Family Studies 1015 CHAPTER 1

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One primary reason why solitary confinement may be so difficult is that it interferes with the satisfaction of our:
A. need to belong.
B. need for acceptance.
C. esteem needs.
D. physical needs.
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As a participant in a research study, you are asked to describe your relationship. The researchers ask you to choose which of various pairs of overlapping circles, one representing you, one representing your partner, best describes the closeness you feel. What are the researchers assessing?

A. Mutuality
B. Attachment styles
C. Responsiveness
D. Narcissism
10. (p. 4) The fact that people form relationships easily and resist dissolving existing social ties and that the loss or absence of relationships is associated with poor physical and mental health is evidence of the need:
A. for many intimate relationships.
B. to belong.
C. for security
D. for social ties of any kind, regardless of quality.
11. (p. 4) According to the text, intimate relationships are: A. all the same. B. of two basic types .C. of three basic types. D. of no one kind.D. of no one kind.12. (p. 5) Some researchers believe that our need to belong: A. is evolutionarily adaptive B. causes destructive behaviors, such as substance abuse, if it is not satisfied. C. can be fulfilled regardless of the quality of our relationships. D. can be satisfied with certain solitary pursuits if one cannot find companionship.A. is evolutionarily adaptive13. (p. 6-8) Which of the following was NOT characteristic of Americans in the 1960s? A. Most children were born to parents married to each other. B. Men and women married in their early 20s .C. One third of men and women cohabitated before marriage. D. Most women did not work outside the home.C. One third of men and women cohabitated before marriage.14. (p. 7) Between 1960 and today, which aspect of marriage declined in the United States? A. Importance of love within marriage B. Proportion of the population that gets married C. Average age at which people get married D. Rate of divorceB. Proportion of the population that gets married15. (p. 7) Which of the following situations is currently normative within the United States? A. Two-thirds of Americans are married by age 30. B. Most preschool children have stay-at-home mothers. C. Most young adults will live with a lover before marriage. D. Consistent with the high divorce rate, most Americans rate their marriages as "not very happy."C. Most young adults will live with a lover before marriage.16. (p. 7) What percentage of babies in the United States are born to unmarried mothers? A. 23 B. 41 C. 54 D. 62B. 4117. (p. 8) Divorce rates among people with college degrees are: A. rapidly increasing. B. slowly increasing. C. slowly decreasing. D. rapidly decreasing.C. slowly decreasing.18. (p. 9) After encountering a single 45-year-old woman at her new job, your friend says, "It's not normal that she's 45 and single. And I've heard it's unhealthy, too." Your friend may be showing evidence of: A. singlism. B. an insecure attachment style. C. a strong need to belong. D. anxiety over abandonment.A. singlism.19. (p. 10) In contrast to those who do not cohabitate, individuals who cohabitate are more likely to: A. have a long lasting marriage. B. encounter infidelity. C. stay together. D. have a positive attitude toward marriage.B. encounter infidelity.20. (p. 11) Which of the following factors has influenced the nature of close relationships in the United States during the period 1960 to today? A. Increasing individualism B. Socioeconomic development C. Technological developments D. All of these.D. All of these.21. (p. 13) When a society shifts from having an approximately equal ratio of marriageable men and women to having a high sex ratio (more eligible men than women), family roles will likely become _____ traditional and sexual standards _____ permissive. A. less; less B. less; more C. more; less D. more; moreC. more; less22. (p. 13) A count of the number of men for every 100 women in a particular population is called the: A. sex ratio. B. gender ratio. C. gender schema. D. male/female count.A. sex ratio.23. (p. 13) Forty years from now you read a statistic that says there are currently more men than women in your nation. What might you predict about the social climate? A. Women will be working outside the home and rates of marriage will be down. B. Women will be discouraged from working outside the home and divorce rates will be down .C. Unmarried motherhood will be seen as an option (not shameful) and more people will marry. D. Women will be allowed or encouraged to have sex outside of marriage; however, cohabitation will be rare.B. Women will be discouraged from working outside the home and divorce rates will be down24. (p. 14) As described in the textbook, Victorian England had a _____ sex ratio and the Roaring Twenties a _____ sex ratio. A. low; high B. high; low C. low; low D. high; highB. high; low25. (p. 14) The idea of attachment styles was originally developed in work with: A. young adults. B. adolescents. C. infants and young children. D. middle-aged adults.C. infants and young children.26. (p. 14) Attachment styles are thought to be primarily the result of: A. genetic predispositions. B. early childhood experience. C. social cognition D. mimicry.B. early childhood experience.27. (p. 14) Two-year-old Alice seems nervous and clingy when her mother is around and is extremely distressed when she leaves. Which of the