interpersonal psychotherapya form of psychotherapy that focuses on helping clients improve current relationshipsgroup therapytherapy conducted with groups rather than individuals, permitting therapeutic benefits from group interactionPsychodramagroup therapy in which a patient expresses feelings by acting out family and social roles with other patientsbehaviour therapytherapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behavioursBehaviour modificationthe application of operant-conditioning techniques to teach new responses or to reduce or eliminate maladaptive or problematic behaviour; also called applied behaviour analysisaversion therapytreatment that uses punishment to decrease the frequency of undesirable behaviorsexposure therapyAn approach to treatment that involves confronting an emotion-arousing stimulus directly and repeatedly, ultimately leading to a decrease in the emotional responsesystemic desensitizationA type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias.Tension-release methoda procedure for systematically achieving deep relaxation of the bodyfear hierarchyan ordered series of increasingly fearful objects or situationsreciprocal inhibitionThe simultaneous contraction of one muscle and the relaxation of its antagonist to allow movement to take placevicarious desensitizationa reduction in fear or anxiety that takes place vicariously ("secondhand") when a client watches models perform the feared behaviorvirtual reality exposure therapyan anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to simulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speakingEye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)a technique for reducing fear and anxiety; bases on holding upsetting thoughts in mind while rapidly moving the eyes from side to sidetoken economyan operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treatsclient-centered therapya humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients' growth. (Also called person-centered therapy.)unconditional positive regardaccording to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another personempathythe ability to understand and share the feelings of anotherauthenticitythe genuine, open, and honest response of the therapist to the clientReflectionA transformation that "flips" a figure over a mirror or reflection line.Existensial Therapyan insight therapy that focuses on the elemental problems of existence, such as death, meaning, choice, and responsibility.Gestalt therapytherapy that aims to integrate different and sometimes opposing aspects of personality into a unified sense of selfcognitive therapytherapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactionsselective perceptionThe phenomenon that people often pay the most attention to things they already agree with and interpret them according to their own predispositions.Overgeneralizationthe tendency to interpret a single negative event as a never-ending pattern of defeat and failureall-or-nothing thinkingthe tendency to believe that one's performance must be perfect or the result will be a total failurecognitive behavioral therapya popular integrative therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior)thought stoppinguse of aversive stimuli to interrupt or prevent upsetting thoughtsrational emotive behavior therapya confrontational cognitive therapy, developed by Albert Ellis, that vigorously challenges people's illogical, self-defeating attitudes and assumptionssomatic therapyany bodily therapy, such as drug therapy, electroconvulsive therapy, or psychosurgeryPharmacotherapythe application of drugs for the purpose of disease prevention and treatment of sufferingantipsychotic drugsdrugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe thought disorderantianxiety drugsdrugs used to control anxiety and agitationAntidepressantsa class of psychotropic medications used for the treatment of depressionmood stabilizersdrugs used to control mood swings in patients with bipolar mood disordersstimulantsDrugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and Ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patientdeep brain stimulationelectrical stimulation applied through surgically implanted electrodes; used to treat some anxiety and mood disorderstranscranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)the use of strong magnets to briefly interrupt normal brain activity as a way to study brain regionspsychosurgerysurgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behaviormental hospitalizationplacing a person in a protected, therapeutic environment staffed by mental health professionalsDeinstitutionalizationmoving people with psychological or developmental disabilities from highly structured institutions to home- or community-based settingshalfway housea correctional facility housing convicted felons who spend a portion of their day at work in the community but reside in the halfway house during nonworking hourscommunity mental health centersinstitutions for the treatment of people with mental health problems in the community; may include teams of social workers, therapists, and physicians who coordinate carecrisis interventiona treatment approach that tries to help people in a psychological crisis to view their situation more accurately, make better decisions, act more constructively, and overcome the crisisParaprofessionalperson with no professional training who provides mental health servicesspontaneous remissionrecovery from a disorder that occurs without formal treatmenttherapy placebo effectimprovement caused not by the actual process of therapy but by a client's expectation that therapy will helpthereputic alliancea caring relationship that unites a therapist and a client in working to solve the clients problemCulturally skilled therapistA therapist who has the awareness, knowledge, and skills necessary to treat clients from diverse cultural backgroundsPeer counselora nonprofessional person who has learned basic counseling skillsself help groupA group made up of people with similar problems who help and support one another without the direct leadership of a clinician. Also called a mutual help group.