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Chapter 3 - Power Plant Construction
Terms in this set (156)
What are 7 options to be considered when evaluation the potential for expansion?
- Adding on to a new process within the existing facility
- Adding a new process within the existing facility
- Doubling or twinning a process or line within the existing facility
- Removing a process or part of a process within the existing facility and replacing it with a new or expanded process
- Demolishing all of most of the existing process within the facility and replacing them with expanded or updated processes
- Constructing a new section or unit within the existing footprint of the current facility
- Constructing a new (Greenfield) facility at a completely new location
What are four strategies used to ensure that the final decision making process is fact based and objective focussed?
- Evaluate the need
- Consider preliminary options
- Evaluate the options
- Making the final decision
What are the three major items to consider when evaluating the need for expansion?
- Detailed survey of current and future market for the plant's product. How will expansion affect market demand. Can regulations or pricing structures change?
- Survey the availability of raw material supplies. Feedstock must support current and future production. Guarantee of a sustainable feed volume must be available before developing or implementing an expansion option.
- Financial review completed to determine capital available and ROR on capital invested. Ideally between 10%-40%.
Why are preliminary options considered?
To eliminated obvious non-starter options without missing out on a great opportunity that might bee lost if the project team assumes they will be choosing a specific option up front without completing some form of objective analysis.
How is preliminary option consideration completed?
At a high level using a set of clearly defined one-line qualifiers that allow brief (yes/no) answers to identify whether or not each option should be brought forward for more detailed evaluation or removed from the list as a non-starter option.
What are 7 common one-line qualifiers?
- Does this options appear to fir within the corporate financial plan? (approved capital expenditure and ROR)
- Does this option fit the corporate marketing strategy?
- Does this option meet the existing rules and regulations under which the current facility must operate?
- Does this option meet and support the goals and objectives of the company and the corporation?
- Does this option comply with local, provincial, and federals laws, acts, and regulations?
- Does this option support the local community and add value to both the local community and to the province as a whole?
- Does this option support environmental due dilligence?
Should answering "no" to a one-line qualifier be taken as an immediate elimination trigger for that option?
No, but it should be a red flag since it potentially identifies a major issue.
During the evaluating options phase, any is it important for the project team to narrow down the viable options list to two or three options maximum?
So as not to drive initial evaluation costs up too high and place too great a resources burden on the group.
What are 16 criteria that should be evaluated in detail (using reports from a contracted engineering company) by the project team to allow for an objective final decision?
- Equipment costs
- Construction costs
- Tax implications
- Construction timeline
- Cost of downtime of existing equipment during expansion
- Final production increase (and each step of production increase if in phases)
- New operation and maintenance costs
- Any infrastructure needed to support new feed stock
- Potential environmental impact
- Need for changes to existing facility permits or the introduction of new permits and regulations
- New staffing requirements
- New distribution facilities including marketing and product management
- Any health, safety, or policy and procedure issues
- Potential training and development needs including costing and man hours associated with this training
- Ability to make step increases on the initial expansion including a brief outline of the step changes
- Financial overview for each option
What three things should the financial overview for each option show?
- Total project cost
- Overall ROR on the capital invested
- A projected long term profit/loss diagram of the company detailing the comparison between existing production rates and each expansion option and its production rate increases
Why should a brief description of the predicted outcome if none of the expansion options are chosen be included with the detailed option review?
Because sometimes a company identifies that the best and most cost effective option available to them at the time is to optimize current operations and address any internal or external supply and demand issues that might have been identified by the study.
What are KPI's?
Key Performance Indicators that corporate strategies include a number of and base their major decisions on.
The final decision on whether a company choose to add on or build new is based on which 4 factors?
- An analysis of the data from the detailed option evaluation process
- The ability of the company to finance the project
- The overall payback to the company
- The vision of the person giving the final approval
Which 2 criteria must be evaluated when'd designing a new power plant on a new site in a new area (Greenfield)?
1. Site economics
2. Site dynamics
What are 8 factors of site economics of a Greenfield site?
- Cost of available land
- Location of feed sources and infrastructure in place to support the movement of raw materials into the plant
- Location of the main market and the distribution facilities and infrastructure currently in place to distribute the products to the end users
- Ancillary needs of the facility and local ability to meet these needs (cooling water, raw water, employment resources, infrastructure, etc)
- Ability of the local government to both support and sustain the facility throughout its projected life span.
- Desire of the local community to support and sustain the facility
- Political implications of constructing the facility in this area and projected long-term political desire for sustainability of the power plant.
What are 3 factors of site dynamics of a Greenfield site?
- Ability of land to support the equipment (soil samples, bedrock analysis, core sampling)
- Impact of the facility on the site environment (Groundwater, subsurface aquifers, site vegetation, animal habitats, migratory review, spills risk analysis, ability to contain waste to be a neutral impact)
- Impact of the facility on the local environment (impact of plant effluent streams on the environment, noise impacts, ability of the environment to sustain the facility and human and equipment traffic from day-to-day operations at peak loading times of construction, maintenance shutdowns, and major upgrades)
What are 3 factors of site economics of a an addition to a pre-existing facility?
- Potential tax implications on the capital expenditures for the new equipment
- ability to reassess existing assets and combine them with the new equipment to realize greater tax benefits where possible
- Additional municipal taxes associated with the new equipment
What are 3 factors of site dynamics of an addition to a pre-existing facility?