following attachment styles does Alice likely have? A. Anxious-ambivalent B. Secure C. Distressed D. AvoidantA. Anxious-ambivalent28. (p. 15) What caused relationship researchers to take notice of attachment styles as important in the close relationships of adults? A. Hazan and Shaver's Denver survey B. Bartholomew's ideas about four categories of attachment style C. Bowlby's interest in young children's actions toward their caregivers D. Brennan and colleagues' development of a short attachment style measureA. Hazan and Shaver's Denver survey29. (p. 16) Joanne endorses the statement, "I want to be completely emotionally intimate with others, but I often find that others are reluctant to get as close as I would like. I am uncomfortable being without close relationships but sometimes worry that others don't value me as much as I value them." Which attachment style does Joanne's self-description reflect? A. Avoidant B. Dismissing C. Fearful D. PreoccupiedD. Preoccupied30. (p. 16) According to Bartholomew, people with a(n) _____ attachment style feel that intimacy with others isn't worth the trouble. A. avoidant B. dismissing C. fearful D. preoccupiedB. dismissing31. (p. 17) Fearfully attached individuals are characterized as being: A. comfortable with closeness and low in anxiety over abandonment. B. comfortable with closeness and high in anxiety over abandonment. C. uncomfortable with closeness and low in anxiety over abandonment. D. uncomfortable with closeness and high in anxiety over abandonment.D. uncomfortable with closeness and high in anxiety over abandonment.32. (p. 17) The two themes that underlie the four attachment styles described by Bartholomew are: A. avoidance of intimacy and anxiety over abandonment. B. avoidance of intimacy and concern for the well-being of others .C. need to belong and anxiety over abandonment. D. need to belong and concern for the well-being of others.A. avoidance of intimacy and anxiety over abandonment.33. (p. 18) What do recent studies suggest about the labels we use in describing attachment? A. The labels are widely and correctly used. B. It is better to describe people with regard to their relative standing on dimensions of anxiety and avoidance. C. Labels should be thought of as describing distinctly different categories that have nothing in common. D. The labels are largely useless.B. It is better to describe people with regard to their relative standing on dimensions of anxiety and avoidance.34. (p. 18) If one wanted to predict with the greatest accuracy what attachment style a child will show, it is best to assess: A. the child's temperament. B. the mother's attachment style. C. genetic influences. D. family structure.B. the mother's attachment style.35. (p. 22) In his book Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus, Gray writes that men and women "almost seem to be from different planets, speaking different languages and needing different nourishment." Social science research suggests that: A. this statement is correct—i.e., the difference between the average man and the average woman is large, and there is almost no overlap between the sexes at all. B. this statement is correct because the range of behavior among members of a given sex is small compared to the average difference between the sexes. C. sex differences are statistically real (i.e., significant), but actual differences remain to be demonstrated. D. there are many more similarities between sexes than differences.D. there are many more similarities between sexes than differences.36. (p. 22) Differences between individuals within a given sex are usually _____ in relation to the difference between men and women. A. large B. moderate C. small D. minisculeA. large37. (p. 22) In terms of number of sex partners, a highly active man has more in common with _________ than ___________on this trait. A. more stereotypical at the beginning of the relationship. B. higher in marital satisfaction. C. lower in marital satisfaction .D. less stereotypical when both partners behave naturally.37. (p. 22) In terms of number of sex partners, a highly active man has more in common with an average woman than a low-scoring man on this trait.38. (p. 22-23) Sex differences refer to ________ and gender differences to ___________. A. biological differences based in our physical natures; social and psychological distinctions arising from culture and upbringing B. social and psychological distinctions arising from culture and upbringing; biological differences based in our physical natures C. differences based in our roles as men and women in our culture; biological differences based in our physical natures D. differences in social behavior; differences in physical behavior38. (p. 22-23) Sex differences refer to biological differences based in our physical natures and gender differences to social and psychological distinctions.39. (p. 22-23) The distinction between sex differences and gender differences involves: A. sexual (i.e., reproductive) behavior versus physical differences. B. biological versus psychological attributes. C. childhood versus mature behaviors. D. nothing; there is no distinction.B. biological versus psychological attributes.40. (p. 24) Which of the following items is an example of a gender difference?B. The belief that men are assertive while women are compassionate41. (p. 24) Alonzo seems to show both well-developed social and emotional skills and task-oriented talents. We would categorize Alonzo as: A. androgynous. B. masculine. C. feminine. D. undifferentiated.A. androgynous.42. (p. 