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Terms in this set (179)
What does the IUCN stand for?
International Union for Conservation of Nature
What is the IUCN?
-Its an International Union
-Defines PA as clearly defined geographical spaces
-Managed through legal or other effective means
-Purpose: For long term conservation
-Can be broken down into NP, City parks, Wilderness Protection Areas, etc.
What is a Protected Area?
-There are 2 categories: Terrestrial PA and Marine PA
-There are over 209,000 in the world
-Cover 14% of land
-Cover 5.3% of ocean
How many subcategories did the IUCN create to separate Protected Areas?
What are the Subcategories of Protected Areas?
1a - Strict Nature Reserve
1b - Wilderness Area
ll -National Protected Area
lV - Habitat/Species Management Area
V - Protected landscape/seascape
Vl - Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources
What are these subcategories used for?
Used by governments in regards to legislation to:
-Define Protected Areas
-Plan for Protected Areas
-Decide what regulations to use
-Decide what their land use is
1a - Strict Nature Reserve
-strictly protected for biodiversity and geographical features
-controlled human visitation and use
-unprotected areas controlled and limited to ensure protection
1b - Wilderness Area
-large unmodified or slightly modified areas
-Area retains its natural character
-No permanent or significant human impact
-Protected and managed to preserve their natural condition
ll - National Protected Area
-Large natural or near natural areas that are protecting large-scale ecological processes
-Charachteristic species and ecosystems
-Opportunities for spiritual, scientific, educational, recreational, and visitors
lll - Natural Monument or Feature
Areas set aside for the protection of a specific natural monument or geological feature
ex. Landform, sea mount, marine cavern, cemetary, ancient grove
IV - Habitat/Species Management Area
Area that protects specific species or habitat
Management reflects the priority of protecting the specific species or habitat
Need regular and active attention and intervention to meet the species/habitat's needs (not a requirement though)
V -Protected Landscape/Seascape
Interaction of people over time has created a distinct character with significant value to the biology, culture, ecology of the area
Vital to protect this interaction and sustain the area
Vl - Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources
-Uses cultural values and traditional natural resource management
-Usually large areas and are in natural condition
Aim: to have low-level non-industrial natural resource use that's compatible with nature conservation
Why is there difficulty with the term "Protected Area?"
Every National Park is defined differently in different areas
Some may be called a national park in Australia and is category 1a, while a national park in turkey is a category lll
Sometimes countries use the wide definition of what a National Park is because some locations use a higher number so that they will be able to reach their goal more easily than a lower one which has more stringent criteria...
there is debate on whether this is a good thing or not because at least the area is being protected but not to the strict degree that it should be
More land is protected to some degree overall but still not the best
What are Special Classifications?
-Protected Areas that are considered particularly important
-Classified under UNESCO World Heritage List
-In 2020 there are now 213 natural heritage properties on the list
What are the Advantages of being on the list?
-increase in tourism
-more management resources may become available
What are the Negatives to being on the list?
-management policies may be more heavily scrutinized by gov, public, and international organizations
Are sites in danger also listed on the Special Classifications UNESCO list?
-17 Sites that are in danger are also listed here
-These are sites that are not deemed good enough where their management isn't helpful or good enough, protected areas are not being managed well enough and there aren't any monitoring programs high enough to be positive
What is RAMSAR?
-important wetlands can be designated as wetlands of international importance
-puts pressure on governments to put out better management plans and standards for the locatio
What are the Benefits to having Protected Areas?
Good for ecosystems and humans:
-physical and mental well-being
-mitigate climate change
help people become -advocates for PA and management
Protected Areas should aim to...
1. conserve composition of location and landscape features
2. maintain diversity of landscape
3. Be of sufficient size to achieve the targets set out or at least be able to be increased to achieve them
maintain values for what it was intended for
4. operate under a management plan, be monitored and evaluated, as well as use adaptive management strategies
5. have a governance system that is clearly known and equitable
6. provide regulatory ecosystem services
7. deliver benefits to communities as well as recreational benefits
8. Low-impact scientific research activities
Are there other benefits that need to be considered in regards to Protected Areas and Stakeholders?
What are the they?
