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API RP 577 (2013) Terms/Definitions -
Terms in this set (88)
The alternating current field measurement (ACFM) method is an electromagnetic inspection technique which can be used to detect and size surface breaking (or in some cases near surface) defects in both magnetic and non-magnetic materials.
3.1.2 Actual Throat
The shortest distance between the weld root and the face of a fillet weld.
3.1.3 Air Carbon Arc Cutting - CAC-A
A carbon arc cutting process variation that removes molten metal with a jet of air.
3.1.4 Arc Blow
The deflection of an arc from its normal path because of magnetic forces.
3.1.5 Arc Length
The distance from the tip of the welding electrode to the adjacent surface of the weld pool.
3.1.6 Arc Strike
A discontinuity resulting from an arc, consisting of any localized remelted metal, heat-affected metal, or change in the surface profile of any metal object.
3.1.7 Arc Welding - AW
A group of welding processes that produces coalescence of work pieces by heating them with an arc. The processes are used with or without the application of pressure and with or without filler metal.
3.1.8 Autogenous Weld
A fusion weld made without filler metal.
The removal of weld metal and base metal from the weld root side of a welded joint to facilitate complete fusion and complete joint penetration upon subsequent welding from that side.
A material or device placed against the back-side of the joint, or at both sides of a weld in welding, to support and retain molten weld metal.
3.1.11 Base Metal
The metal to be welded, often called parent metal.
3.1.12 Bevel Angle
The angle between the bevel of a joint member and a plane perpendicular to the surface of the member.
A term for excessive visible root reinforcement in a joint welded from one side or a hole through the root bead.
One or more layers of deposited weld metal on the face of a weld preparation or surface that will be part of a welded joint.
3.1.15 Constant Current Power Supply - CC
An arc welding power source with a volt-ampere relationship yielding a small welding current change from a large arc voltage change.
3.1.16 Constant Voltage Power Supply - CV
An arc welding power source with a volt-ampere relationship yielding a large welding current change from a small voltage change.
3.1.17 Corrosion Specialist
A person, acceptable to the owner/user, who has knowledge and experience in corrosion damage mechanisms, metallurgy, materials selection, and corrosion monitoring techniques.
A fracture type discontinuity characterized by a sharp tip and high ratio of length and width to opening displacement.
A discontinuity or discontinuities that by nature or accumulated effect render a part or product unable to meet minimum applicable acceptance standards or specifications (e.g. total crack length). The term designates rejectability.
3.1.20 Direct Current Electrode Negative - DCEN
The arrangement of direct current arc welding leads in which the electrode is the negative pole and workpiece is the positive pole of the welding arc. Commonly known as straight polarity.
3.1.21 Direct Current Electrode Positive - DCEP
The arrangement of direct current arc welding leads in which the electrode is the positive pole and the work piece is the negative pole of the welding arc. Commonly known as reverse polarity.
An interruption of the typical structure of a material, such as a lack of homogeneity in its mechanical, metallurgical, or physical characteristics. A discontinuity is not necessarily a defect.
The change in shape or dimensions, temporary or permanent, of a part as a result of heating or welding.
3.1.24 Eddy current examination technique - ET
An inspection method that applies primarily to non-ferromagnetic materials.
A person who assists the inspector by performing specific nondestructive examination (NDE) on components but does not evaluate the results of those examinations in accordance with the appropriate inspection Code, unless specifically trained and authorized to do so by the owner or user
3.1.26 Filler Metal
The metal or alloy to be added in making a welded joint.
3.1.27 Fillet Weld Size
For equal leg fillet welds, the leg lengths of the largest isosceles right triangle that can be inscribed within the fillet weld cross section.
3.1.28 Fusion Line
The interface between the base and weld metal.
3.1.29 Groove Angle
The total included angle of the groove between work pieces.
3.1.30 Heat Affected Zone - HAZ
The portion of the base metal whose mechanical properties or microstructure have been altered by the heat of welding or thermal cutting.
3.1.31 Heat Input
The energy supplied by the welding arc to the work piece. Heat input is calculated as follows: heat input = (V i 60) / (1000 v) in kJ/in., where V = voltage, i = amperage, v = weld travel speed (in./min).
3.1.32 Hot Cracking
Cracking formed at temperatures near the completion of solidification.
Entrapped foreign solid material, such as slag, flux, tungsten, or oxide.
3.1.34 Incomplete Fusion
A weld discontinuity in which complete coalescence did not occur between weld metal and fusion faces or adjoining weld beads.
3.1.35 Incomplete Joint Penetration
A joint root condition in a groove weld in which weld metal does not extend through the joint thickness.
A signal of discontinuity in the material under nondestructive examination.
An individual who is qualified and certified to perform inspections under the proper inspection code or who holds a valid and current National Board Commission.
3.1.38 Interpass Temperature Welding
In a multipass weld, the lowest temperature of the deposited weld metal before the next weld pass is started.
3.1.39 Image Quality Indicator - IQI
"Penetrameter" is another common term for IQI.
3.1.40 Joint Penetration
The distance the weld metal extends from the weld face into a joint, exclusive of weld reinforcement.
3.1.41 Joint Type
A weld joint classification based on five basic joint configurations such as a butt joint, corner joint, edge joint, lap joint, and t-joint.
