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Lesson 12 - Aquatic lab animals (African Clawed Frog)
Terms in this set (44)
Scientific name of the African clawed frog
This is the most common laboratory frog species in biomedical research.
Used to study embryonic:
- developmental biology
- cell biology
- human disease genes
These are large, easily handled and a female can produce thousands.
African clawed frog
Naturally aquatic animals, rarely leaving their environment (risk dying of dehydration).
Lifespan of African clawed frog in captivity
As young African clawed frogs are ______ (nutrition).
Adult African clawed frogs are ______ (nutrition)
African tree frogs are _____, meaning they are unable to generate enough metabolic heat to raise their body temperatures above their environment.
These are used for propelling the frogs through water and digging in the mud for food.
Claws are located on the back toes.
Frogs have a ______ ______ that gives them an ability to dive backwards, to avoid predators.
These direct food to the mouth.
Oxygen exchange occurs via the skin.
However, the frog has well functioning ____ and requires access to the surface of the water for air.
This assists in detecting movements and disturbances in the water.
These are not visible externally. they are used for communication.
These are positioned on the top of the head so they can keep a look out for predators above the waters surface.
They lack a moveable one.
The skin contains ______, which are cells containing pigment, used for camouflage.
The frogs have this on the skin, which prevents damage to the skin layer as well as a defensive layer against pathogens.
Which sex is the largest?
They like to hide and are secretive.
The frogs spend most of their time lying motionless below the surface of the water with outstreched arms, waiting for food to pass by.
They require between 12-14 hours light and 12-10 hours dark.
Gradual brightening and dimming should be incorporated into artificial lighting to mimic a natural setting.
Full spectrum lighting with UV spectrum included to assist in the production of Vitamin D and to maintain the calcium phosphorous balance to ensure healthy egg production and overall health.
Frogs should have an area of refuge to avoid exposure to bright/intense light.
Water depth and space are important factors, however water quality is most important factor in regards to husbandry.
Frogs must be able to:
- move and swim around
- lie fully submerged well away from the surface of the water (so they are less vulnerable to prey that are above the surface in natural environment).
- avoid contact with other frogs, if desired
- be able to fully change direction without impediment
- room for enrichment
Lid required to stop the escaping.
Ideally tanks are opaque or darkened.
Required water deoths
4 to 5L
Suggested tank volume per frog (varies from facility to facility)
Ideal water temperature
Avoid sudden changes in water and room temperature.
pH of water
Water should not be chlorinated
Generally two types:
- standing systems, water may be changed up to 3x a week
- drip-through systems, clean water is introduced and dirty water flows out slowly
A commercial balanced _____ is recommended.
Leaving the food in the tank for a period of time is recommended to allow frogs to feed.
Remove food after a couple of hours.
Pellets can contain meat mea, soybean meal and other ingredients.
Mating in clawed frogs involves ______ ______.
The smaller male grasps the larger female from behind, in front of her hind legs.
The female sheds eggs, which are ferilized by the male as they are released.
This should be kept to a minimum.
Using a soft-mesh non-abrasive net with wetted gloves (non powdered & non-textured) when removing from water.
Do not use bare hands as lotions, soaps and natural oils could harm the protective layer on the frog's skin.
These are as follows:
- Subcutaneous - 2-3ml - in dorsal lymph sac
- Intramuscular - 0.5ml - in thigh
- intraperiotoneal - possible
- Intravenous - difficult
Amount of fluid that can be injected subcutaneously into the dorsal lymph sac
Amount of fluid that can be injected intramuscularly into the thigh
Cardiac puncture - terminal procedure under deep anesthesia.
Blood collection (recovery) is difficuly - clip toe web
Indications of pain and distress
- weight loss (can loose up to 50% BW before death)
- frog stays on the surface of the water when approached
- tremours of extremities
- change in appearance and size (e.g. bloating)
- skin discolouration and/or flaking
examine the environment for clues as to why frog appears to be painful or in distress
Caused by bacteria (typically Aeromonas hydrophilia, Proteus hydrophilus, and Pseudomonas hydrophilus).
High morbidity and high mortality.
Increased stress can lead to susceptibility
Dirty housing conditions, overcrowding and cold conditions can increase disease risk
Clinical signs of red leg
- excessive mucous production
- do not respond to stimuli
- hemorrhage in extremities
Treatment of red leg
This includes antibiotics in food and increase salt levels within the tank water
These can be secondary infections from bacterial infections and/or trauma.
Identify by skin scrapings and cultures
clinical signs of fungal infections
- skin ulcers
- skin nodules
- black spots
- weight loss
Treatment of fungal infections
This is done with tank or dip antifungal agents
Dropsy or bloat
This should not be confused with frogs that are bloated and floating on the surface of the water.
It is subcutaneous fluid accumulation causing swelling.
Due to metabolism problems (kidney and liver function)
Frogs can live in this state for a long period of time.
Fluid can be removed by aspiration.
Increase salt concentration can assist with treatment.
Tricaine methane sulfonate
Humane euthansia of fish and frogs can be achieved through immersion or injection with buffered _____ _____ _____ (TMS; aka MS222).
This species can also be humanely euthanised using a subcutaneous injection of barbiturates into the lymph sac.
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