2. wildlife viewing
3. historical, spiritual, recreational
(help visitors learn more about nature)
4. ecological capital and processes
protection of species
ex. peatlands which play a major role in carbon cycle
How has the purpose of National Parks changed over time?
In the past:
-seen as tourist attractions
-Focus on environmental protection
-less focus on tourist attraction
-the focus has changed due to an increase in population
Timeline of National Park Development in CA
1885 - Rocky Mountain National Park aka Banff
- hot springs were discovered by railway workers -wanted to commercialize the springs for their own personal development
-Feds created the Park/reservation around the springs to ensure the hot springs would be used and for public interest
-Government partnered with CA Pacific Railway and they both benefited economically with the Park and the hot springs
-Banff creation had to do with tourism and money and not environmental protection
1887 - Rocky Mountain Park Act came into effect
-Increased the area of Banff
Purpose was to be a public park and to be used for the enjoyment and pleasure of CA people
-Natural resource extraction was allowed to continue because people thought there was a lot of natural resources to go around
-Some natural features were controlled such as timber harvesting
-Hotel was opened in the Park, also for tourism
-More NP were opened
Focus was on
multiple use areas
aka environmental conservation as well as tourism and resource use
logging in the Park was still occurring
-Problem which was still occurring was the lack of clear and consistent policy and management direction
1900s - New Branch of Government opened
-people recognized that they needed a branch of government to focus specifically on the environment
-1911 Dominion Forest Reserves and Park Act
Had 2 categories of protected lands:
-Lowered the level of development in Parks
-Through this Act they also created the worlds first national parks agency (The Dominion Parks Branch, then became national parks branch, then became canadian parks service) which later became Parks Canada
Early to mid 1900s
National parks system expanded towards the East
New parks needed approval now
Most resource extraction became prohibited
Most Non-Tourism related development became prohibited
Tourism was still strongly encouraged...
This led to visitor accommodation, roads and trails created, attractions in addition to the Parks natural features
1930s Mission Statement for National Parks Act included
What is the Dual Mandate
-parks are dedicated to CA's people for their benefit, education, enjoyment
-parks will be maintained for us to use but not hinder the benefit of future generations
...This was called the *Dual Mandate
-So that we can still enjoy and use the location without impairing it
-Wanted to Balance human enjoyment and ecological protection (the focus on either has continued to shift with changing governments over the years)
1960s - People are now shifting to push for environmental protection
Public interest in the environment has increased ex. Pesticide use
people now placing pressure on government to increase protection and create more parks
in response Gov. Created National and Provincial Parks Association of Canada which is now known as Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society
act as a watchdog for the gov to ensure they are protecting the environment
push for better NP policies
Gov somewhat changed the Dual Mandate by saying that protection of the environment was more necessary
PM Jean Chretien wanted to get CA 40-60 new parks in order to better represent Canada's features
this goal was never met but a lot of new parks were created
1980s - Ecological Integrity
-Budget cuts and recession made people less concerned over the protection of the environment
-The National Parks Act was amended to emphasize ecological integrity in regards to park zoning and visitor use in management plans
-Ecological integrity is when an ecosystems natural processes are maintained and restored to reflect their natural condition
(integrity means = state of being whole....if parts are missing then the ecosystem is not whole anymore)
-Parks Canada shifted from tourism and recreation to ecological protection
1990s- more government pressure
WWF and CPAWS pressured government to complete PA systems
-Gov released The Green Plan in response
-this created more parks
not all targets were met
-still many regions of CA do not have representation of a NP
What are changes in recent years?
1. Increased scientific understand and focus on how important parks are for not just ecological capital protection but their processes and services
2. Increased public and political awareness of environmental degradation and environment and natural landscapes
3. CA NP are not reporting how human activities are negatively influence their location
4. Increased awareness on the fact that parks are not only affected by what happens at their borders
5. Need larger perspective for better management
What are the categories of Protected Areas?
How many terrestrial areas do we have?
Terrestrial areas (land and water) increased 11.4%
Increased gradually over time
How many marine areas do we have?
Marine areas increased by 8.9%
Drastic increase in recent years
Has Canada met our international committment on the amount of land we would protect?
