HRES 2170 Ch1-5

Define human resources management. What is the impact of changing a HRM practice?
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Terms in this set (202)
-Directly interacts with employees and is responsible for guiding and motivating their effective contribution to an organization

-Develop employees and make a great workplace

-Identify gaps in skill sets and help improve performance

-Responsible for implementing various HRM systems, practices and policies (must therefore work with and rely upon HR professionals to ensure that they have the right knowledge, tools, and resources to do so effectively)
-the primary role is to equip the manager with the best people practices so that the organization can be successful

-provide service activities such as recruiting and training

-can be active in policy formulation and implementation in areas such as workplace harassment, healthy work environments and change management

-can be an employee advocate by listening to employee concerns and ensuring that the organization is aware of and responding to those concerns

-HR professionals are expected to fulfill their role by actively involving others in the organization, particularly managers, in the development and design of HRM systems, practices and policies

-Help an organization build and maintain a competitive advantage through its people
What are the eight key HRM practices?1. Promoting employee health and safety 2. Defining, analyzing and designing work 3. Planning for recruiting and selecting employees 4. Orienting, training and developing employees 5. Managing employee performance 6. Rewarding and recognizing employees 7. Knowing your rights and responsibilities 8. Understanding labour relations and collective bargainingWhy study HRM?Employees who understand HRM will be better able to understand their work, responsibilities, and rights.What are the major external and internal influences on management of employees in today's workplaces?-Global economy and globalization (moving business into other countries) -Changes in firms and business sectors (increased emphasis on productivity, quality and decreased spending to achieve results) -Outsourcing and contractors (instead of using employees) -Technology (increased use) and quality (increased emphasis on producing what the customer wants) -Sustainability (of the planet and environment - the green movement) -Human capital (employees) and talent management (use of employees to achieve business objectives) -Demographics - Considerations to address changing nature and preferences of the workforce:Discuss the Canadian global economy-Canadian economy mainly built on exports -Many companies have created global operations or worked collaboratively with foreign companies to sell Canadian products -70-80% of CA economy affected by international competition (trade agreements that allow a freer flow of goods and services mean competitors around the globe)Define globalization and describe its HRM framework.globalization is moving local or regional business into the global marketplace -when an organization decides to operate in a different country, HRM practices need to address the different legal, political and cultural requirements within this new location -also need to identify capable expatriate managers who can live and work overseas -HRM designs training programs and development opportunities to enhance manager's understanding of foreign cultures and work practices, adjusting compensation plans to ensure that pay schemes are fair and equitable across individuals in different geographic regions with different costs of livingWhy are labour costs a big focus of an organization?labour costs are one of the largest expenditures of any organization, particularly in service and knowledge intensive companies -organizations try many methods to lower labour costs such as downsizing, outsourcing, and use of contract employeeswhat is downsizing?a strategic approach to decreasing the number of employees in a company -more downsizing occurs when economy is poor but sometimes occurs when a company decides to eliminate a product line or close a planthow is downsizing enacted? why is this important?in the past the approach was to do an across-the-board reduction or to eliminate individuals based on performance -research found that why and how a company downsizes can create negative views of how responsible a company is -companies need to communicate what is to come ASAP, be honest about why downsizing is happening, treat others with respect and be sure that downsizing is the right solutionWhat is survivor syndrome? how do we avoid this?survivor syndrome is the idea that as much attention needs to be paid to those people who will still be employed as to departing employees -firing needs to be carefully planned and it is essential that the remaining employees feel important as they will ensure future success (do this by providing additional training and development opportunities)what is outsourcing?hiring an external person or company to do work that had previously been done by an internal employee ex. companies hiring the services of accounting firmswhat is an independent contractor?a person who is hired by contract to perform a specific job and is not considered part of the employee base -they are hired for a specific period of time and have more flexibility in relation to hours of work, work location, and how the work is done -they are not covered by mandatory employment deductions such as income tax and employment insurance premiums but they are still required to report all income and then pay appropriate taxes -CA government has strict rules about who may/may not be classified as an independent contractor and has been actively auditing companies to ensure that these regulations are being followed with the burden of proof and compliance being required from employerswhat is the downside of using independent contractors?downside is that these independent contractors may not be as attached/committed to work outcomes as an employeewhat is telecommuting?conducting work activities away from the office (typically at home) through the use of technologywhat is the idea of total quality management (TQM)?focus on quality began 60 years ago with total quality management and was based on a management philosophy that focused on understanding customer needs, involving employees, using fact-based decision making, communicating, doing things right the first time and improving continuouslywhat is six sigma?-a process used to translate customer needs into a set of optimal tasks performed in concert with one another based on statistical analysis to maximize production and minimize defects;Indicates measure of quality for near perfection -catches mistakes before they happenwhat is lean?organizational system of improvements that maximize customer value and minimize waste -similar to Six Sigma but is more inclusive -pioneered by Toyota as a way to look at not just individual machines but also the overall flow of the production through the total processwhat is benchmarking?finding the best practices in other organizations that can be brought into a company to enhance performancewhat is the role of HRM in the practices of lean, Six Sigma and benchmarking?HRM is essential to these programs as it helps to balance the 2 opposing forces: the needs of employees and the requirements of the company for example, six sigma's focus on continuous improvement drives the system toward disequilibrium whereas six sigma's focus on customers, management systems and the like provides the restraining forces that keep the system together -HRM helps managers balance these forceswhat is human capital?the value that employees provide to an organization through their knowledge, skills and abilitieswhat are core competencies?a combination of knowledge, skills, and characteristics needed to effectively perform a role in an organization -a part of human capital -are necessary in order to be different from the competition and provide ongoing value to their customerHow are core competencies improved?developmental assignments, especially those with teamwork are valuable for facilitating knowledge exchange and mutual learning effective communications are instrumental in sharing knowledge and making it widely available throughout the organizationwhat is talent management?leveraging competencies to achieve high organizational performance -ensure competencies are in the right place and measure their impact against goalsIn the context of talent management how should we modify HRM practices?modify HRM practices to ensure that -strong leadership is provided -employees are given opportunities for professional/personal development -communication at all times at all levels -allow employees to perform powerfully -ensure that rewards and recognition are appropriateWhat is culture?consistent and observable pattern of behaviours in organizations that drives a company's performance and resultswhat has the trend for the amount of available skills and labour? how can employers deal with this?