is Papain and what is it used for?
A proteolytic enzyme from papaya, used as meat tenderizer but leaves a powdery surface texture
Cooking meat in a skillet being careful to keep removing fat as it drains from the meat
Cooking meat in a frying pan and allowing the fat to accumulate in the pan
Cuts that can be broiled can also be ___
Tender cuts too thin for broiling can be..
How do you successfully pan broil?
Heavy, uncreased skillet, turning meat several times
How do you pan fry?
heavy skillet just a little fat, score the fat and connective tissue
What size of meat for pan frying?
1/2 inch - 1 inch
What happens if heat too intense when pan frying?
Fat will begin to smok
How is final product different in pan broiling and pan frying?
Pan frying: crispy, higher calorie and fat due to fat not being drained
Dry heat method in which meat is immersed in very hot fat
How can you also deep fat fry?
In deep pan thermostatically
What happens if heat too high deep fat frying?
Food burned on outside, not cooked inside
Heat too low deep fat frying?
Absorption of extra fat and greasy feel
Deep fat frying temp
Why is quantity important in deep fat frying?
Small amount should be added at a time, too much cold food will drop temp of oil
What is deep fat frying commonly used for?
Chicken and fish, rarely beef (fondue)
Care before/after deep fat frying
- blot food to eliminate water before to reduce foaming
- blot on paper towel after
Potential carcinogen that forms when foods reach extremely high temperatures
Why are fried and broiled meats potential sources of acrylamide?
They reach temps will in excess of the temp of boiling water
Moist heat method in which meat is cooked very slowly in a covered pan in a small amount of water until fork tender
Why can deep fat frying a turkey be dangerous?
Is displaces a large amount of very hot fat when it is lowered into the fryer
How is Braising sometimes begun?
By browning the meat before adding liquid; add flavour and colour
What needs to be checked when braising?
Liquid levels, evaporation occurs; heat should be set very low
When is braising done?
When fork inserted, at Well Done level
What is one of the nice features of braising?
Variety of flavours that can be introduced (acid, tomatoes, spices, etc.)
What cut of meat is best for braising and why?
Veal: high proportion of collagen is converted to gelatine, its bland and delicate
How should thick pork chops be braised?
Until 160F interior
What is the difference between stewing and braising?
Stewing: liquid covers the meat
What liquid is used for stewing?
Water, often with a bouquet Garni or seasonings
What temp for stewing?
Simmering once liquid; if boiling with make meat tough
How long does stewing usually take?
What can be added to stews?
Veggies (near end), flour to thicken
What other varieties of meat are good for stewing?
Tongue, kidney, sweetbreads, brains, country hams
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