No, even amidst terrestrial and marine increases
in the grand scheme of things though we have very strong legislation for environmental protection, we were ranked 16/30 countries for areas of land protected and 4rth for strongest protection....(this brings us back to those countries that have been using the higher number for IUCN to increase amount of total area protected in order to meet international agreements which have stringent legislation associated with them - CA has not done this)
ex. CA committed to International Convention on Biological Diversity and we said we would protect 17% of terrestrial and inland water and 10% of marine by 2020
Protected Areas in Canada
-Not distributed evenly throughout CA
Larger protected areas in the North due to less agriculture and settlements have:
-larger marine conservations
-less human interference
More areas in South have:
-Smaller PA but are more numerous
What are the 3 provinces we looked into regarding protected areas?
What province has the...highest, lowest, and middle level of PA protection?
BC has high levels of terrestrial area protection
PEI lowest level
ON in the middle for PA
different prov and territories
have different targets
2014 - National Conservation Plan did what?
-Purpose to better organize conservation efforts throughout CA
-Included 250 million dollars for restoration purposes
-Improve conservation, stewardship
-better connect Canadians to nature
What is the largest challenge that face Protected Areas?
-need to feel pressure from public to actually fulfill promises to the public
What are the other challenges that Protected Areas face?
1. Inadequate management
large PA and there isn't always enough capacity for different agencies to manage them
2. A lot of PA in CA do not have management policies or agencies are not implementing them
ex. freshwater marine management plans are quite lacking compared to terrestrial
3. Parks Canada is strongest at management but many Parks don't actually fall under Parks Canada jurisdiction
4. Balancing stakeholder opinions and needs
5. Climate change
6. Cumulative Effects
7. Connectivity of Parks (PA work better a part of the ecological network)
What is Parks Canada goal regarding terrestrial regions?
To have 1 national park in each of CA terrestrial regions
There are 39 TR in CA
Currently only 47 NP represent 31 of the terrestrial regions
Parks also range in a large variety of sizes
ex. 14km2 Georgian Bay vs 45,000 km2 at Wood Buffalo
What does Parks Canada manage the National Parks to maintain?
What else does Parks Canada need to manage in National Parks>
Visitor use in a way that encourages, respects and appreciates nature all at once
Who is the world leader in park/protected area management>
Parks Canada since 2013
What does Parks Canada do/have to be in this position?
1. solid framework - but implementation and reporting on ecological integrity was slow
2. Works under Parks Canada Agency Act
3. Parks Canada HAS to report the minister on the state of Canada's national parks the following:
-Report every 4-5 years
-Assess ecosystems across parks to determine conditions
-Use preliminary thresholds
4. Developed monitoring program to help determine when critical thresholds are being passed
ex. Grasslands National Park was successful in the re-introduction of black footed ferrets
ex. recovery of Atlantic salmon and Brooke trout in eastern canada
5. Invested 15 million $ annually to address problems identified in Park Management Plans to aid in ecological integrity such as:
-invasive species removal
-restoring connectivity and health of freshwater ecosystems
6. Improved visitor experiences
to attract new campers to the parks
What are Federally Protected Areas?
How are these areas represented?
By IUCN category ll classification
What are Provincially Protected Areas?
How are they represented?
Through a variety of IUCN categories
For category 1 to category 6 there are:
-43% in ON are classified as Category ll just like National Parks (therefore decent protection)
-There is a wide array of PP all over the country
ex. MacGregor cluster has 3 different classifications of Parks...Sauble = Rec, Inver = historical
-Most PP are moving towards ecological integrity as its focus
Lets talk about Provincial Protected areas
Created and managed by provincial government
Each province divides its land into regions where the Protected Areas are a representation of these divisions
Level of protection and variety of systems differs throughout the provinces
Often located near watersheds
What are the benefits of PPAs?
1. Easier to establish than NP due to less stakeholders involved
2. Provinces are provided with economic profit from tourism and resource extraction (may make them more hesitant to give the land to National Parks because tourism for National is more regulated and resource extraction is prohibited)
3. Net economic gain for the Province by having provincial parks
4. There are smaller eco-regions that are represented than NP - we have more systems represented and protected which allows for more ecologically representative parks
5. Parks Canada operates from Ottawa where problems may be overlooked or take longer to be resolved whereas for PP our management is located closer to the actual protected area....(local management issues may be better taken into consideration)
6. Provincial parks count for more than half of the 11.5% of Canada's terrestrial protected areas both in area and numbers ....(smaller than national which is why there are so many)
What are the disadvantages to Provincially Protected Areas?
