Upgrade to remove ads
A&P board prep
Terms in this set (439)
What are the top 4 elements in the body?
What is the atomic number?
number of protons
What is atomic mass?
Number of protons and neutrons
Whats the difference between a molecule and a compound?
molecule = 2 of the same elements (ex. O2)
compound = 2 molecules together (ex. NaCl)
What is a free radical?
unaired electron in outer valence shell
What are the different types of chemical bonds?
What type of chemical bond is strongest?
What makes a covalent bond polar? non-polar?
Polar = electrons shared unequally
non-polar = electrons shared equally
What type of reaction releases energy?
What type of reaction absorbed energy?
What is a synthesis/anabolic reaction?
What is a decomposition/catabolism reaction?
AB --> A + B
How can activation energy be influenced?
by temp, conc., catalyst
What is an inorganic compound?
(ex. H2O, most acids and bases)
What is the relationship between solutes and solvents?
The solvent dissolves the solute
How is the phospholipid bilayer arranged?
2 layers of hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails (heads face the outside and the inside of the cell)
What 2 types of proteins are found in the plasma membrane?
What can pass easily through the plasma membrane?
non-polar molecules (water is an exception)
Small uncharged molecules
How can molecules cross the plasma membrane?
Diffusion or osmosis
What is and what are the different types diffusion?
mov't of molecules across the membrane
Simple = free mov't
Facilitated = w/ help from integral proteins
What is osmosis?
from high conc. to low conc.
What is a hypertonic solution?
The solution has a higher solute concentration than the cell so water moves out of the cell and into the solution
What happens to a cell placed in a hypertonic solution?
What is a hypotonic solution?
the solution has a lower solute concentration than the cell so water moves into the cell
What happens to a cell placed in a hypotonic solution?
What is the function of a centrosome?
assembly of microtubules, used during cell division
What is the function of ribosomes?
What is the function of rough ER?
What is the function of smooth ER?
synthesizes fatty acids and steroids
What is the function of the golgi apparatus?
sorts and modifies proteins that have arrived from the rough ER ("mail centre" of the cell)
WHat are the steps of protein synthesis?
transcription and translation
What is a codon?
a sequence of three nucleotides that together form a unit of genetic code in a DNA or RNA molecule. (ex. ACG)
What occurs during transcription?
DNA in the nucleus is copied:
starts the process at the
The strand of DNA is transcribed to the complimentary RNA (A -> U, T -> A, C -> G)
The process ends at the
(the copied strand is known as mRNA now)
What happens to the mRNA strand before entering the translation phase?
it's edited by SNRPS
are the useless pieces
are the useful parts
What occurs during translation?
Occurs in the ribosomes
starts at the
, ends at the
What are the phases of mitosis (in order)?
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis
What does haploid mean?
one set (23) of chromosomes
What are the 2 phases of meiosis?
Meiosis 1 (interphase, p-mat)
Meiosis 2 (p-mat again)
What are the 4 types of cells?
What are the types of cell junctions?
What type of cell junction doesn't let anything pass between them?
what type of cell junction helps surfaces resist separation?
What type of cell junction anchors cells to each other?
What type of cell junction adheres cells to the basement membrane?
What type of cell junction allows passage of molecule between cells?
What are the 3 different arrangements of cells?
What are the 3 different cell shapes?
How is connective tissue classified?
embryonic or mature
What are the types of embryonic connective tissue?
mesenchyme and mucous
What are the types of mature connective tissue?
loose, dense, cartilage, bone, liquid
What are the layers of the skin?
Dermis (papillary and reticular)
What are the layers of the epidermis?
stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, stratum corneum
Where is the stratum lucidum found?
only in thick skin, like fingertips/palms/soles of feet
What cells are found in the epidermis?
Intraepidermal macrophages/Langerhans cells
What are the functions of keratinocytes?
Procude lamellar granules (water-repellant sealant)
(make up 90% of epidermal cells)
What are the functions of melanocytes?
