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Chemistry 1301A Exam Review
Terms in this set (207)
True or False, Longer the wavelength, shorter the frequency
False, the longer the wavelength the longer the frequency
When amplitude is squared, the product is ____________
The wave's intensity or brightness
What is the speed of light constant?
What is the frequency of a wave formula?
v = c/lambda
What is the electromagnetic spectrum?
all the forms of electromagnetic radiation
What is the purpose of the electromagnetic spectrum?
Distinguishes different types of radiation from one another
What is the visible spectrum?
the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye
What is the wavelengths in the visible spectrum?
400 - 750 nanometers
True or False, 750 nanometers produces a wave of red light
True or False, 400 nanometers is green
False, 400 nanometers is Violet
What is a photon?
a fixed quantity of light energy
What is Planck's constant?
6.626 x 10^-34
True or False, the shorter the wavelength the less energy in a photon
False, the shorter the wavelength the more energy is present in a photon
What is the formula for the kinetic energy in a photon?
E = hv
When a photon is absorbed by a system, the energy of the system _________?
Increases, and vice versa
True or False, light is a stream of photons that can behave as only particles.
False, light is a stream of photons that can behave as particles and waves.
In the emission spectrum of atomic hydrogen, H2 gas is placed in a tube and excited with a high voltage electric discharge. True or False, H2 molecules dissociate into excited H atoms and the atoms emit the wavelength of 434 nanometers.
False, the atoms emit multitudes of wavelengths forming a series of formal lines.
What is the Balmer Series?
The visible light, consisting of 410 nm (violet), 434 nm (Blue), 486 nm (Blue-green), 656 (Red)
What is the Lyman series?
ultraviolet light, consisting of 97, 102, and 122 nanometers.
True or False, the Lyman series has discreet wavelengths.
What is the Paschen series?
True or False, the Paschen series has indiscreet wavelengths.
False, like the Lyman series, the Paschen series has discreet wavelengths.
What is the mathematical formula that determines observed wavelengths?
What is the Rydberg constant?
1.097 x 10^-7 m^-1
True or False,
N = 1 —> Lyman
N = 2 —> Paschen
N = 3 —> Balmer
False, switch Paschen and Balmer.
Who derived the Rydberg formula?
What did Niels Bohr propose?
Bohr proposed that an electron is found only in specific circular paths, or orbits, around the nucleus.
Each orbital is _________?
What did Bohr assign to each orbit?
Energy level in the form of an integer
True or False, as n increases the energy level between the consecutive levels decreases?
True or False, the excited state of an electron is when an electron absorbs energy and jumps to a lower energy level?
False, when energy is absorbed, the electron jumps to a higher energy level.
What are the flaws in the Bohr model?
How come the last electron does not fall into the nucleus.
Each line on the visible spectrum is actually 2 separate lines, which does not line up with his theory.
Up to how many atoms did the Bohr model work for?
What replaced the Bohr Model?
Quantum (or wave) mechanics
What differentiates the Bohr model from Quantum mechanics?
Quantum Mechanics treats electrons as waves rather than particles that are in orbit of the nucleus.
What is diffraction?
The bending of waves around a barrier or through an opening
What are the two types of wave interference?
Constructive and destructive
True or False, constructive interference are when 2 waves have the same max and mins and the summation of the two cancel each other out.
False, the waves stack and the amplitude is added together.
True or False, destructive interference are when 2 waves have the same max and mins and the summation of the two cancel each other out.
False, the waves have opposite max and mins
What is the two-slit experiment?
A beam of light is shone at two slits, where secondary lights propagate from each slit in all directions producing an interference pattern.
What is an interference pattern?
An alteration of dark and light bands which are constructive interference (light bands) and destructive interference (dark bands) waves.
What is the interference pattern used for?
To distinguish particles from waves.
What is a travelling wave?
Every point undergoes oscillatory motion with the same amplitude
What is a standing wave?
Some points oscillate and some do not
What are the points in standing waves that do not oscillate called? And what happens as the number of __________ increases?
