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Science 9, Environmental Chemistry, Topic 1-2
Terms in this set (30)
Compounds in food that the body requires for proper growth, maintenance, and functioning
the starches and sugars present in foods
Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Nutrients the body uses to build and maintain its cells and tissues
Essential nutrients that do not yield energy, but that are required for growth and proper functioning of the body.
Sources of carbohydrates
Cereals, grains, fruits
Sources of lipids
vegetable oils, nuts, some dairy products
Sources of protein
Meat, fish and cheese and eggs.
Role of Carbohydrates
Role of lipids
energy storage and structure of cell membrane
Role of proteins
building material of cells (good for building muscle)
role of vitamins in the body
vitamins indirectly assist other nutrients through the complete processes of digestion, absorption, metabolism, and excretion
Sources of Vitamins
Vitamins are abundant in fruits, vegetables, and grains; they are also added to some processed foods
An element indispensable for life but required in extremely minute amounts. <100 mg/day
any of the minerals that people require daily in amounts over 100 mg
Catalysts for chemical reactions in living things
Breakdown of food substances into simpler forms that can be absorbed and used
Chemicals used on plants that do not harm the plants, but kill pests and have negative repercussions on other species who ingest the chemicals.
target plant species that compete with crops
a chemical used to kill insects
substance that kills fungi or inhibits their growth
a pesticide commonly used in the mid-1900s to control insect outbreaks. (Breakdown elements from DDT and other pesticides called chlorinated hydrocarbons accumulated in the upper levels of the food chain. The results of this accumulation proved particularly hazardous for birds of prey and other bird species that eat primarily fish, because high quantities of these chemicals caused an abnormality in calcium production.)
discovered the usefulness of DDT in 1938
increasing concentration of a harmful substance in organisms at higher trophic levels in a food chain or food web
Trophic Levels of a Food chain
The levels of producers and consumers in a food chain. (Trophic means the nutrition at each level.)
one of the first people to realize the global dangers of pesticide abuse (DDT). Wrote Silent Spring.
a trait possessed by certain individuals that are exposed to a pesticide and survive
crop rotation system
the system of growing a different crop in a field each year to preserve the fertility of the land
Approach to farming and ranching that avoids the use of herbicides, pesticides, growth hormones, and other similar synthetic inputs.
World Health Organization