Produce the pigment melanin
(make up 8% of epidermal cells)
What is the function of melanin?
Responsible for skin colour
Protects the skin from UV light
What are characteristics of the papillary region of the dermis?
Has dermal ridges that store blood
Contains corpuscles of touch and free nerve endings
What are characteristics of the reticular region of the dermis?
Contains hair follicles, sebaceous glands, sudoriferous glands
What causes fingerprints?
What are the main skin pigments?
increased melanin will lead to...
low melanin levels will lead to....
pale skin (looks red/pink d/t hemoglobin being visible)
High levels of carotene in the diet will lead to...
orange coloured skin
What skin pigment is a precursor for vitamin A?
What do sebaceous glands excrete?
Where are sebaceous glands not found?
palms of hands and soles of feet
What do sudoriferous glands secrete?
What are the 2 types of sudoriferous glands?
eccrine and apocrine
Where are eccrine sudoriferous glands found?
most of the body (esp. forehead, palms, soles of feet)
Where are apocrine sudoriferous glands found?
What are the stages of wound healing?
What are the parts of a long bone?
What are the different types of bone cells?
How is compact bone organized?
osteons (aka. haversian systems)
(concentric lamellae arranged around a
What is found between osteons?
lacunae (these contain osteocytes)
What is found branching out from lacunae?
How do nerves/blood vessels penetrate bone?
through volkmann's canals
How is spongy bone organized?
What forms in between the trabeculae?
bone marrow (red or yellow)
How is bone formed in intramembranous ossification?
1) Development of ossification centre
3)formation of trabeculae
4)Development of periosteum
What kind of bone uses intramembranous ossification?
What kind of bone uses endochondral ossification?
What are the steps of endochondral ossification?
1. Development of the cartilage model
2. Growth of the cartilage model
3. Development of the primary ossification center
4. Development of the medullary cavity
5. Development of the secondary ossification centers
6. Formation of articular cartilage and the epiphyseal plate
How do bones grow length wise?
How do bones grow in width?
What are the cartilage zones at the epiphyseal plate of a long bone?
(from prox to dist)
Resting cartilage zone
What happens to the epiphyseal plate once bone growth stops?
Becomes epiphyseal line
Which cells deposit bone>?
Which cells reabsorb bone?
What are the stages of fracture healing?
1. hematoma forms
2. fibrocartilageinous callus forms
3. bony callus forms
4. bone remodeling occurs
What is bone's role in the body's Ca2+ homeostasis?
holds 99% of the body's Ca2+ stores
osteogenic cells deposit/reabsorb bone as needed to maintain blood calcium levels
What is the normal blood Ca+2 level?
between 9-11 mg/100ml of blood
What happens if blood calcium levels exceed 11mg/100ml?
What happens if blood calcium levels drop below 9mg/100ml?
What hormones regulate blood calcium levels?
What are characteristics of skeletal muscle tissue?
What are characteristics of cardiac mm tissue?
What are characteristics of smooth mm tissue?
What is contractility?
ability to shorten forcibly when stimulated
What is elasticity?
ability to stretch and return to normal shape/length
What is extensibility?
ability to be stretched
What are the 3 layers of mm tissue?
What does the epimysium surround?
Entire mm belly
What does the perimysium surround?
each fascicle within the muscle belly
What does the endomysium surround?
each mm fibre within each fascicle
What is the sarcolemma?
plasma membrane of a muscle cell
What is the sarcoplasm?
cytoplasm of a muscle cell
what is myoglobin?
red-coloured protein that binds O2 to mm fibres
What are myofibrils?
contractile organelles of skeletal muscle
What types of mm tissue have myofibrils?
skeletal and cardiac (this is what makes them look striated)
What is the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and what does it do?
Membranous sacs around each myofibril
Stores Ca2+ during relaxation/releases during contraction
What are sarcomeres?
functional units of a myofibril
How are sarcomeres arranged?