Nodes, the energy of the wave increases.
True or False, a standing wave with 4 nodes has a quantum number of 5.
What does shrodingers equation produce?
The first three quantum numbers; n, l, ml
What does the principal quantum number determine?
Overall size and energy of an orbital
What does the azimuthal quantum number determine?
The shape and angular momentum of an electron in that orbital
What do spdf stand for? And what are they describing? What are the l numbers associated with each part of SPDF
S-sharp - 0
P-principal - 1
D-diffuse - 2
F-fine - 3
If n = 4, l = 3, what is the spdf designation?
If n = 2, l = 1 what is the spdf designation?
What does the Magnetic quantum number determine?
The orientation of orbital
If l = 3, what are the possible values of ml?
-2, -1, 0, 1, 2
How do you find the total orbitals? Max electrons?
What does the spin quantum number, ms, determine?
The angular momentum of each electron, spin
What is the Pauli Exclusion Principle?
no two electrons in an atom can have the same four quantum numbers
What does the 1s and 2s orbitals have in common? What differentiates the two?
They are spherically symmetrical, 2s has a node whereas 1s does not
Why does the 2p orbital have 3 different orbitals?
The ml numbers are -1, 0, and 1
In the schematic representations of the 3 2p orbitals, the bubbles are located not which axis if it is on the xz-plane?
What are the orbital types for n = 3?
3s, 3p, 3D
Of the 5 orbitals present in the 3d orbitals, how many have 4 equal lobes?
What is the order of orbitals in increasing energy order?
S, p, d, f
What is the Aufbau principle?
An electron occupies the lowest-energy orbital that can receive it
True or false, valence electrons have a lower principal quantum number than core electrons
False, they have a higher principal quantum number
Why are transition metals different when calculating valence electrons?
Some d-orbital electrons can act as valence electrons
True or false, 3d > 4s is the correct ordering of energy levels.
False, 3d < 4s
What are groups 13-18 called on the periodic table of elements?
13 - Triels
14 - Tetrels
15 - Pnictogens
16 - Chalcogens
17 - Halogens
18 - Noble Gasses
True or False, the two types of electrons in an atom are valence and inner electrons
False, it's valence and core electrons
What is Z*?
Effective nuclear charge
What is effective nuclear charge?
The net positive charge experienced by valence electrons when shielded
From left to right across a period, effective nuclear charge _________.
What is the formula for covalent radius?
True or false, Atomic size and Z* have an inverse relationship as one moves across a period.
What are the 2 exceptions in atomic radius?
Fluorine < Neon
Aluminum > Gallium
As one moves down the group, the size of an atom ________.
As one moves left to right across a period, the size of an atom ____.
True or false, the order of bond length in increasing order is Triple < Double < Single.
anions are ____ than their parent atoms
cations are _____ than their parent atoms
True or false, the more negatively charged an ion is, the larger it is.
-3 > -2 > -1 > 0 > 1 > 2 > 3
O2- > F- > Ne > Na+ > Mg2+
As one moves down the group, the ionization energy of an atom ________.
As one moves left to right across a period, the ionization energy of an atom ____.
What are the 2 exceptions for first ionization energy?
B < Be
N < O2
As one moves down the group, the electron affinity of an atom ________.
As one moves left to right across a period, the electron affinity of an atom ____.
What is the difference between First Ionization energy and First Electron Affinity?
FIE involves removing an electron
FEA involves adding an electron
As one moves down the group, the electronegativity of an atom ________.
As one moves left to right across a period, the electronegativity of an atom ____.
True or false, electronegativity helps explain the reactivity of various compounds.
True or false, the larger the atom, the more strongly it attracts electrons
False, the smaller the atom, the more strongly it attracts electrons.\
In an ionic compound, the electrons are __________.
Completely transferred to the atom of higher EN
In a polar covalent bond, the electrons are ______.
Shared partially (Dipole moments)
True or False, the less electronegative atom in a polar covalent bond is given a slight negative charge.