- Impact of new processes and equipment on the existing site (involves soil, ground water and subsurface aquifer studies)
- Impact of the new processes and equipment on the local environment (additional effluent streams, increased noise levels of construction and operations, local infrastructure capabilities)
- Impact of the new processes and equipment on the current infrastructure of the facility ( electrical substation and distribution, fuel supply, feed and storage systems, ancillary supplies like water and people, extra waste streams generated by the new plant)
What are 7 criteria to be evaluated that are common to a new Greenfield power plant or one built on the footprint of an existing site?
- Desired size of the facility
- Construction and operational generating costs per MW of power generated
- Proximity of the facility to a cheap fuel supply
- Cost of construction
- Operating costs of the facility
- Determining the type of power generating cycle
- Designing the strategy for developing a new plant
Why are new additions sometimes multiphase projects?
So that phases 1 can bring a specific amount of MW online first and generate revenue to support continuation of the project and maintain a positive cash flow.
*Also allows the project team to fine tune things for ensuing phases
Why should large expansion projects always be designed to allow for future expansion phases?
Because these costs are very minor compared to the additional future expenditures needed if current facilities have been designed without any ability for future expansion.
Why must construction and operational costs be taken together when evaluating plant design?
Because separately a facility may have low construction costs, but be more expensive in the long run to operate because of the fuels used, or vice versa.
What two costs per MW must be evaluated together?
- Cost of initial construction per MW
- Operating/generating cost per MW over the expected life cycle of the facility
Why must tax implications be written into the final equations of a cost analysis?
Because construction costs and capital write-offs carry different tax implications than operating costs.
Which three factors should be considered when evaluating the construction and generating costs options for each type of facility?
- Proximity of the facility to a cheap fuel supply
- Cost of construction
- Operating costs of the facility
How does cost of construction differ between fuel supplies?
Might be cheap to build the plant but more expensive if carbon credits need to be bought to sustain a cheaply built plant. Or vice verse where a hydroelectric would be expensive to build but cheap fuel once operational.
What are six different operating costs of a new facility?
- Manpower required to operate and maintain the facility
- Consumable costs
- Corporate costs
- Administrative costs
- Normal operating and maintenance expenses
- Taxes and permit and regulatory costs
Detailed evaluation of which four items help identify which type of facility is best suited to the needs of the project team?
- Type of fuel to be used and its availability
- Location of the facility with regard to other industries requiring a heat source
- Availability of cooling water and feedwater
- Construction cost vs. operating/generating costs
What are the three different types of power generating facilities?
- Closed cycle facilities
- Cogeneration facilities
- Combined cycle facilities
What are closed cycle facilities?
Fuel is fed directly to one or more boilers that generate HP steam, which is then directed through one or more turbines that are coupled to electrical generators. Exhaust steam is condensed, collected, and returned to the boiler as feedwater. All the steam is used for power generation only.
Why does a closed cycle facility normal have the highest cost per MW generated?
Because it has the lowest thermal efficiency.
Which type of facility has the least expensive initial construction costs?
A closed cycle facility.
What is a cogeneration facility?
The HP steam created powers a generator and is used either as exhaust steam or staged take-off in adjacent processes or facilities as a heating medium. No condenser at the turbine end.
What are two basic types of cogeneration systems?
- Topping systems (HP steam is used first to generate electricity and the rest is taken for process and facility heating)
- Bottoming systems ( HP steam is used first for heating other processes and facilities and then exhaust steam from the heat exchangers is sent to a steam turbine and used to generate electrical power.)
What are combined cycle facilities?
The fuel is fed to a gas turbine first instead of a boiler, where it drives a generator. The high-temp exhaust gases are then directed to a HRSG or waste heat boiler which then generates HP steam that gets directed to a steam turbine that drives a second generator. Sometimes the steam generator is coupled to the same generator as the gas turbine.
Which type of facility delivers the highest thermal efficiency?
A combined cycle facility.
What does the project team need to develop to maintain an acceptable level of quality control over the entire process of designing, constructing and commissioning a large-scale power plant?
A flow chart or datum chart that graphically portrays each step in the process and includes built-in checks and balances designed to ensure that each step meets the desired objectives for time and budget.
*Formal follow-up is required for non-compliance or variance from the schedule. Tracking and trending in real time is also required.
How can you ensure that each group involved in a project team and the consulting and contracting teams follow the same processes and perform according to the same standards?
By maintaining a proper flow chart.
The conceptual engineering phase begins after which four targets have been met?
- New site has been approved
- Overall capital budget has been clearly identified
- Construction and operating permits have been granted
- Overall plant type has been agreed upon
What is a PFD?
A process flow diagram
What is the process flow diagram for?
Shows all the major processes within the facilities and identifies the main heat balances and energy transfers throughout the various process. (equipment sizing, basic flows, temperatures, pressures and operating ranges)
When if the PFD developed?
During the conceptual design phase of a power plant.
Are are the PFD's used to generate?
Detailed P&ID's and MDs (mechanical drawings)
Once the project team approves the P&ID and MD, what are they used to develop?
The piping isometric drawings and the equipment lists from which all instrumentation controls and mechanical equipment will be purchased.
What are CAD isometric drawings also good for?
Reviewing the actual layout of the equipment to optimize it.
What is one of thee key responsibilities of the company proposing to build a new power plant?
To ensure that the construction, commissioning, and operation of the facility occurs within strict guidelines, codes, standards, and government regulations designed to protect the environment and ensure the health and safety of on-site workers and people living in the surrounding areas.
