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Terms in this set (39)
acute tubular necrosis
kidney injury caused by damage to the kidney tubule cells (kidney cells that reabsorb fluid and minerals from urine as it forms)
factors external to the kidneys that reduce systemic circulation and blood flow to the kidneys, leads to decreased GFR and perfusion
direct damage to the renal tissue, highest morbidity/ mortality rate
mechanical obstruction of urinary outflow, obstruction back flows into renal pelvis impairing kidney function
most leading cause of death in acute kidney injury
1 kg body weight = how many ml of fluids
movement of solutes from area of high concentration to low
movement of fluid from an area of lesser to area of greater solute concentration
how long does it take catheter peritoneal dialysis to heal?
how do you clean peritoneal dialysis?
How much solution does an average person have for dialysis
how much solution does an average person for dialysis have?
s&s of infection
What is it important to teach pts with peritoneal complications about?
What is most commonly from improper technique making/ breaking catheter connections?
What is the preferred mode of access for hemodialysis
How far in advance should AVF be created before use?
solutes removed from the blood more rapidly than from the CSF and brain. creates a concentration/ osmotic gradient and fluid rapidly moves from serum to brain = cerebral edema
treatment of disequilibrium syndrome
slow/ stop dialysis, infuse hypertonic saline with albumin and mannitol to draw fluid from brain cells into circulation
any trauma to the scalp, skull or brain
cranio-cerebral trauma with alteration in consciousness
intracranial infection, hematomas, brain tissue damage
What are the most common complications from skull fractures?
linear skull fracture
break in bone without separation or alteration of bone parts
base of skull
where do basilar skull fractures occur
linear skull fracture
what is the least intense skull fracture
depressed skull fracture
inward indentation of the skull
powerful blow or kick
what is depressed skull fractures usually caused from?
where do depression skull fractures generally occur on the head?
comminuted skull fracture
multiple linear fractures with fragmentation of bone into many pieces
high momentum impact
What is comminuted skull fracture caused from?
compound skull fracture
depressed skull fracture and scalp laceration with pathway to intracranial cavity
posterior and basilar fractures usually occur where?
when bleeding occurs between the tough outer membrane covering the brain and the skull, usually a loss of consciousness
head trauma: damage to the brain not localized to one area
head trauma: damage localized to one are
2 weeks to 2 months
how long does post concussion syndrome last?
chronic traumatic encephalopathy
degradation of the brain from repeated concussions
bruising of focal area of the skull
posture is an abnormal posturing in which a person is stiff with bent arms, clenched fists, and legs held out straight. The arms are bent in toward the body and the wrists and fingers are bent and held on the chest. This type of posturing is a sign of severe damage in the brain
posture is an abnormal body posture that involves the arms and legs being held straight out, the toes being pointed downward, and the head and neck being arched backward
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