24) The concept of androgyny assumes that: A. masculinity and femininity are opposites .B. masculine (e.g., instrumental) and feminine (e.g., expressive) qualities are separate traits. C. men are inevitably masculine and women are inevitably feminine. D. biology is the source of all gender differences.B. masculine (e.g., instrumental) and feminine (e.g., expressive) qualities are separate traits.43. (p. 25) Which of the following would we categorize as an instrumental trait? A. Warmth B. Kindness C. Tenderness D. DecisivenessD. Decisiveness44. (p. 25) Which of the following would we categorize as an expressive trait? A. Self-reliance B. Ambition C. Leadership D. CompassionD. Compassion45. (p. 25) Couples in which both partners fit traditional gender roles (i.e., the man is masculine and the woman is feminine) tend to be: A. more stereotypical at the beginning of the relationship. B. higher in marital satisfaction. C. lower in marital satisfaction. D. less stereotypical when both partners behave naturally.C. lower in marital satisfaction.46. (p. 25) Researchers have found that traditionally masculine men and traditionally feminine women: A. like each other less than androgynous people do. B. like each other more than androgynous people do C. are more compatible than any other pairing. D. are happier in their marriages than non-traditional couples.A. like each other less than androgynous people do.47. (p. 26) Married couples are likely to be the happiest when: A. each partner conforms to traditional gender roles .B. both partners are undifferentiated. C. both partners rate highly in expressiveness and instrumentality. D. the husband is like his wife in being low in masculinity and high in femininity.C. both partners rate highly in expressiveness and instrumentality.48. (p. 27) Which of the Big Five personality factors is the least influential in close relationships? A. Introversion B. Neuroticism C. Openness to experience D. AgreeablenessC. Openness to experience49. (p. 28) Of the Big Five personality traits, the trait most influential in relationships seems to be: A. openness to new experience. B. agreeableness. C. neuroticism. D. conscientiousness.C. neuroticism.50. (p. 28) People with high scores in _____ seem to have more pleasant relationships. A. extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness B. extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to new experience C. openness to new experience, agreeableness, and neuroticism D. conscientiousness, agreeableness, and neuroticismA. extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness51. (p. 28) Your friend says, "I feel really good about myself." We might conclude that your friend has high: A. extraversion. B. self-sufficiency. C. agreeableness. D. self-esteem.D. self-esteem.52. (p. 28) Our evaluations of ourselves constitute our _____. A. conscientiousness B. neuroticism C. agreeableness D. self-esteemD. self-esteem53. (p. 29) Which of the following statements about heterosexual and same-sex relationships is accurate? A. The differences are significant. B. Behaviors overlap so much that the distinction is not warranted. C. Both sets of relationship function similarly. D. There is not yet enough research on same-sex relationships to make any comparisons.C. Both sets of relationship function similarly.54. (p. 30) Which theory considers self-esteem to be a subjective gauge of the quality of our relationships? A. Attachment B. Evolutionary psychology C. Self-awareness D. SociometerD. Sociometer55. (p. 33) The most important factor for organisms in evolution is: A. reproduction. B. survival. C. relationships. D. physical advantageA. reproduction.56. (p. 33-34) In human beings, higher parental investment is found for: A. men. B. women. C. men and women. D. neither men nor women, necessarily; it depends on the situation.B. women.57. (p. 34) Paternity uncertainty refers to: A. a man's uncertainty that a particular child of his partner's is his. B. a woman's uncertainty about who the father of her child is. C. a child's dilemma in identifying his/her father. D. the uncertainty couples face in knowing whether a child was conceived.A. a man's uncertainty that a particular child of his partner's is his.58. (p. 34) Which theory considers paternity uncertainty a key factor in close relationships? A. Attachment B. Belonging C. Evolutionary psychology D. SocioculturalC. Evolutionary psychology59. (p. 36) Observation of the interaction between partners in relationships reveals: A. that relationships are more than the sum of their parts. B. that static snapshots of relationships adequately capture their essence C. the inherently positive nature of relationships .D. that there are divorce-prone people who are likely to have marital problems regardless of whom they select as a partner.A. that relationships are more than the sum of their parts.60. (p. 37) According to the text, which of the following is NOT a risk that we take in close relationships? A. Loss of autonomy and control B. Worry about abandonment C. Revealing secrets shared in confidence D. Loss of standing in our communitiesD. Loss of standing in our communities61. (p. 38) Troublesome and fearful aspects of relationships: A. were reported by only a small minority of people asked about their relationships in the last 5 years. B. affect everyone on occasion but afflict some people more than others. C. affect older people more than younger people. D. affect low self-monitors more than high self-monitors.B. affect everyone on occasion but afflict some people more than others.