-aging of workforce and fewer new entrants, there is concern about shortages, particularly with skilled workers -mismatch between the skills people have and the skills employers want -to deal with this, employers can provide mentoring for Millenials, ensure that the management style in the organization is suitable for both tech savvy and other workers and make better use of the skills of immigrantsDiscuss the idea of a "gig economy"-recently less emphasis on acquisition of wealth and more on life satisfaction and more balance between life and work (want a meaningful career and not "just a job") gig economy is an environment in which employees have many part time jobs instead of one permanent full time role -in a gig economy, employers have to be more flexible in how work is designed and have to rethink how to attract and retain these different types of employeeswhat is corporate strategy?-deals with questions such as: "should we be in business?" "what business should we be in?" -company wide and focus on overall objectives such as long term survival and growthwhat are the two main types of corporate strategy?restructuring strategy and growth strategydescribe restructuring strategy-ensure long term survival -turnaround situations, divestitures, liquidation and bankruptcydescribe growth strategy-large growth by adding new products or new distribution networks -international expansions -mergers and acqisitions -questions is "how should we compete?"what is competitive advantage?the capacity or quality that gives an organization an edge over its competition -advantage may be productivity, price, quality, delivery or servicewhat is the role of HRM in achieving competitive advantage?-focus of current HRM thinking and research is on identifying and implementing systems/practices/policies that make a firm stand out -HRM strategy aligned with business strategy is super important in organizations whose products/services rely upon the knowledge, skills, abilities and competencies embedded in employees (knowledge workers)what is human resources management strategy?identifying key HRM systems, practices, and policies and linking them to the overall business strategy -enhance employee's contribution to overall organizational successwhat happens when a company/manager doesn't link HRM to business objectives?the company will be unable to leverage its knowledge capabilities and will not be innovative enough to achieve competitive advantagewhat happens when managers ignore the legal aspects of HRM?they risk incurring costly and time consuming litigation, negative public attitudes and damage to organization moralewhat legislation is more important than other laws?human rights legislation is paramount over other laws and concerns all individuals regardless of their gender, race, religion, age, marital status, disabilityDescribe employment insurance (EI) and Canadian Pension Plan (CPP)-EI provides for wage payment should you lose your job. Also includes compassionate care benefits to employees who need time off to care for or support a family member who is gravely ill or at risk of dying within 6mo (position is held for person when they return) -CPP provides for a small pension when you retireWhat are the two basic federal employment laws?1. Canada Labour Code 2. Canadian Human Rights Act -CHRA, like CLC, applies to all federal government departments and agencies, crown corporations, and businesses and industries under federal jurisdiction such as banks, airlines, railway companies, and insurance and communications companies -Administered by the Canadian Human Rights Commission, which makes decisions on complaints involving discrimination and harrassmentWhat are the 2 main privacy laws?Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA) and provincial legislation known as the "Personal Information Privacy Act" -PIPEDA only applies to federally regulated companies (ex. banks and airlines) -PIPA extends the federal legislation to provinces and businesses within the provincesWhat do the PIPEDA and PIPA both do?-Both have direct influence on how companies and managers handle employee info and the rights of employees regarding the info -both enhance the protection granted to employees on their personal info that a company retains -organizations can use the info only for its intended purpose. Organizations can no longer collect personal info without disclosing the full use to employees. Must seek written permission from employees to disclose personal infoDescribe the main message of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedomsall individuals should have an opportunity equal with other individuals to make for themselves the lives that they are able and wish to have and to have their needs accommodated, consistent with their duties and obligations as members of society without being hindered in or prevented from doing so by discriminatory practices based on race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, race, age, sex, sexual orientation etc.what are some of the weaknesses of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms?-Does not cover every situation. ex. "age" is defined as ages 19-65, however most jurisdictions eliminated the 65 -mandatory retirement is illegal, therefore organizations have to be careful about how older workers are treated as to not have age discrimination complaintsDescribe systematic discriminationThe exclusion of members of certain groups through the application of employment policies or practices based on criteria that are not job related -Inequity can result if these barriers discourage individuals on the basis of their membership in certain groups, rather than their ability to do a job the employer needs done ex. employer's workforce represents 1 group in our society and the company recruits new employees by posting job vacancies within the company or by word of mouth among the employees. This recruitment strategy is likely to generate a candidate similar to those in the current workforce. This means discrimination against other groups of workers in the labour marketDiscuss bona fide occupational qualificationsJob qualifications that may be discriminatory due to business or safety reasons -A BFOQ is justified if the employer can establish its necessity for business operations -Differential treatment isn't discriminatory if there is justifiable reason (this can be applied to any and all prohibited grounds under human rights legislation) ex. workers wanting to use medical marijuana on the job for a conditionWhat is a business necessity?a practice that includes the safe and efficient operation of an organizationHow does an employer identify a bona fide occupational qualification?employer needs to not only examine job requirements and demonstrate that a certain characteristic is absolutely essential but also consider the work environment -For BFOQ, an employer is required to demonstrate that it is impossible to accommodate individuals discriminated against without undue hardship -whatever the standard is, employer must provide for individual accommodation if possibleHow are decisions regarding discrimination made by the Supreme Court of Canada?They look at whether the discrimination was "intentional" or "unintentional" -Intentional discrimination is very clear and direct ex. requirement that only males 5'9" or taller can apply for that airline pilots cannot be over 60 yrs oldDiscuss the duty to accommodate.Requirement that employers adjust employment practices to avoid discrimination (reasonable accommodation) -when an accommodation request is made, an employer needs to thoroughly investigate and consider methods by which the employee's particular needs (ex. family status, gender expression, disability) can be accommodated in the workplace including whether the specific tasks can be organized in a way to deal with the need -accommodation works both ways, both employer and employee must live up to the agreementUndue hardshipis typically based upon financial grounds or health and safety issues -most midsized to large organizations would have difficulty saying that