1. Less focused on ecological integrity and conservation
2. Each Province has different management plans and mandates varying in strength and level so there is a lot of variation between province
3. less resources and funding available for protection and management than national
4. Duplication of systems bw province and Parks Canada -so communication issues arise
also decreases effectiveness of protection
How many PPA are regulated?
What are the stats for them?
1/3 focus is on recreation and tourism
2/3 managed by MECP for protection and ecological integrity
Legislation we work under: PPCRA, LLA, TPA, ORVA...etc.
to maintain and restore ecological integrity
provide opportunities for consultation
What are Provincial Protected Area Systems?
Ontario divided province into different ecological classifications
Each classification represents different ecological, geological, and heritage features
What is the management like in Provincial Protected Area Systems?
small statements to broad frameworks
different levels of adaptation and amendment involved
What types of Management Issues may arise?
lack of knowledge and research
ex. there is no real relation to the areas that are protected in the province to species at risk...so basically we don't know if we are actually in the best location to benefit
What types of Ecological impacts may occur with PPA systems?
1. closer to surrounding land use
2. increase in tourism, recreation
3. Smaller and more susceptible to habitat fragmentation
How should people work together regarding PPA systems?
Multiple levels of government and jurisdictions need to work together but doesn't usually happen
ex. Parks are often located near watersheds which means we need initiatives in order to get the most effective protection and management
Need to better incorporate other stakeholders
What is the biggest takeaway in regards to PP management and NP management?
PP management and practises lack in comparison to NP
What is the North?
A unique region
Why is the North important?
Important part of CA history, our present, and our future
There are different management practices in establishing PA in the North
"North" Means different things to different people
There is some confusion of where to draw the line and why the definition of PA matters
What exactly is the "North"?
Territories which are located 60'degrees are considered North (they call this 60th parallel)
This is something that is a political delineation, meaning it is easier for political leaders to establish what its jurisdiction is and how to manage it.
60th parallel areas also have different control over resource development and assistance from Feds
What about areas that are not included within the 60th parallel/do not fall under this jurisdiction?
These areas are considered to the South
even though they have geographical features of the northern areas
How can we define the North?
Its 2 biomes
What are the 2 biomes?
What is a biome?
A biome is a distinct ecosystem with a distinct climate and distinct biological community that has adapted to those specific conditions, had predominant natural vegetation
What is the Arctic (tundra) biome like?
found mainly in Nunavut and NWT
limited soil and vegetation development
High arctic = polar desert
What is the Subarctic (boreal) biome like?
this southern boundary relates to the limit of permafrost
largest biome in CA
Cold winters, warm and short summers
Sporadic and discontinuous permafrost
Richer soils and diverse vegetation
Why is the North unique?
1. Coldest and largest region
2. Cold environment which leads to permafrost which packs the soil and creates less vegetation
3. Less agriculture, less settlement, less economic activity
4. Fewer species and lower biodiversity which makes PA more susceptible to stressors
5. Least dense biome in the world
6. Has a dualistic economy and culture
7. Contains territorial parks, reserves, migratory bird sanctuaries
What is the dualistic economy and culture contain?
What is Subsistence?
There is rooted traditional culture and knowledge and respect for environment
Lots of land claims are still being settled
What is Non-Indigenous in regards to the north?
Resource extraction (economic benefits)
How is management conducted in Northern Protected AReas?
-Usually take a collaborative management approach
(indigenous use their knowledge and expertise in regards to what is best practise)
-Managment in the north tends to fall under different legislation and policies (leads to confusion and communiciation issues)
-Fisheries and Oceans
What is Parks Canada role in the North?
Manages many areas in the North
-In some National Park Reserves the Indigenous have their titles and rights to the land while Parks Canada manages the land
-Joint management occurs
What is Co-Management?
Both parties have equal say on the matter
Equal partnership in management
What is Joint Management?
