Upgrade to remove ads
Chapter 5 - long answer
Terms in this set (61)
In a series of experiments, the Harlows found that monkeys raised with artificial mothers tended, when afraid, to cling to their cloth mother, rather than to the wire mother holding the feeding bottle. Why was this finding important?
Before these studies, many psychologists believed that infants simply became attached to those who nourished them.
What is the debate on how nature and nurture influence prenatal development?
at what point do you say someone's nature isn't their nurture? and vice versa.
Although Piaget's stage theory continues to inform our understanding of children's thinking, many researchers believe that:
Piaget's stages begin earlier and development is more continuous than he realized.
Use Piaget's first three stages of cognitive development to explain why young children are not just miniature adults in the way they think.
Sensorimotor: focus is on their own perceptions of the world, and may be lack object permanence;
Preoperational: egocentric, incapable or simple logic (s/a reversibility);
Concrete operational: are able to think logically, but not abstractly
Why can't we consciously recall how we learned to walk when we were infants?
We consciously recall little from before age 4, in part because major brain areas have not yet matured
How is motor-skill development the same among all people? How is it different?
The sequence is universal. The timing is not.
What is the limitation of bi-directional influences that alter development?
reductionism and dualism
What is the limitation of operationalizing abilities and boundaries of development?
describing process or timing
What are the four main parenting styles?
authoritarian (coercive), permissive (unrestraining), negligent (uninvolved), and authoritative (confrontive)
How abilities and boundaries are operationalized:
Domain specificity (modularity), cognitions follow their own trajectory;
Quantitative vs Qualitative difference, continuous improvement or discrete change
In respect to self concept, by 15 to 18 months children can ________________, by school age they can ____________, and by age 8 or 10 ______________
recognize themselves in the mirror; describe many of their own traits; their self-image is stable
During the strange situation experiment, mothers who has infants with insecure attachment:
attended to their babies when they felt like doing so but ignored them at other times
During the strange situation experiment, mothers who had infants with secure attachment:
noticed what their babies were doing and responded appropriately
What distinguishes imprinting from attachment?
Attachment is the normal process by which we form emotional ties with important others. Imprinting occurs only in certain animals that have a critical period very early in their development during which they must form their attachments, and they do so in an inflexible manner.
Key milestones of sensorimotor stage in Piaget's theory
object permanence; stranger anxiety
Key milestones of preoperational stage in Piaget's theory
Pretend play; egocentrism
Key milestones of concrete operational stage in Piaget's theory
conservation; mathematical transformations
Key milestones of formal operational stage in Piaget's theory
abstract logic; potential for mature moral reasoning
Piaget's four major stages of cognitive development
Although development is lifelong, there is stability of personality over time. For example,
a) most personality traits emerge in infancy and persist throughout life
b) temperament tends to remain stable throughout life
c) few people change significantly after adolescence
d) people tend to undergo greater personality changes as they age
temperament tends to remain stable throughout life
How do researchers explore infants' mental abilities
They use techniques that test habituation
What three issues have engaged developmental psychologists?
nature and nurture;
continuity and stages;
stability and change
What findings in psychology support the idea of stability in personality across the life span?
Some traits, such as temperament are stable across many years
What findings in psychology support the stage theory of development?
Piaget (cognitive development;
Kohlberg (moral development);
Erikson (psychosocial development)
what traits can parenting styles be described as composed of?
how responsive and demanding parents are
Darwin theorized that self-awareness begins:
when we recognizes ourselves in the mirror; around 18 months
What is the debate about defining the term "adolescence"
how do you define the time span;
if you say from puberty to independence, how do you define independence?
What is a debate around attachment experiments/theory?
cultural relativism and perception are not generally measured as outcomes
How do sex hormones influence prenatal development?
how sex characteristics emerge, gender identity, sexual orientation
Criticisms of Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning
Cultural (western) bias, utilitarian;
emotion or cognition (empathy vs. impulsivity)
According to Kohlberg, ______________ morality focuses on self-interest, ______________ morality focuses on self-defined ethical principles, and ______________ morality focuses on upholding laws and social rules.
How has Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning been criticized?
Kohlberg's work reflected an individualist worldview, so his theory is less culturally universal than he supposed.
How is adolescence defined?
The transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to social independence.
How do physical changes affect developing teens?
Boys seem to benefit (though with risks) from "early" maturation. Girls seem to benefit from "late" maturation. The brain's frontal lobes mature and myelin growth increases during adolescence and the early 20s, enabling improved judgement, impulse control, and long term planning.
How did Piaget describe adolescent cognitive and moral development?
That adolescents develop the capacity for formal operations and that this development is the foundation for moral judgement.
How did Kohlberg describe adolescent cognitive and moral development?
The stage theory of moral reasoning, from preconventional morality of self-interest, to a conventional morality concerned with upholding laws and social rules, to (in some people) a postconventional morality of universal ethical principles.
How do recent researchers describe adolescent cognitive and moral development?
That morality lies in ,oral intuition and moral action as well as thinking.
What are the criticisms of Kohlberg's theory of morality?
The postconventional level is culturally limited, representing morality only from the perspective of an individualist society.
According to Erikson, what are the social tasks of adolescence?
trust, autonomy, initiative, competency, identity, intimacy, generativity, social identity, and integrity
How do parents and peers influence adolescents?
During adolescence, parental influence diminishes and peer influence increases. Adolescents adopt their peers' ways of dressing, acting, and communicating. Parents have more influence in religion, politics, and college and career choices.
What is emerging adulthood?
The transition from adolescence to adulthood is now taking longer. Emerging adulthood is the period from age 18 to the mid-twenties, when many young people are not yet fully independent. But critics note that this stage is found mostly in today's Western cultures.
How does aging affect sight?
With age, the eye's pupils shrink and its lens becomes less transparent, reducing the amount of light reaching the retina.
Number of words _________ is stable with age, number of words _________ declines with age.
In respect to older people, prospective memory ("remember to...") remains strong:
when events help trigger a memory
Does brain training work?
Yes, exercising your brain and memory has been shown to slow cognitive decline.
What are some of the most significant challenges of growing old?
decline in muscular strength, reaction times, stamina, sensory keenness, cardiac output, and immune system functioning. Risk of cognitive decline increases.
What are some of the most significant rewards of growing old?
positive feelings tend to grow, negative emotions are less intense, and anger, stress, worry, and social relationship problems decrease.
How does memory change with age?
Recall begins to decline, especially for meaningless information. Recognition memory remains strong.
How does our well-being change across the life span?
Our self-confidence and sense of identity tend to strengthen across the life span. Life satisfaction is unrelated to age (until terminal decline). Positive emotions increase after mid-life and negative ones decrease.
A loved one's death triggers what range of reactions?
People do not grieve in predictable stages. Strong expression of emotions do not purge grief.
Kohlberg's stages of moral development is a __________ stage theory; Erikson's idea of identity development is a __________ stage theory
empathy, concern for others
acceptance of the life cycle
humor, empathy, resilience
tenderness and loving freely
humility, acceptance of one's place
existential identity, integrity
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Children Adolescents and Media
Adolescent Psychology Final Exam Review
Moral Development & Crime - Cognition
child family did you get it
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Chapter 10: Human Development Across the Life Span
Ch. 11 Developmental Theories
Chapter 11 Developmental Theories
Psych Ch 9
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Replication, Recombination, & Mutation
Midterm 3: Quiz questions
Sensation and Perception
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
U.S History Section 1😉
The Essex Rebellion