Sarcomeres go from _____ to _____
Z disc to Z disc
During contraction, what portion of the sarcomere doesn't change length?
What are the mm proteins of thick filaments?
Regulatory - n/a
What are mm proteins of thin filaments?
What are the steps of the contraction cycle?
1. ATP hydrolysis
2. Attachment of myosin to actin to form cross-bridges
3. Power stroke
4. Detachment of myosin from actin
How do muscle contractions occur, neurally?
1) release go Ach
2)activation of Ach receptors in the NMJ
3)production of mm action potential
4)termination of Ach activity
What is hypertrophy?
increase in cell size
What is the PNS divided into?
What are the 2 types of nervous cells?
neurons and neuroglia
What are the parts of a neuron?
cell body, dendrites, axon
What neuroglia are found in the CNS?
Oligodendrocytes (myelin sheath)
Ependymal cells (blood-CSF barrier, regulate/circulate CSF)
What CNS neuroglia is the most abundant?
What neuroglia are found in the PNS?
Why is myelination important?
faster conduction of nerve impulses
Why do CNS neurons not heal compared to PNS neurons?
CNS neurons lack a neurolemma
What is a ganglion?
cluster of nerve cell bodies in
What is a nucleus?
cluster of nerve cell bodies in the
What is a tract?
bundle of axons in the CNS
What is a nerve?
bundle of axons in PNS
What makes white matter white?
myelinated axons (very fatty)
What is found in grey matter?
everything but myelinated axons
Neurons communicate using what 2 methods?
What are the different types of neuronal ion channels?
mechanically gated channels
voltage gated channels
What is the resting membrane potential?
Difference in electrical charge across the membrane at rest (normally -70)
What are the phases of action potential generation?
1) depolarizing phase
2) repolarizing phase
3) after hyper polarizing phase
Describe A fibers
Describe B fibers
smaller than A fibers
Describe C fibers
GABA and glycine
glutamate and aspartate
What are the layers of the meninges?
(sup to deep)
What suspends the Spinal cord in the middle of the vertebral column, protects from sudden displacement?
Where does the spinal cord start and end?
foramen magnum to L2
Where are the enlargements on the spinal cord?
are nerve roots considered PNS or CNS?
What does the dorsal ramus of a nerve root innervate?
What does the anterior ramus of a nerve root innervate?
trunk and limbs (this becomes the spinal nerve)
What does the meningeal branch of a nerve root innervate?
re-enters vertebra to supply the vertebrae itself
What does the rami communicantes innervate?
autonomic nervous sytem
What are the 4 plexuses?
What are the 3 levels of nerve injury?
3)neurotmesis (most serious)
What types of nerve injuries cause wallerian degeneration?
What are the 2 main sensory pathways?
What are the 2 main motor pathways?
Direct (cortex directly to mm's, voluntary)
Indirect (starts somewhere other than the cortex, end sup in the mm's, involuntary)
What are the 4 reflex arcs?
Crossed extensor reflex
What nerve roots are apart of the sacral plexus?
What nerve roots are apart of the lumbar plexus?
What nerve roots are apart of the cervical plexus?
What nerve roots are apart of the brachial plexus?
What are the 4 parts of the brain?
What are the parts of the brain stem?
Blood flows to the brain via...
vertebral and internal carotid arteries
Blood flows out of the brain via...
dural venous sinuses
Is any glucose stored in the brain?
What is the path of CSF flow?
Central canal/subarachnoid space
Dural venous sinuses
How is CSF reabsorbed into the the blood?
Where is CSF formed?
What are the functions of the cerebellum?
What is ataxia?
the loss of full control of bodily movements (caused by damage to cerebellum)
What is the function of the thalamus?
What is the function of the hypothalamus?
emotions (w/ the limbic system)
What is a circadian rhythm?
