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Terms in this set (23)
Limnologists are often interested in understanding how lakes respond to human impacts and natural processes. what must they also consider, besides processes ocuring in the water columns, in determining how the lakes behave?
catchment and airshed
drainage basing size
at what water column zone in a lake would you observe the largest relative thermal resistance (RTR) to mixing and why?
the thermocline, because its is where waters of different densities meet. It is increasingly difficult with a steeper thermocline as more energy is consistently needed as you move deeper into the lake.
in a thermally-stratified meromictic lake, what two places in the water column would large differences in density typically be observed?
which ice cover would yield the shallowest compensation depth?
wind is a major force of mixing water within lake basins. Briefly describe two other physical forces that lead to mixing
1) atmospheric heating and cooling influence water temperatures through diffusing, leading to stratification in summer and winter, and mixing in fall and spring
2) organisms and humans in water columns can cause bioturbidity, whereby currents are created both vertically and horizontally that mix layers
list three differences between epilimnion and hypolimnion in dimictic lakes
1) in the summer, epilimnion is warmer than the hypolimnion
2)hypolimnion can become anoxic whereas the epilimnion is always oxygen rich
3)epilimnion has much more available light for photosynthesis (PAR)
according to Kalff, what is the major physical difference between river and lake systems?
The biggest difference is flow - rivers have shorter residence time due to the rapid and unidirectional flow of water
rank the following global volumes of freshwater from greatest to lowest : permafrost, lakes, atmosphere, groundwater
groundwater, permafrost, lakes, atmosphere
freshwater ecosystems provide many benefits to society; list 3
provide water supply, wildlife habitat, tells us about the environment
at what lattitude are most lakes and ponds found
low lattitiudes, near the equator
at what elevation are there the greatest number of lakes and ponds
what depth are most lakes and ponds
less than 10 m
what size are most lakes and ponds
less than 1 km^2
list 3 gradual forms of basin formation
chemical weathering, wind, coastal activity
consider two lakes of similar size and depth located in the same region. explain thermal density differences in these systems considering that one lake has clear water and the other does not.
darker lakes stratify earlier in the spring and will have colder hypolimnion. This is due to increase in absorption of PAR at the surface. Meanwhile clear lakes allow light to penetrate deeper.
what key aspect of inland waters do limnologists focus on?
structure and function
list 2 differences between first and second order streams
1st order gets more shade from tree canopy cover. 1st order has coarser sediment.
3 ways aquatic systems lose heat
evaporation, seepage throw drainage basin, transfer of heat from water to air
what colour is greatly reduced at the water's surface, and which penetrates to great depths
what does a secchi disk measure
it measures light penetration and is useful to find the depth where there is aprox 1 percent PAR (3x SD).
2 differences between littoral and profundal zones?
littoral zone is much warmer and less dense
where in a stratified lake would you observe the slowest vertical mixing, and where the fastest horizontal mixing
dr david schindler studied remote boreal lakes and their response to warm and dry conditions. What did this study tell us about future climate change response?
the seasonal mixing (dates at which lakes mix and stratify throughout the year) have changed in response to climate change. Lakes now stratify earlier in summer, and stratification period lasts longer. Fall turnover and ice cover occur later, do not last as long. Can have effects on aquatic life and overall marine health.
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