Each provincial and territorial government has their own regulatory bodies that are responsible for which 6 things?
- Proposing new standards and laws relating to the environment
- Reviewing existing environmental laws and standards and upgrading them when required
- Reviewing environmental feasibility studies and evaluating requests for construction and operating permits from companies and/or individuals who want to build new plants within their jurisdiction
- Issuing permits for companies operating or planning to operate facilities within their jurisdiction
- Auditing the various companies with existing permits to ensure continued compliance
- Responding to any non-compliance or variances to the existing permits with detailed incident investigations and recommendations for response and/or remuneration for any violations
What is the key federal government body responsible for managing and administering environmental programs?
What are four different acts that Environment Canada has created that's pertain directly to the stewardship and management of the environment?
- Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA)
- Department of the Environment Act
- Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA)
- National Energy Board Act
What is the goal of CEPA?
To contribute to sustainable development through pollution prevention and to protect the environment, human life and health from the risks associated with toxic substances.
What does the DEA establish?
The Minister's responsibilities for all matters relating to the preservation and enhancement of the quality of the natural environment. International Joint Commission and USA boundary stuff too.
What is the CEAA?
An act administered by an independent agency that reports directly to the minister. The act states that any facility that requires a license or permit from the federal government to operate must conduct an environmental assessment of their proposed project.
What is the National Energy Board Act?
Requires applicants to submit an assessment of the probable environmental impact of the facility, including a description of the existing environment and a statement of the measures proposed to mitigate the impact.
Who's responsibility is it to source the various acts, regulations, and standards under which the new power plant must be designed and built?
The project team leader and the senior power engineer.
What are 9 areas that require detailed review and some form of formal assessment with final approval and permitting from governments during construction of a new power plant?
- Site management during construction
- Local area and infrastructure management during construction
- Local environmental impact during construction
- Site environmental impact during operation
- Local environmental impact during operation
- Area, province, and country-wide impacts
- Incident impact studies
- Potential for facility enhancements and potential environmental impacts
- Facility retirement strategy
What are 5 aspects of site environmental impacts during operation?
- Raw resources intake into the facility (water being the primary one)
- All effluent streams that will be released into the air, land or water
- Noise impacts
- Human and equipment movement including parking
- Sanitary systems
What are 6 aspects of local environmental impact during operation?
- Impact on lakes, rivers, and underground aquifer due to water usage
- Impact on lakes, rivers, and underground aquifer due to normal operation
- Impact on lakes, rivers, and underground aquifer due to effluent streams
- Human and equipment traffic issues
- Air pollutants, including both the effluent streams and all generated dust and other airborne contaminants that could potentially be generated by construction and operation
What are 2 aspects of area, province, and country-wide impacts?
- Distribution and transmission systems
- Market allocation and delivery strategies
What are 2 aspects of incident impact studies?
- All potential releases to the environment
- The potential for impacts to occur due to release, both site specific and local area
- Response plans, programs, and strategies developed to mitigate all potential releases
What are 3 aspects of facility retirement strategies?
- Equipment removal
- Land and soil reclamation
- Final assessment strategies to ensure all government regulations have been achieved
Who needs to hold public meetings in the communities and areas surrounding where the new power plant is to be built?
The project team.
What does the project team discuss at the community meetings?
They identify the size and scope of the project, as well as the environmental assessment that they have generated showing the 9 applicable items.
Which item requires continuous permitting?
Effluent streams that have permits regulating volumes, temperatures, flow rates and contaminant levels.
*Permits must include response plans for non-conformance.
What are the 3 key engineering codes identified by CSA?
- NBIC NB-23
- ANSE/API 510 and 570
What are the 5 key objectives of both the CSA codes and the safety standards acts and regulations?
- Ensure all pressure equipment is fabricated and constructed to a specified standard using proven materials ad fabrication and construction techniques
- Maintain the integrity of the equipment over its entire operating life cycle
- Protect the people who live and work in the area of the equipment
- Protect the environment from any uncontrolled releases or spills
- Sustain cost-effective operation of the equipment over the long-term life of the facility
Who is responsible to develop a detailed QA/QC program that meets all the standards in local and provincial safety acts and regulations, as well as meeting the recognized CSA good engineering practices and its identified codes and standards?
The owner/user of the pressure vessels being fabricated, constructed and installed in the new power plant facility.
What are 5 components of a good QA/QC program?
- Purchasing, procurement, and receiving
What are 7 sections of a QA/QC administrative component?
- Title page
- Contents page
- Scope of work
- Statement of authority and responsibility (names who's responsible for QA standards being met)
-QA/QC program control strategy (Who and how audits are done on the program)
- Organizational chart
- Document control
What is the main use of the engineering component of a QA/QC program?
To be sure everyone is working of the most recent revisions and master copies for equipment, parts, vessels, etc.
What are 5 aspects of the engineering component of a QA/QC program?
- Names of the engineering firms approved to perform engineering for pressure vessels and boiler pressure parts for this power plant
- Equipment names and the designated facility assist numbers that each pressure vessel and boiler pressure part has been given
- The government codes or standards to which the pressure vessel or pressure part must conform
- The engineering and design specifications to which the pressure vessels and boiler pressure parts must conform
- Any special orders relating to: metallurgy, design, internal or external components, and ancillary parts.
Who is ultimately responsible for the fabrication component of a QA/QC program?