False, the less EN is given a slight positive charge
True or False, the higher the difference in EN, the greater the magnitude of the dipole moment.
What are the two components of a dipole moment?
Magnitude and Direction
In a non-polar covalent bond, the electrons are _______.
True or false, non-polar covalent bonds have a dipole moment.
False, they share the electrons equally so there is no dipoles
What is the most prevalent bonding type?
What do formal charges assist in?
How do you calculate the formal charge of a compound?
Number of valence electrons on core electron - (Number or dots on core atom + number of lines connected to core atom)
How do you calculate the number of electrons in a Lewis structure?
Add up the valence electrons of each atom in the compound
What are the atoms with an expanded octet?
P, S, Cl
As, Se, Br, Kr
Sb, Te, I, Xe
Which atom should have a formal charge?
The more electronegative one
True or False, the Lewis structure with the higher formal charge is a better Lewis structure than one with a lower formal charge
False, lower the formal charge, the better the Lewis structure
What is it called when there is an odd number of valence electrons? How reactive are they?
Free radicals, highly
What is a resonance structure?
a structure that occurs when it is possible to draw two or more valid Lewis structures that have the same number of electron pairs for a molecule or ion
True or false, in atoms with resonance structure, neither Lewis structure is the correct way to draw it
True, the true form is a combination of the resonance structures, creating a resonance hybrid
What is the bond order of a;
trigonal planar, 120
trigonal pyramidal, <109.5
trigonal bipyramidal 90, 120
See-saw, 90, 120
square pyramidal 90
square planar, 90
What are the 3 principles of Valence bond theory?
The common orbital is when each atom gives one electron and they spin in opposite directions.
The overlap deems the electrons to be localized, or restricted to the area.
Elements in periods 2 or higher can form bonds using hybrid atomic orbitals.
What is a hybrid orbital?
orbitals of equal energy produced by the combination of two or more orbitals on the same atom
How many hybrid orbitals are formed with ______ regions of electron density?
What are the incorrect aspects of Valence bond theory?
Electrons being localized is not correct.
Does not take into account the energy levels of the atom in each compound.
Does not explain paramagnetism.
What does MO theory focus on?
The wave behaviour of electrons
True or False, in MO theory, the 1s orbital fills before the 1s* orbital
True or false, Bonding MO's energy > Anti-bonding MO's energy
What is HOMO? LUMO?
Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital
Lowest Occupied Molecular Orbital
True or False, electrons in bonding MOs increase the attraction between atoms in a molecule.
True, and vice versa
True or False, a molecule that is stable more anti bonding electrons must be present than bonding electrons
False, other way around
How to calculate bond order in MO theory?
[(# of bonding e-) - (# of anti-bonding e-)]/2
What is paramagnetic?
Having at least one unpaired electron allowing it to be attracted to a magnetic field
What is diamagnetic?
all electrons are paired so it cannot be attracted to a magnetic field
What is the energy band?
The stack of closely spaced molecular orbital energy levels
What is the Valence band?
The lower half of the energy band
What is the conduction band?
The top half of the energy band
What is the band gap for _______?
Small - 0.5-3.0
Large - > 3.0
What are the three main types of intermolecular forces?
True or False, dispersion forces are strong interactions between molecules
False, they are weak
True or False, all compound exhibit dispersion forces
What are the intermolecular(s) force present in nonpolar compounds?
What intermolecular force does a temporary dipole fall under?
True or False, the larger the surface area, the larger the attractive force between two molecules
What intermolecular forces does a permanent dipole fall under?
True or False, intermolecular forces are increasing in strength; Dispersion > Dipole-Dipole > Hydrogen bonding
False, flip all of the > to <
Hydrogen bonding is the bonding between hydrogen and ______, ______, and _______.
F, O, N
True or False, in hydrogen in hydrogen bonding is always a positive dipole.
True or False, Ionic bonds are not a type of intermolecular force
The forces in order of increasing Boiling point is ____?
