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Terms in this set (66)
Importance of Beer
- 2nd most popular beverage after water
Canada per capita consumptions
70L~ 2.26 billion L total
Top beer drinking countries
Ireland, Germany, Austria, Denmark, Belgium
What is beer?
An alcoholic beverage made for fermented grains (3-10% ethanol)
Beer is produced by?
Brewing: hot water extraction of plant materials, end product is CO2 and ethanol
Beer production quote (Michael Jackson)
A man or woman who doesn't acre about the beer he/she drinks may as not care about the bread he/she eats
- barley malt (grain adjuncts)
- yeast (saccharomyces cereviseae
What is the IBU?
The International Bitterness Units scale, provides a measure of bitterness of beer, which is provided by the hops used during brewing
An IBU is one part per million of __, the higher the number, the greater the bitterness
A light American lager IBU
low as 5
Irish stout IBU
like Guinness, 25-60
Malting, Mashing, Boiling, Fermentation, Lagering, Packaging
1. Add water to barley seeds (steeping) 40 hours
2. Seeds imbibe water and germinate
3. Halt germination by kilning
Kills the seed, dries out the barley, causes flavour changes
Why bother malting?
- germination results in release of amylases
- amylases begin breakdown of starch reserves
- kilning affects the final colour of the beer
Often contain "medium" roasted malt
Containing "chocolate" malt (heavily roasted)
Purpose of Mashing
To convert starch reserves to "fermentable sugars"
How is mashing done?
- grind barley malt
- add water and heat to 65C
- let stand for ~1 hour
What happens during mashing?
Amylases convert starch ot glucose and maltose
Boiling of the "Wort"
- this stops the mashing process
- Undesirable microbes are eliminated
- Hops are added at this stage
- more hops= more bitter beer
- the war tis allowed to cool
- S. cereviseae is added
- the end-products of fermentation are ethanol and carbon dioxide
3 Types of yeast
1. Top fermenting yeast
2. Bottom fermenting yeast
3. Wild Yeasts
Top Fermenting Yeast
Ales, ferments at warmer temperatures (15-20C). They form a foam on the surface of the beer. They are usually ready to drink within 3 weeks of starting the fermentation
Bottom Fermenting Yeast
Lager, tends to collect at the bottom of the fermenter and ferments at a much lower temp around 10C. Usually creates beer with smooth flavours
Primarily produced in Brussels, Belgium. Uses wild yeasts strains that live in a part of the Zenne River which flows through Brussels
He discovered that yeast was composed of different kinds of fungi and that yeast culture could be cultivated
- he isolated a pure cell of yeast and combined it with a sugary solution to produce a yeast bank
- this is the yeast used in lager beers
- the sugars in the beers have been almost completely digested
- after a 1-3 weeks, the fresh of green beer is cooled close to freezing temp
- yeast is purged and beer is allowed to lager (rest)
- proteins coagulate and unpleasant flavours (phenolic compounds) become insoluble in the cold beer
0.1-8C for 1-4 weeks, beer becomes "cleaner" in taste
- some beers undergo second of third fermentation
- done to increase alcohol content or add new flacours
- bottle fermentation
- Indicates that the beer is bottled with a viable yeast population in suspension, reacting with the residual sugar to create CO2
- yeasts are removed, usually by filtration
- beer may be pasteurized
- beer is then bottled, canned, or kegged
German Beer Purity Law
- law originated on Nv 30, 1487, stated that only water, barley, and hops should be used in beer
What was the German purity law replaced by?
Provisional German Beer Law, which allows yeast, wheat malt and cane sugar as well
Degree of cloudiness
May range from pale to yellow to black
amount of carbonation, highly carbonated beers are said to be "crisp?
thickness of the beer, watery-> creamy
Bitter, herbal, spicy flavours in the beer
Caramel flavour from the malted barley
"roasty" or "toasty"
flavour produced during kilning
What affects the final product?
- presence of adjuncts (corn or rice grits)
- amount of fermentable carbs
- degree of roasting of the malt
- special processes (dry beer, ice beer)
- amount of hops
- special ingredients (fruits)
What most of the beer sold in N.A is 90%, light colour, watery, little flavour
Based on classic pilsner style
Slightly malty and hoppy with a dry finish
Idea is to remove the aftertaste, removes almost all taste
Crema ale, Ice beer
Brewers mix top and bottom fermenting yeasts. Result is very light and smooth, low in hops
Cooled until it begins to freeze (water first) then the ice crystals are filtered out. Higher alcohol content
What is the missing value in the ranks of beer consumption?
Czech Republic, which is similar or higher than Ireland
What is different amount alcohol content in UK?
Ales on tap between 3.6-4.2%, not strong; pint or 3 at lunch time. Here beer is over 5%, usually 8% and drank for alcohol
Samuel Adams beers
21-24% by Boston Beer Company, strains of yeast need to be bred to survive high alcohol tolerance
Other grains can be used (wheat, corn, rice), grain is germinated so that enzymes will convert starch to sugar for fermentation
Female flowers of the hop plant, used for flavouring, contribute bitterness and flowery, citrus, fruity, or herbal flavours. Also have antibacterial properties that favour the activity of brewer's yeast over less derivable microorganisms; help the yeast and act as a preservative
Typically a strain of saccharomyces cereviseae
First way to add hops
- boiling with the beer early in the process to produce bitterness (this can be done right from the start or even almost at the end of the wort boiling depending on how much bitterness is required).
Second way to add hops
dry hopping - which is adding hops after the wort has cooled and the beer is fermented. This adds hop odour, but no bitterness.
Flavours from hops
"grassy", "floral", "citrus", "spicy", "piney" and "earthy".
Commercial lagers hoppiness
have very low amounts of hops, while true pilseners should have noticeable noble hop flavour
Ales and IPA hoppiness
highly hopped and very bitter indeed
After Wort is colled
inniculated with S.cereviseae, which begins the fermentation process, pumping out CO2. This quickly leads to a shortage of oxygen and in the absence of oxygen it's metabolism switches over to anaerobic fermentation and it starts manufacturing ethanol.
Most beer is __ to remove the yeast
Filtered, but this isn't always done (wheat beers)
Most beer is also pasteurized, at __degC
What is the main exception to beer being pasteurized?
Keg beer, it is kept refrigerated (beer for a keg will have better flavour, although this might not be a large difference)
Beer quality control
- strict quality control before it can be allowed to leave the premises. - A number of physical and chemical tests are carried out to ensure quality, however it always come back to sensory evaluation.
- All breweries have panels in place to ensure that product remains consistent from batch to batch.
Ice beer process taken to its extreme can also be used in the manufacture of some of the extremely high alcohol beers.
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