The purchaser and owner user needs to audit all fabrication facilities to ensure their own programs are being used and adhered to even the companies contracted to fabricate everything will have their own QA/QC programs that they adhere too. The power also inspects all the actual equipment to make sure it is up to their own required codes and specifications.
What are 6 key items found in the fabrication component of a QA/QC program?
- An overview page identifying codes and standards followed, fabrication facilities audited and approved and the approval documents for approving other facilities
- The testing required for each vessel and part during fabrication and upon completion (chirpy, tensile, x-rays, hydro)
- The designated hold points where each piece of equipment is inspected by a project team member or approved representative to ensure that all the correct codes and standards are being followed and that the equipment being built meets the engineering and design specifications.
- Any special fabrication instructions that my apply including metallurgy, welding, destructive or non-destructive testing, coatings/linings, heat treatments, safety factors added beyond normal parameters
- An approvals protocol including documents that must be completed to allow each step of the fabrication process for each vessel and part to move forward, up to and including final approval for delivery
- An approved procedure for reconditioning or re-rating old pressure vessels or pressure parts must be included if the project team is planning to use existing equipment from other sites (includes inspection, testing and calculations)
What is the process to re-rated pressure vessels or parts?
- Inspection program for old vessel/part needs to be created, with calculations ensuring integrity and a testing program to certify everything. These are all completed and submitted to the provincial safety authority to get approval and a new or modified code stamp and CRN number.
Which 7 items are included in the purchasing, procurement and receiving component of a QA/QC program?
- A cover page describing the owners of the purchasing, procurement and receiving component
- The names of all companies that have been pre-approved to supply pressure vessels, parts and ancillary equipment
- The protocol to be followed when ordering parts from a non-approved vendor
- The protocol required when receiving pressure vessels, pressure parts, and other equipment (inspection upon arrival, matching the equipment to data sheets, matching certificates, document control to allow tracking, notification to let project team know parts arrived)
- Equipment storage protocol on how to store everything to prevent damage and contamination and corrosion during storage
- Equipment sign-out and delivery to construction site protocol which describes who can sign for each piece of equipment and how, when and where it will be delivered (who and how to move it too)
- A clearly defined protocol to manage all equipment that arrives at the receiving/shipping area that does not conform to the original design specifications or is damaged or wrong with a formal method or dealing with it.
Which phase of the QA/QC program is the most difficult to manage?
The construction phase
Which 8 items are included in the construction component of a QA/QC program?
- A cover page identifying thee key owners of the pressure vessels and pressure part construction and installation phases
- A list of approved contractors for the transportation, erection, installation and final construction and tie-in of the equipment
- Documentation that explains the reporting protocol for each day of construction including
- A protocol including necessary documentation required for approving other contractors if the need arises
- All specific procedures to be followed when transporting, erecting, installing and initiation the final construction and tie-in of the pressure vessels and pressure parts
- Any specific welding, heat treatment, inspection, testing, or hold points that must be conformed to during the construction
- Transition protocol that clearly identifies the process by which one construction team turns over the project to another construction team
- A 'construction complete' protocol document must be included with the QA/QC program for the pressure vessels
Which 7 things need to be reported on daily during the construction component of a QA/QC program?
- Man hours
- Equipment used
- Non-compliances or con-conformances and all solutions approved to address these
- Progress reports
- Health and safety issues
What are 6 things the 'construction complete' protocol document ensures?
- All construction reports are completed and filed
- All regulatory data is completed, approved and filed
- All inspection data is completed, approved and filed
- Any construction changes, modifications, or additions are drawn up as 'as built' and sent to the drafting/engineering department for final P&ID and equipment data sheet updates
- All the pressure vessel certification is completed and the vessel has been approved and certified for operation
- All the reports have been signed off by the designated owner/user and the pressure vessels are approved for the commissioning stages of the project.
Once approval for construction of a new power plant has been receiving form both the corporation and the responsible government agencies, the project team must have a formal process to ensure which 6 things?
- The design of the facility conforms to original expectations
- All equipment, piping, and instrumentation is engineered according to the approved codes and standards and meets design specifications
- The equipment purchased meets all code requirements and design specifications
- The equipment is installed according to the codes and standards agreed to by the project team
- All approved government acts and regulations are followed during construction
- The project continues to completion both on time and on budget
The design, engineering, construction, commissioning and final operation and maintenance of a new power plant involves the combines efforts of multiple teams and uses from how many people?
2500 - 7500
What are the 7 critical components of an overall project protocol document?
- Track costs and expenditures for major project components
- Project manpower/resource needs for major project components
- Track timelines for major project components
- The names and contact numbers of the key individuals responsible for each of the projects major components
- The goal posts that must be met at each step of the process
- The response plan for any incidents or non-conformances to the original plan
- Identify hold points for each major step that clearly identify the actions that must be taken before the project can move forward to the next step
What is the project protocol document?
A high-level document that allows senior managers and top project team leaders to track the macro components of the project, fed from each sub-component owner.
What are 8 sub-components for the development of a new power plant?
- Conceptual engineering phases
- Detailed engineering phases
- Piping isometric drawings
- Detailed civil engineering
- Instrumentation engineering
- Detailed mechanical engineering
- Equipment and resource purchasing/procurement/receiving
What are 8 activities that take place during the conceptual engineering phase?
