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Terms in this set (48)
Learning is defined as "the process of acquiring through experience new and relatively enduring ____ or ______."
Two forms of associative learning are classical conditioning, in which the organism associates _______, and operant conditioning, in which the organism associates ___________.
two or more stimuli; a response and consequence
In Pavlov's experiments, the tone started as a neutral stimulus, and then became a(n) _________ stimulus.
Dogs have been taught to salivate to a circle but not to a square. This process is an example of _____.
After Watson and Rayner classically conditioned Little Albert to fear a white rat, the child later showed fear in response to a rabbit, a dog, and a sealskin coat. This illustrates
Thorndike's law of effect was the basis for______ work on operant conditioning and behavior control.
Your dog is barking so loudly that it's making your ears ring. You clap your hands, the dog stops barking, your ears stop ringing, and you think to yourself, "I'll have to do that when he barks again." The end of the barking was for you a
Reinforcing a desired response only some of the times it occurs is called __________ reinforcement.
A restaurant is running a special deal. After you buy four meals at full price, your fifth meal will be free. This is an example of a ________ schedule of reinforcement.
The partial reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after unpredictable time periods is a _________- ____________schedule.
A medieval proverb notes that "a burnt child dreads the fire." In operant conditioning, the burning would be an example of a
One way to change behavior is to reward natural behaviors in small steps, as the organism gets closer and closer to a desired behavior. This process is called ____________.
Evidence that cognitive processes play an important role in learning comes in part from studies in which rats running a maze develop a ___________ of the maze.
Children learn many social behaviors by imitating parents and other models. This type of learning is called ___________________.
According to Bandura, we learn by watching models because we experience _________ reinforcement or _______ punishment.
Parents are most effective in getting their children to imitate them if
their words and actions are consistent
Some scientists believe that the brain has ______ neurons that enable empathy and imitation.
Most experts agree that repeated viewing of media violence
is a risk factor for viewers' increased aggression.
Multiple-choice questions test our _______. Fill-in-the-blank questions test our ______.
The concept of working memory:
clarifies the idea of short-term memory by focusing on the active processing that occurs in this stage.
Sensory memory may be visual (_________ memory) or auditory (___________ memory).
Our short-term memory for new information is limited to about ______________ items.
Memory aids that use visual imagery or other organizational devices (such as acronyms) are called ______.
The hippocampus seems to function as a
temporary processing site for explicit memories
Hippocampus damage typically leaves people unable to learn new facts or recall recent events. However, they may be able to learn new skills, such as riding a bicycle, which is an _____________ (explicit/implicit) memory.
Long-term potentiation (LTP) refers to
an increase in a cell's firing potential
Specific odors, visual images, emotions, or other associations that help us access a memory are examples of ___________.
When tested immediately after viewing a list of words, people tend to recall the first and last items more readily than those in the middle. When retested after a delay, they are most likely to recall:
the first items on the list
When forgetting is due to encoding failure, information has not been transferred from
short-term memory into long-term memory
Ebbinghaus' "forgetting curve" shows that after an initial decline, memory for novel information tends to
The hour before sleep is a good time to memorize information, because going to sleep after learning new material minimizes _______ interference.
Freud proposed that painful or unacceptable memories are blocked from consciousness through a mechanism called ______.
One reason false memories form is our tendency to fill in memory gaps with our reasonable guesses and assumptions, sometimes based on misleading information. This tendency is an example of:
When a situation triggers the feeling that "I've been here before," you are experiencing __________ __________.
Children can be accurate eyewitnesses if
a neutral person asks nonleading questions soon after the event
Psychologists involved in the study of memories of abuse tend to disagree with each other about which of the following statements?
we tend to repress extremely upsetting memories
Children reach the one-word stage of speech development at about
When young children speak in short phrases using mostly verbs and nouns, this is referred to as ______.
According to Chomsky, all languages share a(n) ______.
Most researchers agree that apes can
communicate through symbols
A mental grouping of similar things is called a _________.
The most systematic procedure for solving a problem is a(n) _________.
A major obstacle to problem solving is fixation, which is a(n)
inability to view a problem from a new perspective
Terrorist attacks in Paris and San Bernardino made Americans, in the words of one senator, "really scared and worried"—and more fearful of being victimized by terrorism than of other greater threats. Such exaggerated fears after dramatic events illustrates the _________ heuristic.
When consumers respond more positively to ground beef described as "75 percent lean" than to the same product labeled "25 percent fat," they have been influenced by _________.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a creative person?
A tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence is:
An effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning is:
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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