What is the function of the cerebrum?
aka cortex: largest part of the brain associated with higher brain function (thought and action) divided into 4 lobes
What are the 4 lobes of the cerebrum?
What is aphasia?
impairment of language
What is fluent aphasia?
speech that has no meaning
Damage to what part of the cerebral cortex causes fluent aphasia?
What is non-fluent aphasia?
Can't speak but can understand the words
Damage to what area of the cerebral cortex causes non-fluent aphasia?
What type of brain wave is associated with normal nervous system activity?
What type of brain wave is associated with being awake but resting with eyes closed?
What type of brian wave is associated with emotion stress and disorders of the brain?
What type of brian wave is associated with sleep in a adults or normal function in babies?
What is the temporal lobe associated with?
memory (facial recognition)
What is the occipital lobe associated with?
What is the frontal lobe associated with?
Analytical reasoning, cognition, memory, and judgement
What is the parietal lobe associated with?
Where in the brain does the decussation of pyramids occur?
What CNs have autonomic functions?
What CNs have nuclei in the cerebral cortex?
What CNs have nuclei in the midbrain?
What CNs have nuclei in the pons?
What CNs have nuclei in the medulla?
What are the 3 branches of the trigeminal nerve?
What cranial nerves innervate
in the tongue?
Facial (ant. 2/3 of tongue)
Glossopharyngeal (post 1/3 of tongue)
What are the 2 types of glands?
What is the difference between endocrine and exocrine glands?
exocrine -> sweat, oils, mucous
endocrine -> hormones
How do hormones get to where they need to go?
What is a paracrine cell?
acts on neighbouring cells
What is an autocrine cell?
Secrets hormones that act on itself.
What are the 2 chemical classes of hormones?
1. lipid soluble
2. water soluble
What types of hormones are lipid soluble?
steroid and thyroid
What types of hormones are water soluble?
Protein and biogenic
How do lipid soluble hormones travel?
using transport proteins
What hormones come from the hypothalamus and work on the ant pituitary gland?
What hormones come from the anterior pituitary?
What hormones come from the posterior pituitary?
oxytocin and ADH
What does GH from the ant. pituitary stimulate?
Stimulates IGFs which causes cells to grow/multiply
What does TSH stimulate?
thyroid glands, this leads to increased T3/T4 hormones and calcitonin
What do T3 and T4 hormones do?
What does calcitonin do?
Lowers blood calcium levels
What does the parathyroid gland do?
increases blood calcium
promotes formation of calcitriol
What hormones does GNRH stimulate?
FSH and LH
What does prolactin stimulate?
What does ACTH stimulate?
this leads to the release of cortisol and aldosterone
What is the function of aldosterone?
promotes the reabsorption of sodium ions and water by the kidneys (increases BP)
What does oxytocin stimulate?
uterine contraction and milk ejection
What does ADH stimulate?
water reabsorption (decreases urine output and increases BP)
What is the average pH of blood?
Where are blood samples most commonly taken?
median cubital vein
What are the 2 components of blood?
What is found in blood plasma?
What is found in the formed elements of blood?
When a tube of blood is centrifuged, how does it separate?
the top of the tube is plasma (55%)
middle of the tube is the buffy layer (WBC and platelet, 1%)
Bottom of the tube is RBCs (45%)
What is hematocrit?
The percentage of blood volume taken up by RBCs
What is the formation of formed elements in the blood called?
Where does hemopoiesis occur
red bone marrow
Where is red bone marrow located?
All blood cells are derived from...
pluripotent stem cells
Pluripotent stem cells give rise to what 2 kinds of cells?
myeloid cells give rise to what types of formed elements?
What are hemopoietic growth factors?
Where does erythropoietin come form and what does it cause?
come form kidneys
stimulates production of RBCs
Where does thrombopeitin come form and what does it cause?
stimulates the production of platelets
How long does a RBC live?