The final decision of management is given to Parks Canada
(sometimes this is successful and other times there are issues that arise)
What are the challenges to Northern Protected Areas?
2. Balancing Issues regarding People
3. Warming of the Climate
What is the challenge of being remote?
-Harder to staff these areas
-Harder to establish monitoring programs or scientific research (money associated with sampling regarding helicopter rides)
-The main location of management is further from site
What is the challenge of balancing issues regarding people?
-We need to consider Indigenous rights regarding hunting on the land for example
2. Politics, economics, social and scientific concerns and issues
What is the challenge of the warming of the climate?
1. It is increasing the most in the North
2. This is because of Polar Amplification (the albedo effect where there is an increase in solar radiation reflecting on the earths surface, which is now being absorbed due to no snow to reflect it)
3. Polar ice pack will disappear/decrease
4. NW passage will be free of ice and can open tourism up and begin resource extraction which can also create political and resource management issues
5. Boreal Forest will increase and move further North (wildlife distributions will change, loss of tundra vegetation which can affect the animals that feed on it)
7. Change in hydrology (ice cover on rivers and lakes will change, permafrost will begin to thaw)
What is the challenge regarding tourism?
1. North becoming more popular because people want to see and experience it before its gone
2. Visitors harm the environmental integrity of the area but can also be great advocates (they leave a large environmental footprint just to fly out there)
3. Increase in wildlife viewing, camping, hiking, fishing, local culture
4. Managing visitors safely regarding human-wildlife encounters (alot for guides, safety training, etc.)
Lecture 7 - Urban Parks
What do municipalities do in regards to urban parks?
Responsible for the planning
-keep in mind there isnt a lot of research involved in the creation of these parks
What is an Urban Park?
-recreational space created and managed by muncipal governments
-neighbourhood playgrounds, green spaces, community parks, urban forests
-aim to be aesthetically pleasing and accessible to the community
Why Urban Parks?
1. Easy to access therefore hig use, more than national or PP
2. Good for recreation and fitness
3. Helps us connect with nature
4. Social interaction
5. Learning/Personal Development
6. Helps us relax
What are the negatives to Urban Parks?
What is the history of urban parks?
-help improve persons health and prosperity
-encourage social activities and physical exercise
-improve cognition and help us connect with nature
-those that are considered safe and attractive are considered best locations, if they are not aesthetically pleasing than no one will use them
What should we consider regarding Urban Parks?
1. Location and access are not always equal for everyone
2. Environmental Justice Movement
3. Inequalities still exist and have become more apparent with the pandemic
4. Planners of Urban parks should have full engagement and communication with communities in regards to park locations
5. Focus has been mainly on recreation
Why are urban parks not equal?
-Largely affluent neighbourhoods have better access to better quality parks
-safety and traffic are also a factor
What is the Environmental Justice Movement?
-To increase equitable use of urban parks
-Everyone is entitled to these amenities
-No one should not be able to access these locations due to hazard or other
-Good way to promote this movement is to ensure there are high quality parks located in all communities
What inequalities still exist and why have they become more apparent regarding the pandemic?
ex. Higher class neighbourhoods which have larger backyards as well as closer access to urban parks were able to get outside more during Covid-19
-lower class communities did not have these luxuries
Why should planners of Urban Parks communicate with communities?
-To make sure that the needs of these communities are being met
-For some areas to be more accessible (if you can access by public transit vs cars)
Lecture 8 - Marine Parks
Over half of the worlds population lives within 200km of a coast
Oceans play an important role regarding 3 things
What happens to the oceans when there is an increase in human population?
When there is an increase in people in the world there is more
reliance on the ocean for lifestyle support, more
risk to ocean and degredation of its resources
This all means that PA are important
What complex issues face Marine Ecosystems?
What do all of these complex issues lead to?
Leads to rapid:
Marine ecosystems need better conservation, how can this occur?
-better regulations regarding the fishery industry
-designating specific marine PA
How many Marine PA are there? In a percent
5.3% of the worlds oceans are Marine PA
Half of this number are highly protected
Is the number of marine protected areas higher or lower than terrestrial?
Much Much lower
Terrestrial make up 14% (most of which are Prov. Parks)
Are areas protected if they are called protected but are not defined as such?