- Identify the specific processes within the power plant
- Deliver a process flow diagram for each major process
- Identify the basic pressures, temperatures, and flow rate parameters to which the facility will be designed
- Identify the major equipment ratings and the various major component outputs
- Identify the heat balance data across the major components and the thermal efficiencies to which the overall facility will operate
- Identify the major connection points to existing infrastructure (power distribution, fuel sources, water sources)
-Identify external actions taken to ensure project execution (changes to roads, municipal infrastructure, contracts, permits, regulatory compliance issues, land/sea/air issues)
- Identify any major health and safety or Human Resources issues that need to be addressed before the construction phase of the project begins
Who usually takes care of the conceptual engineering phase?
Usually an engineering firm familiar with power plant projects is contracted for it.
What is the detailed engineering phase?
It is when the approved PFD's from the conceptual phase are developed into P&ID's or MD's.
What are 10 things that P&ID's and MD's identify?
- Equipment type, size, design outputs and performances parameters
- Piping sizes
- Material specifications
- Design temperatures, pressures, levels, and flow rates
- Insulation requirements
- Maximum operating temperatures, pressures, and flow rates
- Instrumentation and control details and strategies
- Various safety systems
- Equipment numbers
- All support systems such as sewers, drains, flares and relief systems
What is the FEED?
The Front End Engineering Drawing, part of the conceptual engineering stuff.
For most major projects of a power plant magnitude, how many times is each step of the process formally bid on?
Three to five times, and the best overall value bid is taken for each step.
What are piping isometric drawings?
They are three dimensional drawings or CAD's that identify all the piping, material specifications, connection details, welding specifications, fitting details and equipment layouts.
What are 7 parts of the detailed civil engineering component?
- Detailed soil analysis and site evaluation to prepare for construction
- Building and foundation design
- Roads, parking, temporary and long term traffic flow and management
- Human needs engineering
- Product design infrastructure flowing into and out of the facility
- Site survey studies and distribution systems surveys
- Construction materials identification
What are 4 parts of the instrumentation engineering component?
- Instrument data sheets
- SAMA (Scientific Apparatus Makers Association) drawings
- Cause and effect diagrams
- Loop narratives
What are 3 parts of the detailed mechanical engineering component?
- Generating equipment data sheets
- Sourcing major equipment components
- Work with drafting and civil teams to ensure that building and foundations arrangement will supports operations and maintenance projects in the future
During the equipment and resource purchasing, procurement and receiving phase, why it is very important that long lead-time materials arrives on site on an as-needed basis?
To reduce the storage space needed for extra equipment and to allow the company to spend its cash at the latest possible moment.
The __________ the capital outlay can be to the time that the facility is up and running, the _________ the ROCE will be for the company?
What is the ROCE?
Return of Capital Expense
Big packages are developed for procuring which 4 items?
- Heavy equipment needed to break ground and dig the foundations
- Building construction contractors
- Specialized equipment installers
- Instrument and electrical trades and technicians
The construction phase can involve how many groups working managing contracts at once?
10 - 15
Who manages the heavy equipment traffic?
A project or site coordinator.
What are hold points used for for certain pieces of equipment?
When offsite vendors must stop construction and notify the purchasing company so an approved inspector can be dispatch to ensure integrity.
When is the most opportune time to develop facility training programs?
During the construction component, so training materials can be customized to what is actually onsite and operations can become familiar.
When should development of predictive and preventative maintenance programs take place?
During the contruction component.
Which 5 systems require predictive and preventative maintenance programs?
- Lubrication systems
- Vibration analysis programs
- Inspection programs
- Instrumentation and control testing programs
- Schedule maintenance and repair strategies
What are 6 different phases of the construction phases where the chief power engineer will have responsibilities?
- Need for plant expansion
- Conceptual engineering
- Detailed design engineering
- Purchasing/ procurement/ receiving
How should the chief power engineer be involved during the 'need for plant expansion' phase?
He will give recommendations based on previous experience and assist in developing thermal efficiency diagrams and heat balance documents and give feedback on the current codes and standards. He will giver advantages and disadvantages of different processes and plant types and give feedback on suggested options
Which three things does the chief review during the conceptual engineering phase?
- Original PFD's
- Original heat balance and thermal efficiency diagrams and graphs
- Basic design concepts, especially with pressure vessels, pressure piping and fired equipment.
*The chief is part of the approvals team making decisions on major equipment sizing and codes/standards to which they must conform.
Which 3 responsibilities does the chief have during the detailed design engineering phase?
- Ensures all the stationary and rotating equipment and pressure piping that comes under his authority is engineered by people or firms approved to do that type of work and that the work being completed conforms to provincial safety authority acts and regulations and CSA standards
- Uses current knowledge and experience to determine the overall functionality and operability of all the proposed processes and equipment with a focus on that equipment for which he has ownership
- The chief should be the person giving the final approval signature for all the engineered equipment that is covered by the provincial safety authority's act and regulations
Which 4 responsibilities does the chief have during the fabrication process?
- Ensuring that the QA/QC program is being followed
- Ensuring the fabrication shops are following their own QA/QC programs and inspecting and reporting on their progress to ensure they adhering to the chiefs as well
- Ensure the fabricated equipment passes all required certification testing
- Ensure are passed equipment receives the required government certification and is stamped with CRN number and that all proper documentation is developed and delivered to both the provincial safety authority for registration and to the power plant site for filing and posting.
Which 5 roles does the chief have during the purchasing portion of the QA/QC program?
