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Terms in this set (21)

1. Man's own person, or the labour of his body
·This belongs exclusively to him and he may reap the works of his hands
·When he removes something from nature, it is no longer the common property of mankind, it belongs to him exclusively
Nobody has a right to it anymore.
·Labour of gathering is what legitimates their possession**
·Man doesn't need approval of others to gather object, because if he did all would starve trying to get approval (unrealistic)
·Labour legitimates the possession, even when the property, be it animal or land, was held by the commons

2. How Much Property Men are Entitled
·Points out that Bible says God gave man the Earth to enjoy, in the beginning there was little of man and vast nature, --- no conflict
·Issue now is not food or animal, it is land
·Any piece of land that man labors upon is his***
·Validated by scripture as God commanded man to labor as part of his punishment for sin
·God gave the land to the industrious and diligent, not to the "quarrelsome and contentious."
·Anyone seeking another's land was seeking to benefit from another's hard work
· In land like England, where there's government in place, the compact (contract) necessitates the approval of man before appropriating and enclosing land
·Land does not belong to all mankind, but only to an individual parish or county
·When God commanded man to subdue and cultivate, He also introduced concept of dominion
·Labor thus gives men private possessions
·This measure of labor meant that men could only cultivate as much land as was physically possible and his enjoyment derived from this cultivation
·Locke suggests that man take moderate amount of land (not to encroach upon his neighbour's land)
oNot to cause conflict and displeasure

3. Invention of Money
·Once men assigned value to some agreed-upon method of currency, larger possessions of land became in trend
·Claiming that piece of gold had essential value and could buy food, people, or land, meant that:
oMen desired more
·Locke says this is unfortunate because when a man labors on the land it yield something beneficial to mankind
· It is extremely wasteful when a man owns large land, but keeps it wild and uncultivated
·When a man gathers too much fruit and it rots, this is not only a waste, but also a violation of the common law of nature
ob/c that fruit did not provide sustenance to anyone
·Since Adam and his heirs did not have exclusive dominion, many men could have distinct titles to land through their labour

4. Only Labor Provides Value
·Nine-tenths of the products of the earth that men find useful come from labor and are not entirely natural
· In the Americas there is much uncultivated land, but barely make living because the land is not improved by labour
oBread, wine, and cloth have same purposes as acorns, water, and leaves/skins but are vastly superior
oThe things that men enjoy and improve their lives derive from labor
oLocke concludes that it is better to have a greater population effectively using scarce land than a greater area of land

5. Boundaries and Property Rules
·As communities began to organize into states and kingdoms and create laws, they began regulating and negotiating the boundaries of their land
·All communities that have adopted money have formed boundaries
· In the beginning of the world when the land was vast and commerce was impossible, there was no system of money
·Men's voluntary consent to this system began the inequality of private possessions and the right of the government to regulate the right of property
·Locke concludes by summarizing the state of property before money and government- only labor created value, men did not make more than they needed, and conflict and controversy over land did not exist