an accommodation request would create undue hardship -may be something different for small organizations ex. may be a hardship to modify a washroom to accommodate a person in a wheelchair -employer may redesign the job duties; adjust the work schedules, provide technical, financial and human support services and upgrade physical facilities ex. with aging workforce, need to accommodate older workers with health issues -reasonable accommodation not only for physical disabilities but also mental health issues, allowance for childcare expenses for single parents and first nations employees with flexible schedules to fit in traditional activitiesreverse discriminationgiving preference to members of certain groups such that others feel they are the subjects of discrimination ex. if a company feels it has too few woman employees, try to hire more women and in doing so they hire less men, opening it up to criticism that it is discriminating against men -caught between attempting to correct past discriminatory practices and handling present complaints that they are being unfair -in some cases organizations may identify the need to hire a certain proportion of people from specific groups such as visible minorities ex. create a quota system for hiring = reverse discriminationharassmentconsidered to be any conduct or comment that a reasonable person would consider objectionable or unwelcome, including any unnecessary physical contact -includes bullying and sexual harassment -generally, harassment is a behaviour that persists over time, serious one-time incidents can sometimes also be considered as harassment -for harassment policies to succeed, confidentiality is necessary, as is the need to do a thorough investigationbullyingactions and verbal comments that can hurt or isolate a person in the workplace -sometimes there is a fine line between bullying and strong management, difference is whether feedback is constructive to help employees with their work -expressing differences of opinion or taking reasonable disciplinary action doesn't constitute bullyingpsychological harassmentRepeated and aggravating behaviour that affects an employee's dignity, psychological, or physical integrity that results in a harmful work environment -can create a poisoned work environment and a toxic culturewhat is the process of the enforcement of human rights legislation?1. Complaint received: an individual contacts the human rights commission/tribunal to file a complaint 2. Screening/investigation: a commission/tribunal representative works with the complainant to determine what occurred 3. Employer notified: the representative contacts the employer to determine its perspective 4. Mediation/conciliation/settlement: specialists are assigned by the commission/tribunal to assist the parties in finding a mediated solution; this is a voluntary and confidential step 5. Tribunal hearing: When a case is referred to a tribunal, there is no guarantee that the complaint will be upheld -if the tribunal decides the complaint is valid, it can order corrective measures such as human rights training, a change in employer's human rights policies or payment for lost wages, pain and/or suffering -the majority of cases are resolved at the investigation stageDescribe employment standards legislation.all federal, provincial and territorial jurisdictions have passed employment standards laws specifying the minimum obligations of employers (federal companies are under the Canada Labour Code) -in this type of legislation are items such as hours of work, minimum wages, overtime pay, vacation pay, public holidays and who is covered by the legislation -this legislation is key as it applies to all employers, unionized or not and every employer needs to be aware of it. This is particularly true if the organization used contractors, there may be circumstances where a contractor is considered to be an employeeWho interprets/enforces employment standards legislation?an agency/commission that both interprets and enforces the law administers the legislation ex. if employees feel that they're not receiving the right amount of vac pay they can contact the agency and find out what the right amount should be. If they are getting the wrong amount then the agency can contact the employer and start and investigationdescribe labour relations legislationgoverns both the processes by which a trade union acquires bargaining rights and the procedures by which trade unions and employees engage in collective bargaining -labour relations legislation is usually administered through an agency called a labour relations board which is responsible for administering and enforcing the legislation -only applies to unionized employees and employers with unionized employeesdescribe health and safety legislationlegislation describes the expected standards for health and safety in the workplace and outlines the role and involvement of employees in health and safetywhat are the roles of employers within the framework of health and safety legislation?-fundamental duty of every employer is to take every reasonable precaution to ensure employee safety and provide a hazard free workplace -employers must inform their employees about health and safety requirements -employers required to keep certain records, to compile an annual summary of work-related injuries and illnesses and to ensure that managers are familiar with the work and its associated hazards -employers must provide safety training and be prepared to discipline employees for failing to comply with safety rules -report accidents to the worker's compensation boardhow are violations of health and safety statues administered?all violations of health and safety statues are administered though a government agency called the Worker's Compensation Board. -employers are required to report any accidents that cause injuries or illnesses to Worker's Compensation Board. As part of the legislation, workers can receive a monetary payment if they are injured or get a disease from the job. The employers are responsible for this financial compensation -an accident resulting in death or critical injury must be reported immediately; the accident must then be investigated and a written report submittedWhat is the role of workers within health and safety legislation framework?-duties of workers include complying with all applicable acts and regulations, reporting hazardous conditions or defective equipment and following all employer health and safety rules and regulations. This includes those prescribing the use of protective equipment, such as wearing hard hats or steel toed boots at a construction site or protective eyewear in a lab -workers have many rights that pertain to requesting and receiving info about health and safety conditions and the right to refuse unsafe work without fear of reprisalwho is the point of contact for almost every question about health and safety?the manager. The manager will reinforce safety and health training and will be the person held accountable for employees' understanding and behaviour regarding health/safety in the workplacewhat is the role of the health and safety committee?-most jurisdictions require the formation of health and safety committees operated jointly by employee and management reps -this arrangement is intended to create a non-adversarial climate in which labour and management work together to create a safe and healthy workplace -advise employer on health and safety matters -investigate accidents -train others in safety obligationswho are the designated groups under the federal employment equity legislation?women, members of visible minorities, Aboriginal peoples, and people with disabilitiesdefine equityby definition is means fairness or impartiality -legal sense it means justice based on the concepts of ethics a nd fairness and a system of jurisprudence administered by courts and designed primarily to decrease the rigidity of common lawdefine employment equitya distinct Canadian process for achieving equality in all aspects of employment -involves establishment of policies and practices designed to ensure equitable representation in the workforce and to redress past discrimination as they relate to employment and employment practicesWhat is the role of the Employment Equity Act?requires that the federal gov't, federal agencies, and crown corporations with 100 employees or more are regulated under the Canada Labour Code must implement employment equity and report on their results -employer must create a plan to better represent these designated groups and must identify and remove any