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HNSC 1200 Unit 1
Terms in this set (74)
Definition of food
- any solid or liquid material consumed by a living organism that maintains life and growth
- processed or raw
- supplies energy and a carrier of nutrients
Nutrients that provide energy
- carbohydrates, proteins, and fats
nutrients that don't provide energy
- water, vitamins, minerals
- substances the body used for the growth, amtaince and repair of its tissue
- 6 classes and 2 groups
- the body cannot make itself
- example minerals, linoleic and linolenic
conditionally essential nutrient
- the body cannot make enough of them to meet requirements
- the body can make itself therefore not required in food
Amount of heat energy needed to raise temperature 1 liter of water 1 degree C
amount of energy that foods provide us
- carbohydrate : 4 kcal/g
- fat: 9 kcal/g
- protein: 4 kcal/g
- alcohol: 7 kcal/g
non-nutrient compounds derived from plants
- have biological acutely in the body
- may support health beyond roles of traditional nutrients
phytochemicals effect on body
- act as antioxidants
- mimic hormones
- alter blood constituents to protect against some disease processes
- can be added, but that's bad for the body
- products that look like or be conventional food and are consumed as part of a usual diet, nut have physiological benefits or can reduce the risk of chronic disease
- products isolated or purified from food
- have physiological benefits or provide protection against chronic disease
- Applies scientific knowledge and technological principles to study foods and their components
- can work in research or manufacturing
what is done to food before it is consumed/sold
- Food processing and manufacturing
- Food preservation and packaging
- Food safety and wholesomeness
- Food quality evaluation
- Food distribution
- Consumer food use and preparation
- can generate hypothesis
- can focus on individual or population
- case seise
- case report
- cross-sectional survey
- population or correlation study
population or correlation study
- researchers compare data from entire populations to identify factors that might influence the incidence of a disease in various populations.
- It is impossible to establish causality though since the whole population is being examined.
- Also referred to as epidemiological studies.
- detailed report on single patient
- compilation of multiple case reports
- examines both exposure and disease in individuals
- test specific hypothesis, can include observational and intervention studies
- case control studies
- cohort studies
- intervention studies
case control studies
- researchers compare people who have a given condition such as a disease with other people who do not have the disease.
- They closely match them in age, gender and other key variables so that differences in other factors will stand out.
- classifies participants based on exposure and follows them for a period of time to assess disease development.
- researchers ask people to adopt new behaviour and compare their results to a control group
- help determine effectiveness
- double bind, research nor participant know who has placebo
- belief that ones own pattern of behaviour is preferred over those of other cultures
- an approach of understanding and accepting other cultures, reconizing that values and beliefs can differ and that all cultures are equal
- projected that there will be more seniors and fewer children in 2020, which will effect the type of foods that are in demand
- name brands will become less of a status, and will be used to express individuality
- will effect our food choices
changing meal patterns
- Food preparation is predicted to decline, with a shift towards small, frequent meals or snacks instead of three meals a day. This would result in a greater demand for more portable food options.
- decline in the amount of disposal income spent of food will continue
- effect the frequency of going out to restaurant
food for health
- health conditions expected to drive food choices are obesity, heart disease and diabetes
- will focus on label reading
new face of Canada
- As immigration into Canada continues to increase so will the influence on our food supply
- see diversification, fusion and blending of cuisines, as well as easier access to unfamiliar food ingredients, cooking methods and presentation styles.
No trade-off for convenience
- Consumers will want it all.
- They will not be willing to make any sacrifices for convenience, so the pressure will be on food producers to create convenient forms of foods that are nutritious, great tasting, fresh and varied (ethnic foods as well).