What do RBCs lack compared to other cells?
nucleus and organelles
What is the function of RBCs being biconcave?
more surface area for diffusion
Each hemoglobin molecule contains how many iron molecules?
Each iron molecule in hemoglobin can bond with how many oxygen?
one (ie. each hemoglobin can carry 4 oxygen molecules)
Where are old RBCs broken down?
liver and spleen
How are RBCs broken down?
Globin is broken down and the amino acids are re-used
Heme is broken down into Iron and Biliverdin
What happens to the iron removed from heme?
transferin transports it to the liver, then to bone to restart the production of RBCs
What happens to the biliverdin from heme?
moves to the liver, then to the small intestine
bacteria turns it to urobilinogen
urobilin goes to the uric
stercobilin goes to the large intestine
What are the steps of erythropoiesis?
1) starts in the bone marrow with proerythroblasts
2) at the end of development, the nucleus is ejected
3) after nucleus ejection, it becomes a reticulocyte
4) the reticulocytes are released into the bloodstream to become RBCs in 1-2 days
WBCs are also known as...
What are the different types of WBCs?
How many WBCs circulate in the bloodstream at a time?
How to WBCs leave the bloodstream?
What is chemotaxis?
inflammatory chemicals attract neutrophils to the injury site
What is leukocytosis?
increase in WBCs
What is leukopenia?
low WBC count
What is the main function of platelets?
What is the term for the sequence fo responses to stop bleeding?
What are the steps of hemostasis?
1. vascular spasm
2. platelet plug formation
(these steps happen like a waterfall)
What are the steps of platelet plug formation?
What are the different pathways for blood clotting?
What is the final product of both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways?
How much blood does the heart pump her day?
What are there layers of connective tissue around the heart?
sup to deep:
parietal serous pericardium
visceral serous pericardium
What fills the pericardial cavity?
serous fluid that lubricates the surfaces for frictionless cardiac movement
What are the layers of the heart?
Which layer of the heart is most muscular and makes up 95% of the heart?
What are the chambers of the heart?
right atrium, left atrium, right ventricle, left ventricle
What is the function of the atrium?
receives blood that comes into the heart
What is the function of the ventricles?
pump blood out of the heart
Blood passes through form the right atrium to the right ventricle through what valve?
to get it
Blood passes through from the left atrium to the left ventricle through what valve?
What are the cord tendinae?
tendon like cords, help to keep the valves from inverting during contraction
Which is the strongest chamber of the heart?
What is the ligamentum arteriosum?
remnant of ductus arteriosus
What is the ductus arteriosus?
vessel a growing fetus has that connects the pulmonary artery with the aorta, instead of going to the lungs the blood goes to the body
What is the pathway of blood through the body?
What vessels supply the heart itself?
right and left coronary arteries
What vessel carries blood away from the heart tissue?
what are the steps of cardiac conduction?
1)firing of SA node
2)firing of AV node
3)signal propagates to the Bundle of His
4)splits into left and right branches
5)signal reaches purkinje fibres
the SA node is considered the heart's....
What does the P-wave of an ECG represent?
depolarization (contraction) of the atria
What does the QRS-complex of an ECG represent?
ventricular depolarization (contraction)
atrial repolarization (relaxation)
What does the T-wave of an ECG represent?
ventricular repolarization (relaxation)
Contraction of the heart is also known as...
Relaxation of the heart is also known as....
What is blood pressure?
Systolic pressure / diastolic pressure
What is end diastolic volume (EDV)?
The amount of blood in the ventricles before contraction (after atrial contraction)
What is isovolumetric contraction?
period between mitral valve closure and aortic valve opening (only lasts about 0.05sec)
What is end systolic volume?
The amount of blood left in the ventricle right after ventricular contraction.
What is stroke volume?
the amount of blood ejected by the heart in any one contraction (EDV-ESV)
What makes the "lub dub" sound?
lub = closure of AV valve
dub = closure of pulmonary and aortic valves
What causes the inaudible heart sounds?
