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Public Health, Biosecurity, and Biosafety
Terms in this set (27)
Procedures intended to protect humans or animals against disease or harmful biological agents
Prevention of large-scale loss of biological integrity, focusing both on ecology and human health. Used to protect from harmful incidents.
Why bother knowing about biosafety & biosecurity?
Outbreak tracking and occupational health & safety.
The removal of dirt, dust, manure and chemical residues from surfaces
Where a clean surface is coated with an approved chemical solution/water mix to kill reduce pathogens
Should surfaces be cleaned before or after sanitizing?
What is the proper PPE for large animal practices?
Coveralls, rubber boots, hats and gloves
Concerns when considering a farm to table approach
Presence of residues, presence of zoonotic infectious agents, presence of toxins and presence of drug resistant bacteria
Guide for prudent antibiotic use in food producing animals
1) Antibiotics are health management tools
2) Codes for goof practice, quality assurance programs, herd health surveillance programs and education programs should be in place
3) antibiotics should be used under the supervision of a vet
4) Therapeutic antibiotics should be used when its known or suspected that an infectious agent is present
5) Bacteriologic diagnosis with sensitivity testing
6) Follow label instructions carefully!
7) Therapeutic antibiotics should be used for as long as needed over as short a dosage period as possible
8) Records should be kept of all antibiotic use
9) Coordinated susceptibility surveillance
10) Efficacious, scientifically proven alternatives to antibiotics
Where can a public health risk originate?
Specific drug usage, failure to observe withdrawal periods (61%), off label use of drugs (10%), calves fed milk from medicated cows (9%), most violations are due to over-the-counter meds
Specific drugs involved in public health risks
Penicillin allergies, sulfamethazine, chloramphenical, diethylstilbestrol
Why use off-label drugs?
1) Changing the dose or dose interval or length of treatment
2) Changing the species
3) Changing the type of animal treated (beef vs. dairy)
4) Changing the age of animal
5) Changing the injection volume
6) Using the drug in an animal where the disease state may alter the rate of elimination
What drug can NEVER be used in food producing animals?
What does the Canadian Global Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank do?
Determine drug withdrawal time for food animals (meat and dairy) and off label drug usage.
Who plays a role in regulatory vet medicine?
Government role in animal health management, Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA), everyone in the vet field
What are all federally and Ontario inspected meat and poultry plants are required to do?
- Develop plans to identify critical control points in processing of animals + food products
- Establish critical limits for contaminants
- Establish corrective actions to prevent contamination
- Monitor the plant procedures to assure corrective measures are being followed
- Document and verify that the procedures are being followed
What does the government have the power to do?
- Impose control mechanisms to exclude infectious agents
- Find newly introduced infectious agents
- Isolate infectious agents in a region through quarantine and control of animal movement
- Eradicate disease
- Follow up with surveillance to avoid re-introduction
Mechanism of Government regulations of animal health
1) Control of Animal Movement
2) Quarantine of infected premises with possible depopulation of animals
3) Surveillance for and Monitoring of disease
Reportable diseases (Zoonoses)
- Scabies (mange)
Reportable diseases (Livestock)
- Equine Infectious Anemia
- Scrapie (sheep)
- Vesicular diseases
- All foreign animal diseases such as Pseudorabies of swine (USA), Foot and Mouth Disease etc.
- Mycoplasma gallisepticum (turkeys)
Reportable diseases (Zoonoses + Livestock)
- Avian influenza
- Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) (vCJD)
- Fowl typhoid (Salmonella gallinarum)
- Johne's Disease (Mycobacterium paratuberculosis)
- Pullorum disease (Salmonella pullorum)
An infection or infestation shared in nature by humans and animals
What can zoonoses be classified under?
Bacterial, Viral, and Parasitic
Brucellosis (Undulant fever, matta fever), tuberculosis, leptospirosis, listeriosis
Rabies, West Nile virus, equine encephalidities (WEE, EEE)
Toxoplasmosis, Trichinosis, Visceral larval migrans (Toxocara), cryptosporidiosis
Ways to prevent zoonotic diseases from spreading to the human population
1) Distance human population from animal source of the infectious agents
2) Decrease prevalence of disease in the animal population
3) Practicing Good Hygiene
4) Seek prompt and accurate diagnosis of the cause of animal sickness and death
5) Biosecurity and Biosafety programs in vet practice
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Lesson 8 - Dairy Health
Lesson 1 - Intro to large animal medicine
Horse Anatomy Picture
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