- consumption of non-meat meals is expected to increase among non-vegetarians
- expected to increase
food safety and production issue
Consumer confidence in foods will continue to influence their decision to purchase. Food borne illness, food additives, food processing techniques (like biotechnology and irradiation), ethics, country of origin and contaminants will all continue to be important to consumers.
increased demand for gourmet food and boutique brands
- limited or uncertain access to foods of sufficient quality or quantity to sustain a healthy and active life
- mean that person may have access to enough calories but not enough nutrients
- access by all people at all times to nutritionally adequate, safe, personally acceptable food from normal food channels
four pillars of food security
- sufficient amount at all time, and variety at a reasonable cost
- effect by time of year, civil, conflict, food preservation and supply
- determined by entitlements ( the bundles of resources needed to acquire food)
- provided nourishment- effected by control over resources, nutrient content, and information about food
- food that is personally platable, accrued by social acceptable means of obtaining food, and culturally appropriate
political reasons that cause hunger
- up to 80% of Hungary children live in countries that produce surplus food, but the decisions of policy makers in those areas, largely determines who has access to food
four common methods of food recovery
- field gleaning
- perishable food rescue
- prepared food rescue
- non-perishable food collection
- collecting crops from fields that either have already been harvested or not profitable to harvest
non-perishable food collection
- collecting processed foods from wholesalers and markets
two major challenges that exist to eliminate food insecurity
- provide enough for the worlds expanding population, without destroying natural resources needed for continued food production
- make sure everyone has access to this food
increased demand for food is influence
- population growth
- food losses
- demand for high amino protein diets
increased food production
-animal waste and health
- agriculture chemicals
environmental changes have ___________ effect on food production
why are plants important
- provide life essentials: food, clothing and meds
- as plant go extinct, so do there traits, and that shrinks the gene pool, when this happens, our options for meds and food shrink
what is biodiversity
- the variety and variability of living organisms and their ecosystems
what happened and when did biodiversity begin to decrease?
- known as green revoltuion in 1960s when there was a dramatic increase in food production due to new seed from crossbreeding
- new seed was pest and disease resistant at first, then this was overcome
- this the caused biodiversity to decrease
- the assessment buy the human senses of all qualities of a for product that are perceived
-multidisplinary science that uses humans to measure the acceptability and sensory properties of food and other materials
5 senses of sensory evaluation
- hot foods are easier to smell than cold one, as only volatile molecules carry odor
- smell receptors are attached to never that enter brain and report on the aromas and odours ion food
- odor is 75% of impression of flavour
-number of tastes buds decrease as we get older
- include mouthfeel
two general types of panels used in sensory evaluation
- descriptive and consumer
determines differences between food samples. Typically participants receive in-depth training and are selected through a series of tests.
- are not trained and are selected from the public based on specific demographics/criteria
overall difference / discriminative test
- triangle test
- duo- trio test
- simplest of sensory tests
- a control and a test sample used
- used to determine is there are differences between 2 products
- Participants are given three number coded samples and told to choose the sample that is most different. Two of the samples are usually the same (only the researcher knows this).
- Typically used when the difference between the products is qualitative
One reference sample is presented, followed by two test samples (one of which is the same as the reference). Participants are asked to choose the test sample that matches the reference sample or is different from the reference sample.
Attribute Difference / Discriminative Tests
- focus on testing for one specific sensory attribute
- often used to evaluate qualitative differences in texture, taste, or colour
- paired comparison
- ranking test
- rating difference test
- participants are given 2 samples and have to choose one that has more specific characteristics
participants are given samples and asked to rank them from lowest to highest for a specific characteristic
- participants are asked to rate samples using a scale based on specific characteristics
affective test methods
There are two types of affective tests: acceptance and preference. Affective test methods quantify the degree of like or dislike (hedonic basis) of one product or another.
Panellists rate two or more samples on a scale to determine the difference in acceptance.
- paired preference: panellists make a choice between 2 products based on hedonic basis
- preference ranking: panellist out samples In order based on how much they like the samples, in order of the intensity of a specific attribute
- Attempt to describe the specific attributes of food product (texture, flavour, taste, mouthfeel, etc.) by quantifying how intense the panellists perceive specific characteristics.
- Frequently used for flavour and texture profiling.
- Panellists need to be well-trained.
- Provide the most comprehensive information of all test methods.
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