How do you calculate cardiac output?
stroke volume x heart rate
What is the cardiac reserve?
difference between resting and maximal CO
What is preload?
the degree of stretch on the heart before it contracts (the more the heart fills, the greatest he contraction will be)
What is after load?
the pressure that must be overcome before the aortic/pulmoary valves can open (if the after load increases, the SV decreases)
What is bradycardia?
slow heart rate
What is tachycardia?
fast heart rate
What is fibrillation?
rapid, irregular contractions of the heart
What is the main function of arterioles?
Where are superficial veins located?
Where are the deep veins located?
b/w muscle (muscular pumps help pump back to the heart)
Where is the majority of the body's blood stored?
veins (up to 64%)
What is the net filtration rate (NFR) between capillaries and interstitial fluid?
at the arterial end: 10mmHg (filtration)
at the venous end: -9mmHg (reabsorption)
What are the major functions of the lymphatic system?
Drains excess interstitial fluid
Transports dietary lipids
carries out immune responses
Where does excess interstitial fluid drain?
internal jugular vein
What dietary lipid vitamins are transported by the lymphatic system?
A D E K
How are lymphatic capillaries different from other capillaries?
they're one way, fluid only goes in not out
What is lymph in the small intestine called?
What are the principal lymph trunks?
What are the principal lymph ducts?
thoracic (left lymphatic) duct
right lymphatic duct
Which lymphatic duct drains the majority of lymph?
What are the primary lymphatic organs?
red bone marrow
What are the secondary lymphatic organs?
What are the major antibodies found in the body?
What are the 4 types of allergic reactions?
type 1 - Anaphylactic
type 2 - Cytotoxic, antibodies against a person's own antigens/cells
type 3 - immune complex, Ag/Ab complexes that lead to inflammation
type 4 - cell mediated/delayed, 12-72 hours post-exposure
What is considered part of the upper respiratory system?
What is considered part of the lower respiratory system?
What parts of the respiratory system are considered the conduction zone of respiration?
everything except the lungs
What parts of the respiratory system are considered the respiratory zone?
How is sound produced in the larynx?
mucous membranes in the larynx:
vestibular folds aka. false vocal cords
vocal folds aka. true vocal cords
as air moves through the folds it causes vibration = sound
laryngeal mms pull on the folds to change pitch
What are characteristics of the left lung?
What are characteristics of the right lung?
Where does the trachea end?
at the carina
How does the trachea branch off once it reaches the carina?
Lungs are surrounded by a serous membrane called?
(superficial parietal, and deep visceral)
What is found between the 2 pleural membranes around the lungs?
has small amount of liquid to decrease friction during inhalation/exhalation
What is found at the end of the terminal bronchiole?
alveolar ducts > alveolar sacs > alveoli
What are the 2 types of alveoli found in the lungs?
Type 1 - simple squamous, main site of gas exchange
Type 2 - Septal cells, produce
What is pulmonary ventilation?
movement of air into and out of the lungs
What is external respiration?
gas exchange between lungs and blood
What is internal respiration?
exchange of gases between blood and body cells
How does pulmonary ventilation occur?
when the lungs expand, the pressure inside the lungs decreases, this makes air flood into the lungs
What is boyle's law?
smaller container = increased pressure
gas goes where the pressure is less
Which intercostal muscles help with exhalation?
Which intercostal muscles help with inhalation?
How do the ribs move during breathing?
1-6 pump handle
7-10 bucket handle
What is eupnea?
normal quiet breathing
What is dalton's law?
The total pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the pressure that each gas would exert independently
(ie. gas pressure adds up)
What is henry's law?
the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas on the surface of the liquid
(ie. pop cans and "the bends")
Gas exchange depends on what factors?
1)pressure differences in gases
2)surface area available for exchange
3)diffusion distance(thickness of tissues)
4)solubility/weight of the molecule diffusing
How is O2 transported?
hemoglobin (4 per molecule)
How is CO2 transported?