employment barriers. They must have a timetable for achieving these changes -Although the law doesn't extend to provinces, federal government through Federal Contractors Program, expects organizations that do more than $1M in sales to implement employment equity practiceswhat are some disadvantages felt by designated groups?high unemployment, occupational segregation, pay inequities, and limited opportunities for career progressdescribe the idea of pay equitythe practice of equal pay for work of equal value -focus on pay equity legislation is to narrow the wage gap between men and women, on the basis that women's work historically has been undervalued and therefore underpaid relative to work primarily done by men -gender neutrality, reduce systematic discriminatory pay practiceswhat are the two principles that pay equity is based upon?1. equal pay for equal work 2. equal pay for work that may be comparable in value to the organizationdescribe the idea of equal pay for equal workif a woman and a man are doing substantially the same work for the same organization or company, they must receive the same wage unless the difference is due to a formal seniority system, a temporary training assignment or merit paydescribe the idea of equal pay for work that may be comparable in value to the organization-pay equity compares the value and pay of different jobs -this means that male and female workers must be paid the same wage rate for jobs of comparable value such as nurse (historically female dominated work) and electrician (historically male dominated work) -the value of work is based on the skills and effort required, the responsibilities of the job and the conditions under which the work is performed -comparisons are made on job content, not the performance of the employee -system is complaint based, meaning that an employee, group of employees, or a union can raise complaints and these can take years to resolvediscuss diversitydiversity is the combination of organizational policies and practices that supports and encourages employee differences in order to reach business objectives -about voluntarily having a more representative workforce; employment equity is not -managing diversity is a broader concept encompassing such factors as religion, personality, lifestyle and educationdiscuss inclusionputting the concept of diversity into action -an inclusive environment leads to better organizational performancediscuss ethicsthings that matter to us that motivate our behaviour -how employees are treated is what largely distinguishes an ethical organization from an unethical one. -an ethical organization recognizes and values the contributions of employees and respects their personal rights -many organizations have their own codes of ethics that govern relations with employees and the public at large. These codes are formal written statements of the organization's primary values and provide a basis for the organization's and individual manager's behaviours and actionsdiscuss whistleblowingreporting unethical behaviour outside the organization. People will sometimes not report unethical actions or behaviours as they are concerned about revenge from those involvedwhat are the basic ethical guidelines?1. Be trustworthy 2. Maintain confidences 3. Be impartial and objective 4. Be fair 5. Avoid any real or potential conflict of interestdescribe organizational culture-collective understanding of beliefs and values that guide how employers act and behave -personality of the organization, sets standards of behaviour and helps people understand how they're expected to conduct themselves and interact with others -usually starts with original business owner and then builds over time as new people are introduced and interpret the original founder's values and beliefs, can change over timeDefine employee engagementamount of commitment and dedication an employee has toward the job and the organization -engagement is used to refer to the interplay of attitudes, behaviours, and dispositions that relate to organizational outcomes such as turnover and productivityWhat are some drivers of employee engagement and how do we achieve a high level of employee engagement?-some drivers include the organization's reputation for social responsibility, leadership, trust and integrity, nature of the job and total rewards -to achieve a high level of employee engagement, it is critical that leadership practices focus on key engagement drivers such as empowerment and not controlwhat is the result of employee engagement?engagement leads to less frustration at work, thereby creating greater impact at the work level, which becomes increasingly important as employers strive to create a healthier work environmentwhat is an occupational injury?any cut, fracture, sprain, or amputation resulting from a workplace accidentwhat is an occupational illness?abnormal condition or disorder resulting from exposure to environmental factors in the workplace -includes acute and chronic illnesses or diseases that may be caused by inhalation, absorption, ingestion, or direct contactwhat is an industrial disease?a disease resulting from exposure relating to a particular process, trade or occupation in industrywhat is due diligence?the fundamental duty of every employer to take every reasonable precaution to ensure employee safetywhat are the health and safety duties and responsibilities of managers?-advise employees of potential workplace hazards -ensure that employees follow health and safety protocols -ensure that employees use or wear safety equipment -provide written instructions -take every reasonable precaution to guarantee safety of workerswhat does worker's compensation entitle to workers?-benefits can be in the form of a cash payout (if the disability is permanent) or wage-loss payments (if the worker can no longer earn the same amount of money -unlimited medical aid is also provided along with vocational rehabilitation, which includes physical, social and psychological services -the goal is to return the employee to the original job (or some type of modification) ASAPwhat are the 5 ways to reduce worker's comp costs?1. perform an audit to assess high-risk areas within a workplace 2. prevent injuries by proper ergonomic design of the job (such as position of keyboard) and effective assessment of job candidates 3. provide high quality medical care to injured employees by physicians with experience and preferably with training in occupational health 4. manage the care of an injured worker from the injury until return to work. Keep a partially recovered employee at the worksite 5. Provide extensive worker training in all related health and safety areas -compensation is a complex issue; since workers can receive payment if they have contracted an industrial disease, cause and effect can be difficult to determine ex. a mine worker who has contracted a lung disease but who also smokes heavilywhat is the key to monitoring specific expectations, and standards concerning occupational health and safety?ongoing communication is key, communicated through managers, bulletin board notices, employee handbooks and signs attached to equipmentwhat are penalties for violation of health and safety-penalties for violation of health and safety rules are usually stated in employee handbook, many are the same as penalties for other violations -oral or written warning for first violation, suspension or disciplinary layoff for repeated violations and as a last resort, termination -for serious violations such as smoking around volatile substances, first offence may equal terminationwhat is involved in a workplace incident investigation?