3.1.42 Lack of Fusion - LOF
A non-standard term indicating a weld discontinuity in which fusion did not occur between weld metal and fusion faces or adjoining weld beads.
3.1.43 Lamellar Tear
A subsurface terrace and step-like crack in the base metal with a basic orientation parallel to the wrought surface caused by tensile stresses in the through-thickness direction of the base metal weakened by the presence of small dispersed, planar shaped, nonmetallic inclusions parallel to the metal surface.
A type of discontinuity with separation or weakness generally aligned parallel to the worked surface of a metal.
3.1.45 Linear Discontinuity
A discontinuity with a length that is substantially greater than its width.
3.1.46 Longitudinal Crack
A crack with its major axis orientation approximately parallel to the weld axis.
3.1.47 Nondestructive Examination - NDE
The act of determining the suitability of some material or component for its intended purpose using techniques that do not affect its serviceability.
The protrusion of weld metal beyond the weld toe or weld root.
3.1.49 Oxyacetylene Cutting - OFA
An oxygen fuel gas cutting process variation that uses acetylene as the fuel gas.
The mechanical working of metals using impact blows.
Old terminology for IQI still in use today but not recognized by the codes and standards.
Cavity-type discontinuities formed by gas entrapment during solidification or in thermal spray deposit.
3.1.53 Positive Material Identification Testing - PMI Testing
Any physical evaluation or test of a material to confirm that the material which has been or will be placed into service is consistent with the selected or specified alloy material designated by the owner/user.
Metal temperature value achieved in a base metal or substrate prior to initiating the thermal operations. Also equal to the minimum interpass temperature.
3.1.55 Procedure Qualification Record - PQR
A record of the welding data and variables used to weld a test coupon and the test results used to qualify the welding procedure.
3.1.56 Recordable Indication
Recording on a data sheet of an indication or condition that does not necessarily exceed the rejection criteria but in terms of code, contract or is documented.
3.1.57 Reportable Indication
Recording on a data sheet of an indication that exceeds the reject flaw size criteria and needs not only documentation, but also notification to the appropriate authority to be corrected. All reportable indications are recordable indications but not vice-versa.
3.1.58 Root Face
The portion of the groove face within the joint root.
3.1.59 Root Opening
A separation or gap at the joint root between the work pieces.
3.1.60 Shielding Gas
Protective gas used to prevent or reduce atmospheric contamination.
A nonmetallic product resulting from the mutual dissolution of flux and nonmetallic impurities in some welding and brazing processes.
3.1.62 Slag Inclusion
A discontinuity consisting of slag entrapped in the weld metal or at the weld interface.
The metal particles expelled during fusion welding that do not form a part of the weld.
3.1.64 Tack Weld
A weld made to hold the parts of a weldment in proper alignment until the final welds are made.
3.1.65 Temper Bead Welding
A welding technique where the heat and placement of weld passes in deposited weld layers is controlled so that sufficient heat is provided to temper each previously deposited weld layer.
3.1.66 Throat Theoretical
The distance from the beginning of the joint root perpendicular to the hypotenuse of the largest right triangle that can be inscribed within the cross-section of a fillet weld. This dimension is based on the assumption that the root opening is equal to zero
3.1.67 Transverse Crack
A crack with its major axis oriented approximately perpendicular to the weld axis.
3.1.68 Travel Angle
The angle less than 90 degrees between the electrode axis and a line perpendicular to the weld axis, in a plane determined by the electrode axis and the weld axis.
3.1.69 Tungsten Inclusion
A discontinuity consisting of tungsten entrapped in weld metal.
A groove melted into the base metal adjacent to the weld toe or weld root and left unfilled by weld metal.
A condition in which the weld joint is incompletely filled when compared to the intended design.
A person who performs a manual or semiautomatic welding operation.
3.1.73 Welder Certification
Written verification that a welder has produced welds meeting a prescribed standard of welder performance.
3.1.74 Welder Performance Qualification - WPQ
A test administered to a welder to demonstrate the welder's ability to produce welds meeting prescribed standards. Welding performance qualification tests are specific to a WPS.
A joining process that produces coalescence of base metals by heating them to the welding temperature, with or without the application of pressure or by the application of pressure alone, and with or without the use of filler metal.
3.1.76 Welding Engineer
An individual who holds an engineering degree and is knowledgeable and experienced in the engineering disciplines associated with welding.
3.1.77 Welding Operator
A person who operates automatic welding equipment.
3.1.78 Welding Procedure Specification - WPS
A document that describes how welding is to be carried out in production.
An assembly whose component parts are joined by welding.
3.1.80 Weld Joint
The junction of members or the edges of members which are to be joined or have been joined by welding.
3.1.81 Weld Reinforcement
Weld metal in excess of the quantity required to fill a joint.
3.1.82 Weld Toe
The junction of the weld face and the base metal.
3.1.83 Wet Fluorescent Magnetic-Particle Examination Technique - WFMT
This inspection method is suitable for magnetic materials.
Leak Examination Technique
Magnetic Particle Examination Technique
Penetrant Examination Technique.
Radiographic Examination Technique.
Visual Examination Technique.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
API RP 577 (2013) Terms/Definitions - Flashcards -
API RP 576 (2017) Terms/Definitions -
API RP 576 (2017) Terms/Definitions - Flashcards -
API RP 572 (2016) Terms/Definitions - Flashcards -
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