7% dissolved CO2
70% is bicarbonate (HCO3-)
23% is carbaminohemoglobin (HbCO2)
As O2 partial pressure increases, what happens?
hemoglobin binds to O2 better
What factors will increase hemoglobins affinity for O2?
(acidic environment and higher temp. will cause hemoglobin to let go of O2 easier)
What makes up the GI tract?
mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
What are the accessory digestive organs?
teeth, tongue, salivary glands,
liver, gallbladder, pancreas
What are the main functions of the digestive system?
How is the GI tract innervated?
myenteric plexus = GI tract motility
submucosal plexus = controls secretions
How is the GI tract affected by the ANS?
vagus nerve -> affects the GI tract depending on sympathetic or parasympathetic input
What are the peritoneal folds?
What cells are found in the stomach?
What is secreted by the parietal cells of the stomach?
What is secreted by the chief cells of the stomach?
What is secreted by the G-cells of the stomach?
the hormone gastrin
How does pepsinogen become activated to pepsin?
exposure to HCl
(this is so that pepsin doesn't eat the cell it comes form)
What is the average pH of the stomach?
What kinds of cells are found in the pancreas?
acini cells (99%)
islet cells (1%)
What comes form the acini cells of the pancreas?
(pancreatic amylase, etc..)
What comes from the islet cells of the pancreas?
What is the heaviest organ in the body?
What cells are found in the liver?
What is the function of hepatocytes?
What is the function of bile canaliculi in the liver?
collect bile secreted by the hepatocytes
What is the principal bile pigment?
What is the function of bile?
What is the function of the gallbladder?
What are the sections of the small intestine?
duodenum, jejunum, ileum
What cells are found in the small intestine? what are their functions?
goblet cells (mucous and intestinal juice)
Paneth cells (lysozyme)
Enteroendocrine cells (S/CCK/K cells)
Where are MALT cells most commonly found in the small intestine? What are they commonly called?
What is intestinal juice? What is its function?
alkaline juice, helps neutralize acidic chyme from the stomach
also has sucrase/maltase/lactase/peptidase/nucelosidase to con't digesting
What are the sections of the large intestine?
cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, and the rectum
What is the thickened portion of the large intestine muscle called?
Does digestion occur in the large intestine?
other than digestion of enteric bacteria, no
What are the phases of digestion?
1. cephalic phase
2. gastric phase
3. intestinal phase
What enzyme comes from the salivary glands?
What enzyme comes from the lingual glands?
How long does salivary amylase work for?
until it reaches the stomach (inactivated by HCl)
When does lingual lipase start to work>
Once it reaches the stomach (HCl activates it)
How is glucose stored?
What is glycogenesis?
storage of glucose as glycogen
What stimulates glycogenesis?
What is glycogenolysis?
release of glucose (from glycogen to glucose)
What stimulates glycogenolysis?
glucagon and epinephrine
What is gluconeogenesis?
The formation of glucose from proteins and fats.
What is lipolysis?
breakdown of lipids for ATP
What is lipogenesis?
formation of lipids for storage
What is glycolysis?
breakdown of glucose
What is the product of glycolysis?
2 pyruvic acid molecules
2 NADH+ (5 ATP)
2 ATP (4 are produced but it uses up 2, net 2)
What happens to each pyruvic acid produced from glycolysis?
travels to the mitochondria
broken down into:
2 acetyl coA
2 NADH+ 2H (5 ATP)
What happens to the products of pyruvic acid?
2 acetyl CoA go to kreb's cycle
the NADH+ goes to the electron transport chain
What happens to the acetyl CoA in the kreb's cycle?
each acetyl CoA produces 3NADH+ (7.5 ATP) and 1 FADH2 (1.5 ATP)
How many ATP does each NADH+ molecule produce?
How many ATP does each FADH2 molecule produce?
How many ATP does each acetyl CoA produce?