- Make sure all purchases meet the codes, standards and regulations the facility requires.
- Ensure the equipment receivers verify the equipment meets all engineering criteria and that the accompanying documentation is correct and up to date
- Ensure all equipment is being stored in a safe and protective manner
- Ensure that the covered equipment is shipped to the proper places within the site for installation and completion with all handling criteria conformed to
- Approve and sign off any non-conformances of equipment, and design repair strategies for damaged equipment.
-What are 7 responsibilities of the chief during the construction phases of a QA/QC program?
- Auditing the construction crews to ensure they are following the programs, that their people are certified for the work they are performing and that all programs are up to date
- Work with the inspection team to ensure welding quality control including tracking welding maps for pass/fail percentages
- Reviewing all inspection data and ensuring that all documentation is completed and that all files, bother electronic and hard copy, are generated.
- Ensuring that all the work completed in his area follows the health and safety standards of the proving and company
- Developing the testing protocol for all the equipment for when construction is finished. Includes testing safety devices.
- Initial testing of the instrumentation and control devices for all the covered equipment
- Ensuring that all relevant data is fed to the master project tracking documents with any non-conformances identified and their solutions documented
What are the 7 components of a H&S program?
- Cover page identifying vision statement and safety mission are signed and dated b y the president/owner
- Contents section
- Contacts page identifying all the different owners and to which codes and standards the program complies with. Contains contact numbers and response procedures
- Emergency response policies, procedures, codes and phone numbers
- Specific evacuation protocol
- Support materials (lockout tag out procedures, gas testing, fire and rescue, etc)
- Appendices that include reporting and investigation documents
What are 4 components of an H&S program?
- Audit component
- Regulatory compliance component
- Procedure-based component
- Action-based component
What is the audit component of a H&S QA/QC program portion?
For the project team to continuously audit the contracting and consulting companies to ensure they have developed and are following acceptable HSE standards. Includes records and issue identification and proper deliveries and whatever else
What is the regulatory compliance component of a H&S QA/QC program portion?
Basically knowing all the regulations and making sure you're adhering to them.
What are 14 items in the procedure-based portion of an H&S program?
- Individual rights and responsibilities
- PPE that must be worn when on site
- Lockout and tag out procedures
- Hot work procedures
- Use of mobile equipment procedures
- Rigging, slings and wire rope
- Inspection programs for all rigging and lifting equipment
- Inspection procedures for all cranes and mechanical lifting devices
- Use of ladders, scaffolding and fall protection
- Confined space procedures
- Noise and other sound generated hazards
- Handling hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials
- Specific task training
- Certifications and competencies before tasks can even be performed
What are the three parts of action-based H&S components?
- Behavioral based
- Emergency response
What are 5 parts of the administration section of action-based H&S components?
- How accident and incident investigations are handled and tracked and followed up on
- Identifies the time and place for project/daily/monthly/task based safety meetings
- Identifies how each safety meeting is documented and how action items are followed up on
- Identifies the hazard reporting protocol including follow up strategies
- Identifies the response plan for all behavioural based non conformances
What are the 4 parts of behavioural based section of administration H&S component?
- Details management and supervisory roles and responsibilities onsite and during construction
- Details employee roles and responsibilities while on site and during construction
- Details roles and responsibilities of contractors while on site during construction
- Identifies all actions and behaviours that are considered a hazard to the site and to other workers in the facility and describes which actions and behaviours will not be tolerated
What are the 3 parts of emergency response section of administration H&S component?
- Identifies the risk of potential uncontrolled incidents an identifies those that require some type of formal emergency response
- Identifies all the various emergency response programs and actions required for each program
- Identifies individual responses required for specific emergencies
What are 6 ways to accomplish the safety program being owned, maintained and managed by all persons involved in the construction project?
- Formal and well publicized
- Understood, owned, and demonstrated by all persons in the company from senior managers to supervisors and all operations and maintenance personnel
- Behaviour based
- Realistic, measurable and with accountability built in at all levels
- Dynamic and able to evolve as needs change
- Promoted on a task by task and day by day basis
What are 13 steps used in developing and managing a H&D program?
- Develop a formal safety program with all its components
- Implement the program in the company
- Holding formal meetings with all the contractor companies to clearly identify acceptable practices during construction and outline corporate health and safety goals and expectations for the project
- Holding general safety and orientation meetings for all individuals and contractors arriving on-site
- Holding daily safety meetings each morning directed at various job activities, relevant to the tasks and encouraging two way communication
- Developing formal methods for hazard identification, reporting and follow up with a solution based outcome requirement
- Developing a formal method for investigating, tracking, trending, and following up on all incidents, accidents and near misses
- Holding toolbox safety talks concerning all tasks considered to have a specific risk value to the manager, supervisor, or individual who completed the task feels is significant enough to justify the talk
- Developing a formal method for auditing both the safety program and the behaviours of the various individuals at the construction site with accountability, reward, and documentation components
- Ensuring that the emergency response programs are in place and that drills and practices are conducted throughout the construction process
- Setting up specific safety zones or tables throughout the site where any individual can go under neutral conditions to discuss any safety related issues
- Holding formal meeting with the contractor companies management on a daily basis emphasizing safety performance to date, issue resolutions, and expectations for the next day
- Completing a final progress report at the end of the construction project that clearly identifies the successes, any major issues, and uncontrolled incidents. Give reward where it is due and identify areas that m must be corrected including the processes, programs, and behaviours that will be implemented to ensure change occurs
What are 6 ways to implement an H&S program?