Dispersion < Dipole-Dipole < Hydrogen Bonding < Ionic
The forces in order of increasing Melting point is ___?
Dispersion < Dipole-Dipole < Hydrogen Bonding < Ionic
With boiling points ________ increases it, whereas with melting points _________ increases it.
Packing ability (Symmetry)
Why do transition metals have variable oxidation states?
Due to the ability to use electrons from both the 4s and 3d orbital as its valence
What is a complex?
When a compound, which contains multiple atoms, includes at least one transition metal
What is it called when a complex carries a charge?
Complex ion/ionic complex
What is a molecule that is bonded to the metal centre?
All metal to ligand bonds are either _____ bonds or _______ bonds.
Polar Covalent, Ionic
What is NH3's name in complex?
What is H2O's name in complex?
What is Cl-'s name in complex?
What is OH-'s name in complex?
What is CN-'s name in complex?
What is ethylenediamine's name in complex?
What is C2O4 2-'s name in complex?
What is a monodentate ligand?
A ligand that contains only one donor atom
What is a bidentate ligand?
A ligand that contains two donor atoms
How many donor atoms does EDTA4- have?
What is a hexadentate ligand?
A ligand that contains 6 donor atoms
What is a chelate ligand?
A cyclo, which the metal Centre is bonded to 2 ligands
What is a bridging ligand?
A connection of 2 metal centres through ligands. A chain that starts and ends in a metal atom
What is a terminal ligand?
A chain that starts OR ends in a metal centre
True or False, ligands that chelate are strong
What is a linkage isomer?
When the only difference is the linking of the metal centre. In other words, the donor atom that is used is changed
How do you calculate the charge on a complex?
(Charge of the metal centre) + [(Charge of ligand)(# of ligands)]
What is a coordination isomer?
Two salts that have a complex cation and complex anion where the only difference is which metal centre is the cation and which is the anion
True or False, when writing coordination isomers the anion comes first
False, the cation comes first
What is an Ionization isomer?
A structural isomer that is when a salt can switch its anion ligand and its coordination sphere. trans-[PtCl2(NH3)4]Br2 and [PtBr2(NH3)4]Cl2
What are the two terms that defines the structure of the complex?
Coordination number and stereochemistry
What is the coordination number?
The number of atoms directly bound to the metal centre
How many coordination numbers does a _______ ligand increase the coordination number by?
What is stereochemistry?
The different ways the coordinated atoms are arranged in space
With a coordination number of 2, what is the stereochemistry?
With a coordination number of 3, what is the stereochemistry?
What is the coordination number of [AuCl(P(C6H5)3)2]?
Cl is a monodentate ligand +1
2 P(C6H5)3 ligands (monodentate as well) +2
With a coordination number of 4, what is the stereochemistry?
Tetrahedral or Square Pyramidal
What is the stereochemistry in [MX2L2] when M = _____?
With a coordination number of 5, what is the stereochemistry?
Trigonal bipyramidal or square pyramidal
With a coordination number of 6, what is the stereochemistry?
Octahedral or distorted octahedral
What is a carbonyl group?
A metal bound CO
What is the atomic orbital hybridization of a linear molecule?
What is the atomic orbital hybridization of a trigonal planar molecule?
What is the atomic orbital hybridization of a tetrahedral molecule?
What is the hybridization of Alkanes?
What is the hybridization of Alkenes?
What is the hybridization of Alkynes?
What is -OH
What is R-O-R?
What is -NH2
What is R-SH
What is R-S-R?
What is -NO2?
What is R-(C=O)-H?
What is R-(C=O)-R?
What is -COOH?
What is -COOR?
What is R-(C=O)-N-R2
What do scientists measure when using IR light on molecules with a functional group?
What is the purpose of Infrared Spectroscopy?
To determine the functional group present in the molecule
What is wave number?
The reciprocal of the wavelength (units are a reciprocal centimetre)
In IR spectroscopy, the _____ are excited, creating ________ excitation
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