-when incident happens, the manager and a member of the safety committee should investigate even if it's minor -investigation may determine the contributing factors and reveal what preventative measures are needed such as rearranging workstations, installing safety guards or controls or increasing employee training/ awarenesswhat is incidence rate? what do we use it for?the number of injuries and illnesses per 100 full-time employees during a given year -useful for comparing between work groups, departments, and between comparable units within an organizationwhat are some ways to prevent workplace injury/illness? what are some important things to monitor?substituting materials, altering processes, enclosing or isolating a process, issuing protective equipment and improving ventilation are some common methods to prevent problems. -general conditions of health with respect to sanitation, housekeeping, cleanliness, ventilation, water supply, pest control and food handling are important to monitorWhat does WHMIS stand for? what are the three elements that WHMIS is based on?workplace hazardous materials information system 1. Labels: designed to alert the worker that the container holds a potentially hazardous substance 2 Safety Data Sheets (SDS): documents supplied by the supplier containing detailed info regarding hazardous material -the SDS identifies the product and its potentially hazardous ingredients and suggests procedures for the safe handling of the product 3. Training: employees must be trained to check for labels and to follow specific procedures for handling spillsWhat is ergonomics?examines the design of equipment and systems to ensure that they can be easily and efficiently used by people, while focusing on the physical safety and comfort of employees ex. adjustable desks, appropriate lighting to avoid eye straindiscuss workplace securityheightened workplace security often involves screening people before they are allowed access into certain buildings and security clearance, which is required before being able to work in certain industries and roles -also reflected in documented procedures to follow in the case of an emergency, increased presence of security on site, and key areas being locked down and accessible to only certain workerswhat does workplace violence include?-threatening behaviour, such as shaking fists or throwing objects -verbal or written threats -harassment (any behaviour that demeans, embarrasses or humiliates) -verbal abuse, including swearing, insults or condescending language -physical attacks, including hitting, shoving, pushing or kickinghow is workplace violence dealt with?-legislation to require risk assessment, development of policies and procedures to handle the risks identified, instruction and training of workers in handling violence, an emergency response plan, and a requirement that incidents be reported -many provinces implemented legislation requiring an organization to give an employee who is the victim of domestic violence, unpaid leave to address and recover from this type of incidentwhat are some risk factors that increase the risk of violence?-working with the public -handling valuables such as money and prescription drugs -carrying out enforcement duties such as parking meter enforcement -working alone -working in a mobile environment, such as a taxi -working during times of organizational uncertainty such as strikeswhat are some measures to prevent workplace violence?-workplace designs, such as locks or physical barriers, lighting and electronic surveillance -administrative practices, such as keeping cash register funds to a minimum, varying the time of day at which cash is emptied and using a security firm to deliver cash -work practices (particularly for those working alone or away from an office) that include having a designated contact, checking the credentials of a client and having an emergency telephone source -awareness of threatening behaviours can provide an opportunity to intervene and prevent disruptive, abusive or violent acts -organizations can establish formalized workplace violence prevention policies, informing employees that aggressive employee behaviour will not be toleratedcyberbullyingbullying by using communication technology and informationwhat is stressphysiological, mental and/or emotional tension caused in response to a demanding environment -can be either positive or negativewhat are workplace stressors? what factors have a positive impact on workplace stress?a workplace event, process, or practice that has potential to cause worker stress a corporate culture and work environment that promote a healthy, safe and environmentally protected work environment can have a positive impact on worker stresswhat are stress management programs?involve employees and employers working together to take initiatives to reduce aspects of their work environments that result in negative impacts on employee healthwhat are some ways to manage job related stress (as a manager)?-encourage open communication between and among employees and between employees and managers -ensure that all employees have the right tools and resources to properly do their jobs -provide ongoing feedback to employees and ensure that they know what is expected of them -make sure that employees take breaks, including using their allocated vacation time -respond to feedback and employee concerns in a timely manner -be transparent and regularly communicate with employees. Ensure that they know and understand what the organization is doing to keep them safe and healthy -encourage employees to have interest s and activities that are not related to their workHow and why do employers support overall health of employees?-better health not only benefits the individual but also the organization through reduced absenteeism, increased efficiency and better morale -health services, alternative health care, wellness, disability management and employee/family assistance programs can begin to address the underlying causes of absenteeism and stress/work-life imbalancediscuss the relationship between size of organization and the health services provided-small organizations have only limited facilities, such as those needed to handle first-aid cases, whereas many larger firms offer complete diagnostic treatment and emergency medical services -since employers are required to provide medical services after an injury, the larger firms may have nurses and physicians on full-time duty or certainly have arrangements with local physicians for preferred attentionwhat are some typical elements in wellness programs?access to flexible work hours, healthy food, fitness facilities, health professionals, health groups, activities, relaxation techniques, chiropractic, therapeutic massage, acupuncture and homeopathydiscuss the evolution of disability management programsthese programs initially were linked to workplace injuries as a way to get employees back to work ASAP these programs have evolved to an approach that combines a strong organizational commitment centred on managers, overseen by expert internal resources and supported by clinical case management. This means the focus is also on creating a work environment where employees want to return to work as soon as they are medically ablewhat are some elements of an effective disability management program?includes a graduated return to work in which the employee works fewer hours and in some situations is accommodated by being assigned to a different shift even in economic downturn, a carefully designed and well managed program can be effective in getting capable staff back to work while communicating that the employees is interested in their well beingwhat does facilitating a return-to-work plan include? why is this approach used?maintaining contact with employees while they are on leave, providing organizational support to the managers and team by discussing implementation and anticipated challenges/solutions, understanding the tasks and responsibilities that need to be modified and having a clear diagnosis and plan this approach would reduce any anxiety, alienation, fears of rein jury and job loss and stigma that the employee involved might feelwhat are EAPs?employee assistance programs: program to provide short-term counselling and referrals to appropriate professionals -many companies do not offer EAPs due to the cost VS benefits of such intitiativesWhat are the most prevalent problems that end up in uses of EAPsmost prevalent problems are personal crises involving marital, family, financial or legal matter. in some instances, the manager can provide help simply by being understanding and supportive and by helping the individual find the type of assistance neededdescribe the term "job"a group of related activities and duties -duties of a job should consist of natural units of work that are similar and related -should be clear and distinct from those of other jobs to minimize misunderstanding and conflict among employees and to enable employees to recognize what's expected of them -for some jobs, several employees may be required each of whom will occupy a separate positiondefine "position"specific duties and responsibilities performed by only one employeewhat is "work"tasks or activities that need to be completed -by thinking of work, employers have more flexibility to define what needs to be done and when & to change employee assignment on a short term basis -instead of organizations focusing on job descriptions, companies will use "work profiles" or "work agreements" to describe the work to be donewhat is "role"the concept of "roles" is linked to competencies -the part played by an employee within an organization and the associated expected behavioursdefine job incumbentthe employee hired to do a jobwhat are the roles involved in designing work?the manager is the primary individual who determines what tasks and activities need to be performed and in what order, to reach the company's goals/objectives -manager needs to understand what steps need to be implemented to design jobs in order to maximize organizational performance often the employee will be asked for info regarding the job and its requirements -person performing the job is often able to contribute info regarding the work that only they would knowwhat is job analysis and what is it referred to as? what is its ultimate purpose? what is it concerned with?it is the process of obtaining info about jobs by determining the duties, tasks, or activities and the skills knowledge and abilities associated with the jobs -referred to as the cornerstone of HRM because the info it collects informs and supports so many HRM practices its ultimate purpose is to improve organizational performance and productivity is concerned with objective and verifiable info about the requirements of a jobdescribe job analysis procedureprocedure involves undertaking a systematic approach to gathering specific job info including the work activities, worker attitudes and the work contexthow is job analysis a positive influence on organizationswhen job info is accurate, it will be easier to recruit, select, manage performance plan for training and development and health and safety issues and compromise on individual doing this workwhy is job analysis ineffective without organizational context?without organizational context or understanding the organization as a whole, the requirements identified may not reflect foreseeable future requirements - a proactive strategic approach would link the jobs to the organization's performancewho/what is involved in job analysis?typically undertaken by trained HR professional, however, a manager with good analytical abilities and writing skills can do it -HR professional can provide assistance to the manager in gathering the relevant info by ensuring that appropriate questions are asked and that the job is not inflated (made to sound more difficult or important than it really is) online resources such as the National Occupational Classification (NOC) list detailed info regarding various jobswhat are the means of conducting a job analysis?individual interviews may be conducted with employees performing the jobs, or groups of employees who perform the same job -questions such as "what duties do you perform every day?" "what tools do you use to complete these duties?" -incumbent may fill out a questionnaire or be observed in order to better understand the work required OR incumbent may be asked to keep a diary or log of work performed -in larger organizations a uniform approach is frequently used, such as asking people to fill out an electronic or hard copy questionnaire that requests a lost of work activitieshow should you decide which job analysis method you should use?when deciding which method should be used, the time and money spent versus the quality of info collected should be taken into consideration -efficiency and effectiveness should be balanced -it is important that the manager review the info collected in order to ensure accuracywhat is a job description? at what point is it written?once all the info on a particular job has been collected, it is organized into a job description a document that lists the tasks, duties and responsibilities of a job to be performed along with the skills, knowledge and abilities or competencies needed to successfully perform the workwhat is the standard format of a job description?I. Job title: provides an indication of the general nature of the job Ex. server, cashier II. Reports to: listing of the position that this job is accountable to III. Date: Date that the description was written (indicates the currency of info) IV. Written By and Approved By: names and titles of individuals involved in writing the document -provides points of contact for future questions or clarification V. Summary: two or three sentences describing the overall purpose of the job -answers the question "why does this job exist?" VI. Duties and responsibilities: individual statements, usually listed in order of importance, of the key duties and responsibilities (10-15 statements) VII. Job specification: the required knowledge, skills and abilities VIII. Performance standards: a prioritized list outlining several expected results of the jobdefine job specificationsstatement of the needed knowledge, skills and abilities of the person who is to perform the positionwhat are the 4 problems with job descriptions?1. They can become out of date as work requirements quickly evolve and change 2. They do not contain standards of performance, which are essential for selecting, training, evaluating, and rewarding jobholders 3. They do not adequately capture the complete requirements and complexity within a job. Vague terms may be used, thereby not providing adequate information 4. They may not address expected behaviours and can be the basis for conflict, including union grievanceswhat are some legal considerations regarding job descriptions?Written job descriptions must match the requirements of the job Position descriptions may need to be altered to meet the standard of "reasonable accommodation"what are the categories of uses of information from job analysis?recruitment, selection, performance management, training and development, health and safety, and compensationwhat is recruitment and what is its relation to job analysis?recruitment is the process of locating and encouraging potential applicants to apply for job openings. -Because job specifications establish the qualifications required of applicants for a job opening, they serve and essential role in the recruiting function as they define "who" will be successful doing the job and provide a basis for attracting qualified applicantswhat is selection and what is its relation to job analysis?selection is the process of choosing the individual who has the relevant qualifications and who can best perform the job a manager will use the information collected through job analysis as a basis to compare the skills and abilities of each applicantwhat is performance management and what is its relation to job analysis?the job requirements obtained from the job analysis provide the criteria for evaluating the performance of the job incumbent -From the employer's standpoint, written job descriptions can serve as a basis for minimizing the misunderstandings that occur between managers and their subordinates concerning job requirements -they also establish management's right to take corrective action when the duties covered by the job description are not fulfilled as required by the performance standardsdiscuss performance evaluations-the results of the performance evaluation may reveal whether certain requirements, or standards of performance listed on a job description, for a job to continue to be valid ex. a job may require an employee to word-process at the rate of 30 words per minute, but the performance review may determine that 60 wpm is necessarywhat is the relation of job analysis to training and development?any discrepancies between the knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs) demonstrated by a jobholder and the requirements obtained through job analysis provide clues to training needs -if the job specification section contains competencies (i.e. focuses on customer) these competencies could provide the basis for training -as managers are often responsible for training the new employee, accurate job specifications and descriptions are essential -career development, the formal qualification requirements set forth in higher-level jobs serve to indicate how much more training and development are needed for employees to advance to those jobswhat is the relation between job analysis and health and safety?the job analysis identifies the health and safety related physical and mental capabilities required to perform the job and the work environment conditions in which the job is performed. -The job analysis describes the existing and potential safety and health hazards associated with workplace injuries or illnesses, which are particularly important in redesigning jobs to improve employee wellness and eliminate or reduce exposure to hazardswhat is the relation between job analysis and compensation?job analysis and the resulting job descriptions are often used for compensation purposes. In determining the rate at which a job is paid, the relative worth of the job is one of the most important factors -this worth (pay rate) is based on what the job demands of an employee in skill, effort, and responsibility and on the conditions and hazards under which the work is performedhow are job analysis being conducted in a fast-moving environment?