- training and development
- Identifying the vision, goals and expectations to all employees
- Publishing performance and progress, rewarding success, identifying issues, and implementing solutions
- Developing and implementing safety committees
- Initiating support programs throughout the organization
- Auditing the internal program and the safety programs of all the contract companies that are part of construction
Which four areas should the chief consider when conducting a preproject evaluation of an addition/expansion to site?
- Existing equipment
- Human elements
- Fire.safety and emergency response
- Tie-in considerations
What are 3 things to consider about existing equipment when planning an expansion?
- Location of the new equipment in relation to the existing equipment (short connection points, minimize cost and heat loss, don't. block existing accesses)
- Equipment compatibility
- Infrastructure impact
What are 6 things to consider when locating new equipment in an expansion project?
- Vibration issues
- Heat and thermal release issues
- Atmospheric, chemical, and fluid capabilities
- Metallurgical and corrosion impacts
- Stray current and induction impacts from electrical equipment and current-carrying conductors
- Instrumentation and control sensitivities
When designing, purchasing and installing new equipment, the project team should be aware of which 3 things?
- Integration new instrumentation and controls systems with existing equipment
- Ensure expansion piping matches original to keep replacement costs down
- Expansion process should match the original to avoid different chemical and procures and changes, etc
What are 6 infrastructure issues that must be considered during an expansion to be sure it is capable of handling the expansion?
- Existing electrical power contracts, switchgear, and distribution systems
- Data highways and communications systems
- Buildings and control rooms
- Water and sewer systems
- Instrument air systems
- Fire and safety systems
Which 4 human elements must be covered when evaluating the impact of the expansion on the existing site staff?
- Current organizational structure
- Impact of the expansion on the current staff
- Impact of the operating facility on the construction crews
- Conflict management
What are 3 aspects of the current organization structure that must be considered when evaluating human elements?
- Increases in the physical size of the facility and roles might require restructuring the organization
- Project team should evaluate possibilities for enhancing the overall facilities management and control systems to identify if a complete upgrade might allow downsizing the existing work force
- This is the opportune time to combine or integrate existing facilities into a central control room where the entire facility can be managed more effectively with equal or less manpower requirements
Which 5 aspects of the impact on current staff should be considered when evaluating human resources?
- The impact of construction on existing crews as they perform their day to day activities
- The increase in vehicular traffic within the site must be identified and addressed
- The health and hygiene impact of on the existing facilities must be evaluated and addressed
- The impact of welding, grinding, praying and other construction and inspection actions on the site staff must be evaluated
- Psychological impacts of change to maintain individuals focus
Which 5 aspects of the impact of the operating facility on the construction crews should be considered when evaluating Human Resources?
- Proper protocols of working in the area
- Construction personnel must be made aware of safety issues associated with the equipment
- Processes in place to protect operating equipment and site personnel when performing lifts, moving equipment and performing major construction tasks over or near operating equipment
- Specific procedures and protocols to help manage construction related tasks within the confines of the existing facility so that these tasks do not increase operating hazards nor expose the operating or construction crews to increased potential for danger
- Key site personnel must be available to the construction crews to assist in making quick decision when major parts of the construction project are unfolding. A rapid response team needs to be set up with clearly identified roles and contact numbers so the construction team leaders can get source information and develop response strategies on an as needed basis to keep the project on time and budget
Which 7 issues must be considered by the fire and er and project team members about emergency response during the construction phase?
- site evacuations and emergency work stoppage procedures
- release impacts on site and construction crews
- increased incident and accident potential
- Increased hazard cause by equipment and people
- Increase need for inspection, permits, gas testing and everything
- Increased potential for a fire and response requirements
- Any new policies that need to be put in place and participated in
What are four reasons for minimizing contact points of tie ins to those necessary for effective operation?
- Capital cost increase
- Maintenance cost increase
- Maintenance shutdowns (more isolation points. ugh)
- Complexity (potential for cross contamination and human error goes up with complexity)
Which 5 things should be included when designing tie points to ensure isolations are possible?
- Spectacle blinds
- Vent valves
- Drain valves
- Sample points
Which 7 things should the operating equipment be protected from during tie in construction?
- Fire sources
- Excessive temperature differences
- Hazardous chemicals or atmospheres
What is imperative with tie ins once the commissioning phases begins?
That they are all purged clean with all air removed and any construction debris blown clear to the atmosphere and not into the existing valves, piping or processes.
What does the main project protocol document identify?
Each step of the design and drawing development process and the hold points that require formal approval along the way from the project team or approved representatives before the engineering group can move forward.
What are 8 things that should be identified as standard on each drawing before the team accepts it for review and approval?
- Signed and dated professional engineering permit to practice stamp
- Name and address of the contract firm completing the drawings or supplying the equipment
- Name of the company for which the contract is being completed
- Project name and number, equipment name and number, and order number
- Document control section
-Reference drawings and document section (identifying names and numbers of all documents that are referenced or supported by the existing drawing
- The step to which the drawing has been taken must be clearly identified (issued for review/final approval/construction)
- Proper legend of everything likes signs, abbreviations, arrows, etc.
Which 6 things should the document control section show?
- Drawing originator
- Date drawn
- Date checked and name of checker
- Drawing number and job number
- Scale to which the legend was made
- A sign-off legend showing revision numbers and dates of revisions with approval signatures beside each revision
What are the 7 main documents that are developed and managed as the project moves forward?