How many ATP are produced from one molecule of glucose after all steps?
How many ATP molecules are released during the kreb's cycle (from the reactions, not the molecules)?
How many ATP are produced in total from glycolysis to the electron transport chain?
How do lipids travel in the blood?
using proteins (lipoproteins)
What are the different types of lipoproteins?
chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, HDL
What is the role of chylomicrons?
What is the role of VLDLs?
carry endogenous lipids
What is the role of LDLs?
carry 75% of cholesterol in the body
Gives cholesterol to cells that need it
Deposits lipids around arteries if there's too many
What is the role of HDLs?
remove excess cholesterol from the bloodstream
What is the path of urine?
Collecting duct of nephron
What is a nephron?
functional unit of the kidney
where blood is filtered
What is the first portion of a nephron called?
regulated in the kidneys?
macula dense cells in the ascending loop
juxtaglomerular cells in the afferent arteriole
(this is known as the juxtaglomerular apparatus)
regulated in the kidneys?
What are the 2 types of renal auto regulation?
myogenic mechanism (arterioles constrict to decrease blood flow, this is the
Tubuloglomerular feedback (macula densa cells decrease the release of NO from JGA, causes arterioles to decrease blood flow)
What is special about the distal convoluted tubule of the nephron?
This is where the body can customize what gets reabsorbed based on it's needs
The DCT has
that have receptors for ADH and aldosterone
At what point does kidney dysfunction become apparent?
after 25% loss of function
How is net filtration rate calculated?
NFR = GBHP - CHP - BCOP
normal is 10mmgh
What part of the nephron is impermeable to water?
ascending loop of henle
What is the action of angiotensin 2 on the kidneys?
What is the function of ANP on the kidneys?
increases GFR (ANP makes you PEE)
What is the function of aldosterone on the kidneys?
increases reabsorption of water, Na2+, solutes
What is the function of ADH on the kidneys?
causes water to be reabsorbed
What is the waterfall of female hormones from the brain?
GnRH from the hypothalamus
FSH and LH from the ant. pituitary
What does FSH stimulate in females?
ovarian follicle development
secretion of estrogens
What does LH stimulate in females?
formation of corpus luteum
The corpus luteum leads to the release of which hormones?
inhibin (inhibits FSH and LH)
A spike in LH causes,,,
Why does the corpus luteum increase the secretion of progesterone and relaxin?
the body is waiting to see if it's pregnant
What happens when the corpus luteum dies?
drop off of all hormones
Ovulation increases which hormones?
What does estrogen inhibit? Why?
GnRH, LH and FSH
Because only one follicle needs to be mature at a time
What is the function of the testes?
produce sperm and testosterone
What occurs in the seminiferous tubules of the testes?
Produces seminiferous cells
Also had sustentacular cells and interstitial cells
What do sustentacular cells of the seminiferous tubules do?
produces fluid for sperm transport
forms the blood-testes barrier
What do the interstitial cells of the seminiferous tubules do?
What are the steps of sperm cell maturation/spermiogenesis?
germ cell > spermatigonium > primary spermatocyte > secondary spermatocyte > spermatid > spermatozoa
How many sperm complete spermiogenesis each day?
about 300 million
How do hormones change in boys during puberty?
GnRH is released from the hypothalamus
GnRH stimulates FSH and LH
What does FSH stimulate in men?
stimulates sustentacular cells to produce ABP, this keeps testosterone levels high in the seminiferous tubules to stim. spermiogenesis
What does LH stimulate in men?
stims. interstitial cells to produce testosterone
What happens when spermatogenesis levels are too high?
sustentacular cells release inhibin, inhibits FSH
What are the accessory glands of the male reproductive system?
What happens if blood calcium levels drop below 9mg/100ml?
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
A&P 1 - cumulative review
Butler A&P Final
Quizzes from Bio 365S
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Osteo Palpable Landmarks
Chemistry and the Cell