-managers adopt a future-oriented or strategically oriented approach to job analysis in which managers have a clear view of how jobs should be reconstructed to meet future organizational requirements -organizations may adopt a competency-based approach in which emphasis is put on characteristics or behaviours of successful performers rather than on standard job duties and tasks and so on -have a "living job description" or a "role description" that is updated as the nature of the work changes. The manager and the employee would then ensure that substantial changes in duties, responsibilities, skills, and other work characteristics are documented on an ongoing basisdiscuss "living job description"-one type is a behavioural one that describes how the work is to be done and what results are expected. Often these descriptions also address typical issues and problems that may occur and the results that can be expected in dealing with the issues -these descriptive and evaluative job descriptions can be linked to the organization's online performance management system, allowing for continuous updating by all userswhat is job design?process of defining and organizing tasks, roles, and other processes to achieve employee goals and organizational effectivenesswhat should job design do?job design should facilitate the achievement of organizational objectives and at the same time recognize the capabilities and needs of those who are to perform the job -concerned with appropriately altering and modifying the job so that there is a good person-job fit and a good person-organization fitwhat is job rotation?people move from one job to another to learn new taskswhat is job enlargement?a person's job expands in the types of tasks he or she is expected to performwhat is job enrichment?a person's job takes on higher-order responsibilitieswhat is job crafting?a person chooses how to complete work in a way that is most engaging and stimulatingwhat is leadership teams?a leader takes on multiple responsibilities and activities rather than one well-defined functional leadership rolewhat are the 3 basic considerations in job design?1. the overall purpose of the job and how it contributes to an organization's success 2. ergonomic requirements, including workers' mental and physical requirements or restrictions 3. employees' attitudes and behaviours that can impact their success in the jobwhat is the job characteristics model?an approach to job design that recognizes the link between motivational factors and components of the job to achieve improved work performance and job satisfactionwhat are the 5 job characteristics?1. Skill variety -the variety of different activities, which require a number of different skills and talents 2. Task identity -completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work, that is, doing a job from beginning to end with a concrete outcome 3. Task significance -the impact on the lives or work of other people, whether in the immediate organization or in the external environment 4. Autonomy -the amount of independence, freedom and discretion 5. Feedback -comments and clear information provided based upon output and accomplishmentswhen do job redesign efforts fail?when employees lack the physical or mental skills, abilities, or education needed to perform the job. -Forcing enriched jobs on individuals who lack these traits can lead to their frustrationwhat are the two common characteristics of techniques utilized to increase employee involvement in organizations?1. Enhancing collaboration -by increasing the degree of collaboration in the work environment, these techniques can improve work processes and organizational decision making 2. Increasing synergy -the contributions of 2 or more employees are greater than the sum of their individual effortsWhat is employee empowerment?Granting employees power to initiate change, thereby encouraging them to take charge of what they doin order for empowerment to grow and thrive, what are the 5 conditions that organizations must encourage?1. Ownership -employees must be encouraged to be responsible for their work tasks 2. Risk taking -the organization should be receptive to new ideas and encourage people to take reasonable risks at reasonable costs. Creativity and innovation are encouraged 3. Information sharing -employees must be able to determine what information they need to do their jobs and be given this when it is requested 4. Responsibility -employees should be held accountable for their achievements and their behaviour towards otherswhat are employee teams?an employee-contributions technique in which work functions are structured for groups rather than for individuals and teams members are given discretion in matters traditionally considered management prerogative, such as process improvements, product or service development, and individual work assignmentswhat are the two important issues in the design of work for teams?1. the appropriate use of teams -job tasks that require specialized individual expertise may be inappropriate for teams. Teams should be used when the work is amenable to team-work and is adequately structured and supported by both managers and employees. 2. the types of teamswhat are virtual teams? what is their benefit?a team with widely dispersed members linked through computer and telecommunications technology -virtual teams provide organizations with access to previously unavailable diverse and collective expertise and knowledge and may be especially useful in bringing geographically dispersed employee talent togetherwhat are the characteristics of effective teams?-clear goals, which the team understands and is committed to, have been set -team members support and trust one another -communication is open, honest, and respectful -team has a strong sense of cohesion while respecting individual opinions and differences -effective decision making and conflict resolution occur -ongoing evaluation of team performance occurs, and unproductive or dysfunctional behaviour is correctedwhat is the role of management in relation to teams of employees?at both the executive and management levels, there needs to be clear support for employee involvement and teams as changes may be required in processes and actions to support this new way of doing business organizations need to redefine the role of managers when employees are participating more and more in the operations of the companywhat are some future designs of work?-contract or freelance work -e-work -temporary work -job or work sharing -telework -compressed workweek -mobile work -home-based work -flex-time or flex-year -time-limited partnerships -partnership arrangementswhat is human resource planning?process to ensure that an organization has people available (employed) who have the right competencies and that these people are being effectively utilized in the right capacities in order for the company to achieve its desired objectiveswhat is the link between strategic and HR planning?organizations will undertake strategic planning where major objectives are identified and comprehensive plans are developed to achieve these goals. Because strategic planning involves the allocation of resources, including the people resources of the organization, HR planning is aligned to ensure that the objectives are met -through HR planning, all HR processes, systems and practices can be aligned to the overall business strategy. Organization ensures that it has the people capabilities to adjust to changes in the environmentwhat is trend analysis?using past numerical data to look for patterns in order to predict future demand for employees -uses some type of organizational index, such as sales or units of production -often accomplished through the use of softwarewhat are management forecasts?asking managers for their predictions regarding the future demand for employeeswhat are the two ways to forecast the demand for employees?trend analysis and management forecastswhat are the two ways to assess the internal supply of employees?staffing table and Markov analysiswhat is a staffing table?graphs displaying the jobs in an organization and showing the number of people currently in these job. Anticipated demand for the number of people to fill each job in the organization may be shown as wellwhat is a Markov analysis?description of how employees typically move into, within, and out of the organizationwhat is skills inventory?information about the education, experiences, skills etc. of employeeswhat is the outcome of HR planning?to achieve a usable balance between the demand for and supply of employeeswhat are the 4 steps of HR Planning?1. Forecast demand for labour 2. Determine the supply of labour- external and internal 3. Identify the gap between demand and supply 4. Develop action plans to eliminate the gaphow does a company deal with an oversupply of labour?