- Process flow diagrams
- Piping and instrumentation diagrams
- Construction drawings
- Piping isometric drawings/diagrams
- Instrumentation and control construction
- Electrical systems construction
- Fire and safety systems drawings
What ar e11 things that PFD's contain?
- Name of the deign engineering company and person generation the drawings
- Drawing number, date of drawing generation, and revision number
- Engineering stamp and permit stamp
- Sign-off section for review and approval of project team members
- Company name, project name, and number
- Main process flows
- Main operating parameters (pressure, temperature, flow rates, and levels)
- Main equipment names, sizes, capacities
- Basic equipment dimensions
- Basic instrumentation and control strategies for the main equipment
- Main connections and tie-in points from other plants and other processes
Which 5 things can the project team evaluate from the PFD's?
- The type of plant that is being proposed/designed
- The main operating strategies
- The recommended operating parameters to which the facility will perform
- The main pieces of equipment being proposed
- The basic instrumentation and control strategies being proposed
What are P&ID's sometimes called?
MFD's (mechanical flow diagrams)
Which 16 pieces of information do P&ID's contain?
- Drawing number, generation data and revision number
- Name of the company generating the P&ID, engineering stamp, certification stamp, and signature of the engineer approving the design
- Overall project name
- Name of the process being detailed
- Name of the company for which the project is being engineered
- Reference drawings and documents that support the P&ID
- Tables, legends, notes and comments that help to interpolate the information on the drawing
- Equipment deign engineering details
- Piping sizes and metallurgy details
- Detailed instrumentation and control equipment
- Instrumentation and control strategies
- Detailed process parameters
- Electrical details
- Valve sizing and operation
- Utilities and ancillary equipment
-Insulation, cladding, coatings, and lining details
Who are construction drawings generated by?
The civil and mechanical engineers and draftsmen
What are the five main construction drawings?
- Key maps
- Elevation and unit plot plans (expanded from key maps)
- Mechanical building drawings
- Civil/structural engineering drawings
- Equipment layout drawings
What are key maps?
Identify the entire site layout, both above and below ground and divide various units and areas into named or numbered sections and show them all in relation to each other
Which 6 things do elevation and plot plans shows?
- Layout of the major equipment
- Elevations of the major equipment, buildings, roads, tanks, cooling towers, sumps, and all other major items
- Overall size or footprint of the equipment and process units
- Positions of the equipment in relation to the rest of the facility
- Positions and layouts of the pipe racks
- Locations of main building components
Which 7 things do the mechanical building drawings show?
- Service details
- HVAC details
- Placement, elevation, and location of all ductwork, vent fans, and control and electrical panel layouts
- Building structure details
- Room layouts and various work stations
- Man-loading requirements for individual buildings
- Fire and safety information
Which 5 things do civil/structural engineering drawings show?
- Overall structure criteria for buildings, equipment bases, pipe racks, overhead equipment, and stack bases.
- Soils analysis and details the ground preparations required to ensure that major equipment foundations are designed adequately
- Includes outline drawings showing all the details of the major equipment foundations
- Identifies foundation loads and design requirements
- Identifies inground or below ground layouts and all data for below ground equipment placemen
What are equipment layout drawings?
Isometric layout views of all major equipment
Which 5 criteria can the project team ensure using virtual piping isometric drawings?
- That the piping doesn't cut through an thing important
- That the pipe runs are as short as possible
- That pipe racks are conveniently placed
- That all equipment has enough room for operations and maintenance
- Everything is laid out for good access through the facility
What are 5 other drawings that support piping isometric drawings?
- Welding details and maps
- Heat tracing and insulation details
- Pipe supports and hanger details
- Thermal and mechanical expansion and tension details
- Pipe rack details
What are 11 things included in the instrumentation and control documents?
- Field equipment layouts
- Data highway design and layout
- SAMA drawings
- Ladder logic diagrams for main control systems
- Cause and effect drawings
- Termination, connection and I/O drawings
- Loop narratives and logic diagrams
- Fault trees, enunciation sequencing, and alarm strategy diagrams
- Binary logic diagrams
- Human Machine Interface HMI diagrams and strategy documents
- DCS faceplate diagrams
What are 13 items covered on the electrical drawings?
- Generator drawings for all electrical components and ancillary equipment
- Main connections drawings from generator to distribution bus
- Transformer and switch gear drawings
- Protection systems drawings and logic diagrams
- High-voltage distribution systems
- Feeder and tie-breaker systems to control electrical power flow throughout the facility
- Facility distribution bus drawings
- Transformer and distribution systems to MCC's
- Supply systems to various end users within the plant
- Breaker and protection systems for local users
- Wiring diagrams for power distribution internal to the facility
- DC/UPS and backup systems for the facility
- Panel/rack drawings and wiring termination drawings
What are 7 different fire and safety system type of drawings?
- Fire monitoring and suppression systems for the generators and generator building
- FM&SS for all transformer and ancillary equipment
- Fire detection and suppressions systems for all flammable fluids and chemical storage facilities
- Firewater systems for fire management and control throughout the facility
- Fire monitoring systems throughout the facility
- Emergency response systems throughout the facility
- Gas monitoring systems throughout the facility
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Chapter 1 - Electrical Energy Management
Chapter 4 - Commissioning and De-Commissioning
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