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unit 1, part 2: networks of exchange WHAP
Terms in this set (39)
What were the causes of conflicts between the nomads and sedentary peoples?
sedentary people refused to trade and were too weak to defend themselves
How did Mongols promote trade and cultural interaction with other civilizations?
Mongol diplomats were sent to establish peaceful relations and handle conflict resolution
Why were the Mongols able to build and maintain an empire?
great horsemen warriors
freely adapted military strategies
used local infrastructure
How was the Mongol empire divided for administrative purposes?
4 departments- empire of great khan, empire of chagatai, empire of il-khans, empire of golden horde
How did Mongol rule improve trade along the Silk Roads?
soldiers patrolled the roads to improve safety
increased tariffs paid to local rulers for passage
diplomatic enovoys wee given bronze/ silver medals (paizi) for VIP treatment
what are some examples of diffusion between China and others?
mongols spread knowledge of Chinese gunpowder to the west
arab style hospitals were built in china
china sent Confucian texts and scholars to il-khanate
the il-khanate sent algebra and medical texts to china
seeds of mandarin oranges were sent from the china to il-khanate
describe the reign of Kublai Khan.
Kublai established his capital at beijing
merchants prospered and were given more respect under Kublai's leadership
china's southern region continued to thrive with better agriculture and its proximity to SE asia trade networks
Kublai successfully invaded and controlled the southern song and korea
What are motivating factors in long distance travel?
Which missionary efforts are strongest in this period?
What are common trade items along the Silk Roads and Routes?
color dyes and carpets from persia
horses from central asia
citrus to sub-Saharan Africa from muslims
porcelain from china
What is the name of a roadside inn with a central courtyard for travelers and caravans?
describe the traveler Marco Polo's experiences.
from a merchant family in venice
became a diplomat for the mongols
his stories regarding his travels to china were recorded in a book
describe Commercial Revolution in Song China.
champas rice resulted in a population increase
Chinese farmers sold citrus, pottery and baskets at markets
the government produced the world's first paper currency
metallurgists learned produced cast iron and steel
Kaifeng was one of the most prosperous cities in the world
describe the accomplishments of Emperor Hongwu.
he was the first ming emperor
created the da-ming lu which protected slaves
created three branches of government to correct corruption or incompetent officials through public beatings
empire-wide survey of land and household wealth to determine labor quotas
describe the accomplishment of Emperor Yongle.
seized power by burning the palace at Nanjing (killed his nephew, the reigning emperor)
compiled the Yongle encyclopedia of china's knowledge and accomplishments
extended and renovated the great wall
constructed the forbidden palace at the new capital at beijing
sponsored 7 maritime expeditions
describe trade in Ming China
mass production of blue and white porcelain in southern factories with motifs preferred by foreign buyers
popular novels like romance of three kingdoms were best-sellers
exports included silk
cloissone and lacquerware
imported fragrances, spices, textiles and rare birds
what was the purpose of the Treasure fleet?
to establish tributary states in the pacific and indian oceans
why were Admiral Zheng He expeditions with the Treasure Fleet stopped?
problems fulfilling responsibilities of ancestor worship
the voyages were not profitable
money needed for the army to fight the Mongols on the northers border
neo-Confucian scholars did not view merchants or the desire of worldly goods as honorable
which traveler is the only one known to have traveled to all the Muslim ruled lands of medieval times?
describe the travels of Ibn Battuta.
Muslim elite scholar
started his travels on the hajj
he served as a qadi and recorded his travels in a book called rihlah
in addition to the trans-Saharan network he also traveled spain, china, India and russia
what was the most common form of government in East Africa?
How were the sultanates of the Indian Ocean trade network like the rulers of the Trans- Saharan network?
they both made muslim merchants pay duties or tariffs
describe the Indian Ocean trade network.
dhows were considered the camels of the indian ocean
east African merchants often lived in arab and indian communities
intermarriage was allowed among east African merchants
Swahili was a common language on Africa's east coast
travel direction was based on the monsoon winds
what items were commonly imported into East Africa?
ceramics from china
glass from persia
porcelain from china
textiles from India and china
what were commonly exchanged on the Trans-Saharan trade networks?
criminals sold as slaves
cloth from ethiopia
what were agricultural imports to Africa?
describe Malian gold trade.
men mined ore while women extracted it
farmers worked mines to supplement income
two- thirds of Europe's gold supply came from Mali
Mali's competitor in gold was great Zimbabwe
why were camels the best transport animals to cross the desert or Steppes?
camels could go without water for up to 15 days
camels' eyebrows and lashes were designed to protect the eyes from sand
camels padded feet do not sink in sand
camels have worse temperament than horses
camels could carry more weight
compare the practice of Islam in its original form to that practiced in Africa.
both memorized quran
both attended Friday night prayer in mosque
both welcomed foreign member of dar al-islam
women in arabia were secluded but not in africa
describe travels of Mansa Musa.
went on hajj from Mali
in Cairo gold he gave away caused hyperinflation of gold's value
returned with muslim scholars who helped convert the Malian kingdom and architect al-sahili who built grand mosques and palaces
where was the origins of the Bubonic Plague?
the Yunnan region of southwest china
how did the Black Death spread from its origins?
rats with fleas
mongol sultanates purposely spread the plague using biological warfare
what was the impact of the Bubonic Plague on Europe?
population declined 25%
trade was disrupted as people fled from contaminated cities
massive shortage of labor caused serfs to demand better treatment and wages
Catholic Church lost prestige because prayers and repentance did not stop the plague
in addition to the plague, what other event caused a decline in Europe's population?
100 years war
the great famine of 1315 - 1322
why was Kashgar considered to be an important trade city on the Silk Road?
largest oasis in Chinese central asia
strategically located at terminus of both routes around the Taklamakan desert
markets famous for pack- animals, tea, dried fruit, and medicinal herbs
controlled mountain pass through the Pamirs
which trade city dominated the Spice Islands?
during the Timurid Dynasty, what are the best examples of intellectual and cultural diffusion in Samarkand?
use of Persian as official language in business
Persian style tiles and mosques
mural depicting arrival of Chinese princess
artifacts from Christian, buddhist, Hindu and Zoroastrian faiths
what religious group was the largest diasporic community in Hormuz?
describe the trading city of Hormuz.
polo, musa and ibn Battuta visited
most important trade emporium in Persian gulf
markets best known for selling spices, pearls, and horses
all merchants and caravans had to pay duties or tariffs for traversing territory before they could proceed to nearby ports
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