-attrition (the natural departure of employees through people quitting, retiring or dying) -if the organization can predict that the excess supply of employees is more short-term it may suggest that some employees take a leave of absence (without pay), job-share, or reduce working hours (and pay) or it can redeploy people to units that have a needhow does a company deal with a shortage of labour?-if the need is short term or temporary, the organization will not want to hire for the longer term and may request that current employees work extra hours as during peak times -hire part time staff for labour shortages -enhance retention strategies -use of independent contractorswhat is recruitment? what is its purpose?the process of locating and encouraging people to apply for jobs -to have a sufficient pool of qualified applicantswhat is employment branding? what is its impact?and organization's reputation as an employer. an organization's reputation in the employment landscape and what applicants believe their employment experience will be like (i.e. work-life balance, fairness and equity, communication norms) influence their decision to apply to job opportunities (organizations should be aware of how they are perceived)What are the steps of the recruitment process?1. Planning for staffing needs 2. Identification of current or future job openings 3. Getting individual job information (job description and job specifications) 4. Determining recruitment method (internal or external) 5. Creating pool of potential qualified applicantsWhat is the purpose of promoting from within? What are some of its benefits?-Promotion serves to reward employees for past performance and is intended to encourage them to continue their efforts. -Promoting from within makes use of the people who already know the organization and the contribution they have made -also gives other employees a reason to anticipate that similar efforts by them will lead to promotion = increase in morale and decreasing voluntary resignationsWhat is the benefit of transfers?-can serve to protect employees from layoff or to broaden their job experiences -transferred employee's familiarity with the organization and its operations can eliminate the orientation and training costs that recruitment from the outside would entail -the transferee's performance record is likely to be a more accurate predictor of the candidate's success than the data gained about outside applicantswhat are the three methods of locating internal job candidates?1. Human Resources Management Systems -Info tech allows org's to keep databases that contain the complete records and qualifications of each employee. These systems allow an org to rapidly screen its entire workforce to locate suitable candidates for an internal opening. Data can also be used to predict the career paths of employees and to anticipate when and where promotion opportunities may arise 2. Succession Planning -many org's conduct succession planning, the process of identifying, developing, and tracking key employees for future promotions or transfers. When a job opening occurs in a particular part of the org, it may make use of the succession plan and put the internal employee into the vacancy. Succession plans rely on the org identifying its long term goals, outlining the competencies required to achieve these goals, and making sure that employees are developed in order to assume future responsibilities 3. Internal job posting -most effective when internal job posting is part of a career development program in which employees are made aware of opportunities available to them within the org. ex. org may provide new employees with literature on potential job progression that describes the lines of job advancement, training requirements for each job, and skills and abilities needed as they move up the job progression ladderwhat are some limitations of recruiting within the organization?-sometimes certain jobs that require specialized training and experience cannot be filled from within (especially common with small orgs) -outside candidates should be considered in order to prevent the inbreeding of ideas and attitudeswhat is the benefit from hiring from outside the organization?applicants hired from the outside, particularly in certain technical and managerial positions, can be a source of new ideas and may bring with them the latest knowledge -avoid "employee cloning"what is a negative of hiring from outside the organization?the lack of solid information about the person's performance on the job. -info is likely to be available only through secondhand sources such as what the applicant volunteers and what references might say -the person may not know the industry or organization, making more extensive orientation and training necessary -significant costs are usually associated (time, cost of advertising, cost of familiarizing the person with the organizationDefine labour marketarea from which applicants are recruited, which will vary with the type of position to be filled, the amount of compensation to be paid, and the economic environment -recruitment for executives and technical personnel who require a high degree of knowledge and skill may be national or even international in scope -recruitment for jobs that require relatively little skill may be only a small geographic area such as within a city or a provincehow does the condition of the labour market help determine which recruiting sources an organization will use?-during periods of high unemployment, organizations may be able to maintain an adequate supply of qualified applicants from unsolicited resumes -a tight labour market, one with low unemployment, may force the employer to advertise heavily and/or seek assistance from local employment agencieswhat are the outside sources of recruitment?advertisements, internet, social media, employment agencies, educational institutions, open houses and job fairs, employee referrals, unsolicited applications and resumes, professional organizations, unionsdescribe the use of advertisements in external recruitment-advantage of reaching a large audience of possible applicants -some degree of selectivity can be achieved by using newspapers and journals directed to a specific readership -well-written advertisements can highlight the major assets of the position while showing the responsiveness of the organization to the job and career needs of the applicantsdescribe the use of the internet in external recruitment-employers use it because the Internet is faster (with applicant responsiveness), that it generates higher-quality candidates, and that it is cheaper than traditional advertising mediadescribe the use of employment agencies in external recruitment-a fee is charged to the employer for services that are tailored to the employer and then the agency gets a cut of the salary that will be paid out to the person hiredwhen are open houses and job fairs useful in external recruitment?if the organization is expanding or is looking for particular types of skills ex. with the shortage of skilled trades, an organization might participate in a job fair at an educational institution that graduates tradespeoplewhat are the benefits of employee referrals as an external recruitment method? how can this effectiveness be improved?-The quality of employee-referred applicants is normally quite high because employees are generally hesitant to recommend individuals who might not perform well. -effectiveness can be increased by paying commissions or bonuses to employees when they make a successful "recruitment sale" -be careful to avoid systemic discriminationwhen is dropping off an unsolicited application or resume useful?individuals use this method to introduce themselves to organizations that are interest to them