Reproductive system

Where are the testes located?

What are the tested made up of
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What is the function of the epididymis How is sperm moved to the vas defernsSite of speed maturation Removal of defective sperm Stores and moves sperm to vas deferens by peristalsis before ejactulationWhat is the function of the vas deferens?Store sperm Receives sperm from epididymis transports it to ejaculatory tubeWhat is the structure and location of the prostate gland?Single, donut shaped, surrounding upper part of uethra (below bladder)What is structure and location of Cowper's gland? AkaPea size Lies next to posterior (back) prostate on either side of urethra Bulbourethral glandsWhat is the function of the cowpers glandRelease alkaline fluid and mucous to sperm for lubricationHow many seminal vesicles are there? Where are they found? What is the main function?2 Base of bladder, with a duct to connect the vas deferns to form ejaculation ductWhat fluid do the seminal vesicles provide? Why is this fluid necassary?Alkaline HCO3 with fructose and nutrients Necessary for energy and aa, proteinsWhat hormone do the seminal vesicles release? What is the function of this hormone?Prostaglandin Muscle contractions of the uterus to help sperm swim to the eggWhat is the function of the prostate gland?Adds alkaline fluid to neutralize pH of vagina when sperm goes inside Duct (connection) to the uethraWhat is the structure and function of the penisSpongy, erectile tissue and blood vessels Covers the glans (tip) for protection- foreskin Copulation/coitus organ Allows sperm to vaginaWhat is the urethra?Conducts sperm and semen Conducts urineWhat is the pathway of sperm from inside the body to out? When are seminal fluids added into sperm?Testes (in the seminiferous tubules) Epididymis Vas deferns Seminal vesicles Urethra Urethral opening In the seminal vesiclesWhat is the in the seminal fluid ?Fructose, Alkaline fluid(HCO3), prostaglandin, mucous, water, aa and proteins congulants)What are the 3 accessory glands that release seminal fluid to seminal vessicles?Cowpers gland, prostate gland, seminal vesiclesWhat is semen made up ofSperm and seminal fluidWhy is seminal fluid important?Liquid/water for sperm transport and viabilityWhy is fructose important in seminal fluid?to provide ATP for sperm to moveWhy is alkalinity important in seminal fluid?neutralize pH of vagina and the uethra survival/motility because its a buffer for semenWhy is mucous important in seminal fluid?lubricate penis during sexWhy is prostaglandin important in seminal fluid?propel sperm causes rhythmic contracts in uterine for it to move to eggwhat are coagulants in seminal fluid? WHy are they importantaa and proteins causes sperm to become solid and remain in vagina antibiotic to kill bacteriahow long do sperm live up to?2-5 dayswhat are the ovaries aka? where are the ovaries found? What does each ovary contain?female gonads either side of pelvic cavity cells called folliclesWhat do the ovaries produce? What are these hormones for? aka eggs?mature eggs (ovum) progesterone and estrogen(sex hormones)What is the functions of the follicles? What hormones do the follicles make?site of egg maturation in ovaries estrogen and progesteronWhat helps the eggs mature in the follicles? What is oogenesis?FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) and LH (leutinizing hormone) eggs maturing at different stages of monthHow is the corpus luteum formed? What hormone controls this? What occurs when LH begins to be released?follicle ruptures, releasing egg LH -leutinizing hormone becomes particle like, releasing large amounts of progesterone and small amounts of estrogenWhat is the structure of the uterus What occurs at the uterus?thick muscular organ implantation and development of fetus siteWhat are oviducts/fallopian tubes function? How does it move the egg?fertilization occurs here passes egg from the ovary to the uterus fimbria structure(fingerlike projections) and cilia move egg into oviductwhat lines the uterus? What occurs to it monthly? What happens to the endometrium when and egg implants in the uterus?endometrium- builds up and sheds (menstruation) lining becomes the placentaWhat is the function of the clitoris? How?sexual arousal b/c of receptive and erectile tissueWhere is the cervix? What is it for? What occurs during pregnancy?narrow opening at uterus at the top of the vagina (leads to vagina) opening for sperm into uterus it will constrict during and dilates up to 10cm for childbirthWhat is the vagina structure? What is the function of the vagina? What fluid is in the vagina? Whymusclar tube that can stretch passageway(receives) for sperm, birth canal, and menstrual flow mucous, lubrication and acid to reduce bacteriaWhat degree of sexual characteristics is estrogen responsible for? What occurs?Second degree Pubic hair, breast englarment, pelvic area inlargment, fat distributionWhich cycle does estrogen trigger? What occurs?Uterine cycle; endometrium thickens, and rebuilds to shedWhich hormones does estrogen trigger?FSH in follicles from anterior gland GnRH from hypothalamusHow long is the menstrual cycle?28 days on averageWhat 2 cycles does estrogen control? Why are these cycles important? When do they occur? Which one is the carrying cycleUterine and ovarian Prepare the body for potential pregnancy At the same time Ovarian carries uterineWhich hormones are used in the uterine and ovarian cycles? Where do they come from?GnRH- hypothalamus LH and FSH- anterior pituitary gland Estrogen and progesterone- ovariesWhat are the 3 phases of the ovarian Cycle? When do they occurFollicular phase- day 1:13 Ovulation phase- day 14 Lacteal phase- 15:28What occurs in the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle? What types of hormones are LH and FSHFSH develops the follicle Triggers a rise in estrogen levels, lowering FSH levels GnRH triggers LH and FSH to release until end of ovulation phase Negative feedbackWhat occurs during ovulation phase of ovarian cycle?Follicle grows in degrees (1st degree-2nd degree- vessicular follicle) LH levels are high, follicle burst releasing eggs Forming CORPUS LEUTEUMWhat occurs in the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle? What occurs once no egg is fertilized in the uterus?LH Triggets corpus Luteum to form, Releasing progesterone and estrogen Progesterone causes endometrium to thicken Progesterone and estrogen levels drop FSH/LH Rise once again (prepping for follicle) Corpus luteum degenerates Menstration occurs (shedding of lining)What are the 4 stages of the uterine cycle? How long do they lastMenses (1-5 days) Proliferative (6-13) Ovulation (14) Secretory (15-28)What is the menses stage of the uterine cycle?corpus luteum degenerates low progesterone and estrogen levels endometrial lining sheds causing menstrationWhat is the proliferative phase of the uterine cycle?FSH causes follicles to develop estrogen levels increase endometrium thickensWhat is the secretory phase of the uterine cycle? What occurs if no egg is fertilized and transported to uterus vs if there is an egg in the uterus?progesterone levels increase endometrium thickens Implantation- HCG hormone is produced corpus leutum is present until placenta from endometrium forms due to estrogen, progesterone being released NO implantation- corpus luteum degenerates, endometrium shedswhat hormone makes spermFSH and inhibinWhat hormone controls testotsrone levels?LHWhat degree sex characteristics is testostrone responsible for? exSecondary degree sex characteristics ex, pubic hair, deepening voice, muscle mass, height, beard