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Chapter 4- Motivation and Affect
Terms in this set (54)
the processes that cause people to behave as they do.
It occurs when a need is aroused that the consumer wishes to satisfy. Once a need has been activated, a state of tension exists that drives the consumer to attempt to reduce or eliminate the need.
a desire to achieve some functional or practical benefit, as when a person requires a pair of durable sneakers
an experiential need involving emotional responses
Hedonic needs are subjective and experiential, leading consumers to rely on a product because it meets their needs for excitement, self-confidence, or fantasy, perhaps to escape the mundane or routine aspects of life
The desired end state
a discrepancy exists between the consumer's present state and some ideal state. This gulf creates a state of tension. The magnitude of this tension determines the urgency the consumer feels to reduce the tension. The degree of arousal
focuses on biological needs that produce unpleasant states of arousal (such as your stomach grumbling during a morning class)
refers to the unpleasant state that exists if a person's consumption needs are not fulfilled
state (of hunger, for example) activates goal-oriented behaviour that attempts to reduce or eliminate this unpleasant state and return to a balanced one
Behaviour is largely pulled by expectations of achieving desirable outcomes—positive incentives—rather than pushed from within. We choose one product over another because we expect this choice to have more positive consequences for us. Under expectancy theory, positive incentives could include things like money or even social status.
The particular form of consumption used to satisfy a need is termed a want
Types of Needs
biogenic, psychogenic, utilitarian, hedonic
certain elements necessary to maintain life
food, water, air, shelter
acquired in the process of becoming a member of a culture
status, power, affiliation
positive or negative
a person must choose between two desirable alternatives
theory of cognitive dissonance
based on the premise that people have a need for consistency in their lives and that a state of tension is created when beliefs or behaviours conflict with one another. The conflict that arises when choosing between two alternatives may be resolved through a process of cognitive dissonance reduction in which people are motivated to reduce this inconsistency (or dissonance) and thus eliminate unpleasant tension.2
the consumer can still have a new car while reducing the negative impact on the environment.
They face a choice between two undesirable alternatives. A person may be faced with the option of either throwing more money into an old car or buying a new one. Marketers frequently address this conflict through messages that stress the unforeseen benefits of choosing one option (emphasizing special credit plans to ease the pain of new-car payments, for example).
Need for affiliation (to be in the company of other people)
This need is relevant to products and services that alleviate loneliness and that are consumed among groups of people at places such as athletic venues, bars, and shopping malls.
Need for power (to control one's environment)
Many products and services, ranging from "souped-up" muscle cars to hotels, restaurants, and resorts, promise to respond to the customer's every whim, allowing consumers to feel that they have mastery over their surroundings.
Need for uniqueness (to assert one's individual identity)
This need is satisfied by products that pledge to accentuate a consumer's distinctive qualities. For example, Rocketcases is a Vancouver company that allows you to personalize your cell phone case to suit your unique personality.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
1. Psychological: Food Sleep Water (Medicines)
2. Safety: Security, Shelter, Protection (Insurance)
3. Belongingness: Love, Friendship, Acceptance by Others (Clothing)
4. Ego Needs: Prestige, Status, Accomplishment (Cars)
5. Self-Actualization: Self-Fulfillment, Enriching Experiences (Education, Hobbies, Travel)
Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Timely
can be defined as "a person's perceived relevance of the object based on their inherent needs, values and interests
Levels of Involvement
from simple processing, in which only the basic features of a message are considered, all the way to elaboration, in which the incoming information is linked to preexisting knowledge systems.
person's degree of involvement
can be conceived as a continuum, ranging from absolute lack of interest in a marketing stimulus at one end to obsession at the other
Consumption at the low end of involvement
where decisions are made out of habit because the consumer lacks the motivation to consider alternatives.
At the high end of involvement we can expect to find the type of passionate intensity reserved for people and objects that carry great meaning to the individual.
When consumers are truly involved with a product, an ad, or a website, they enter what has been called a
- A sense of playfulness - A feeling of being in control
- Concentration and highly focused attention
- Mental enjoyment of the activity for its own sake
- A distorted sense of time
- A match between the challenge at hand and one's skills
is related to a consumer's level of interest in a particular product.
Perhaps the most powerful way to enhance product involvement is to invite consumers to play a role in designing or personalizing what they buy.
is the customization and personalization of products and services for individual customers at a mass production price
how the medium through which the message is communicated can increase consumer involvement
marketers use low-cost, unconventional marketing tactics to gain consumers' attention and involvement.
connecting with consumers about real-time events on social media, a tactic
interactive mobile marketing
in which consumers participate in real-time promotional campaigns via their cell phones
Purchase situation involvement
refers to differences that may occur when buying the same object for different contexts
strategies to increase involvement
- Appeal to hedonic needs
- Use a novel (unexpected) and prominent stimuli (loud music, fast action)
- Build a bond with consumers
- Include celebrity endorser for higher interest
in which the marketer enlists a larger group of consumers to assist in some aspect of the marketing process.
refers to the experience of emotionally laden states, which can range from evaluations, to moods, to full-blown emotions
involve valenced (i.e., positive or negative) reactions to events and objects, that are not accompanied by high levels of arousal
involve temporary positive or negative affective states accompanied by moderate levels of arousal. Moods tend to be diffuse and are not necessarily linked to a particular affect-arousing event.
(happiness, anger, fear, etc.), in contrast to moods, tend to be more intense and are often related to a specific triggering event
Positive moods and emotions are often highlighted as a product benefit
highlight the avoidance of negative affect as a product attribute
for example, lottery corporations might ask consumers to consider how they would feel if they hadn't played the extra bonus draw.
negative state relief
Another way negative moods are sometimes utilized is by activating a negative mood on the part of the consumer (e.g., by showing a picture of starving children in Africa), and then giving the consumer a means by which to make him- or herself feel better—by donating to the cause. Helping others as a means of resolving one's own negative moods
the notion that our judgments are often consistent with our existing mood states
Sentiment analysis (sometimes called opinion mining)
is a process that scours the social media universe to collect and analyze the words people use when they describe a specific product or company. When people feel a particular way, they are likely to choose certain words that tend to relate to the emotion
word-phrase dictionary (sometimes called a library)
to code the data. A computer program will then scan social media text to identify whether the words in the dictionary appear.
is a mental state of well-being characterized by positive emotions.
vary throughout the lifespan. That is, the meaning of happiness is not fixed and can shift as people get older
is a negative emotion associated with the desire to reduce the gap between oneself and someone who is superior on some dimension
occurs when the individual believes that the superior other deserves his or her status
occurs when the consumer believes that the superior other does not deserve his or her status
is defined as "an individual's unpleasant emotional state associated with possible objections to his or her actions, inaction, circumstances, or intentions.
- A social emotion driven by a concern for what others are thinking about us
- Occurs when unwanted events communicate undesired information about oneself to others. To be embarrassed, one must be aware of, and care about, the evaluating social audience, whether real or imagined
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