Areas are only protected when they meet the definition of a Protected Area and have the main objective of protection
What are the benefits of Marine Protected Areas?
1. Protects biodiversity and is representative of ecosystems
2. Is a benchmark for impacted areas (think of GPS)
3. Provides areas for scientific research
4. Benefits are largely felt by how well managed the PA is and the cooperation of its different stakeholders
In regards to Canada, how many oceans does our coastline span across?
All of these oceans have their own distinct species, and very diverse habitats that should be protected
Is it hard to manage these marine protected areas?
Yes, its very complex
All areas have different legislation and expectations for management
This can be confusing and inefficient
Does Canada use legislation for managing/protecting these ocean areas?
National Framework for Canada's Network of Marine Protected Areas
Created in 2011
Even though we have this we still need federal coordination to ensure marine protection in the future
What does Fisheries and Oceans Canada do in regards to Marine PA?
-Use partnerships to conserve and protect marine species
-have multiple levels of zoning that allow for some resource extraction
Why is there lots of flexibility in regards to individual management plans?
Because the legislation for management with fisheries and oceans canada is not specific
Who manages the most of Marine Protected Areas in Canada?
Fisheries and Oceans Canada
What does Parks Canada do in regards to Marine PAs?
-Conservation and sustainable use
(this is different from ecological integrity that they uphold for terrestrial PAs)
-Aim for visitor experience, understanding, appreciation, and enjoyment of these areas
-Want a Park in each of the 29 defined marine natural regions to compelete its national marine conservation system
How many zones does each Marine Protected Area have
What are the 2 zones?
1. One that fully protects
2. One that allows for renewable resource use
What does Environment Canada do in regards to Marine Protected AReas?
-Uses these PA mainly for wildlife protected (ex. migratory birds)
-Canadian Wildlife Services run the programs for Environment Canada
What do the Provincial and Territorial Governments do in regards to marine PAs?
-They are quite small
-Lack overall in their programs
-Are basically just marine extensions of terrestrial parks at this point in time
In what ways are Marine PAs lagging behind Terrestrial?
1. Rate of establishment is slow
2. Variable levels of protection
3. Multiple stakeholders
Why is the rate of establishment slow?
Our coastline is huge which may be the case
Why are there variable levels of protection?
-they are not good enough overall
-being variable does not allow for adequate ecological protection
-most PAs still allow for sustainable resource extraction even though research says that is negatively affecting the location (even sustainable fishery use are still damaging_
Why are stakeholders causing marine PAs to lag behind terrestrial?
-Hard to find a balance between too much involvement and not enough
(resource companies which could be detrimental to protection because they want resource extraction)
-Indigenous perspectives and involvement hasnt been good enough
-Try to provide benefits for communities but still keep protection in mind as a priority
What are the 3 issues that Canadian Marine Protected Areas Face?
1. Our Systems
3. Lack of information and resources
What is wrong with our systems?
We use the Framework for Marine PAs...this is a good start but we still need more systems implemented and more work being done
What is wrong with permeability?
-We need to keep in mind that oceans are mobile and the organisms within the oceans are mobile
-This means its hard to create a designated boundary for protection because PAs are very connected outside of their boundary
-With this in mind we should have surrounding areas of the boundaries to also be seeking further development/protection
What is wrong regarding lack of information and resources?
-we need more scientific research
-we need more improved monitoring programs
-we need better management plans
-people in general have a difficult time visualizing the impacts on the ocean than on terrestrial areas because they cannot see it
Lecture 9 - Conservation Biology
Parks and Protected Areas contribute to conservation by protecting habitat. What are the things we need to consider in order to best do this?
1. where the parks is located
2. how many parks are needed
3. size of the park for best protection
4. will the adjacent land hinder conservation
5. how many visitors should we let in
What were parks orginally for?
often left to run by themselves
What are Parks now?
-Ecological integrity focus
-Require active management
In addition to ecological management what else do we need to make sure parks provide?
-satisfactory visitor experience
-interpretation that helps promote long term conservation behaviours in the visitors after they visit
What do parks provide regarding conservation biology?
-important ecological functions and services
(regulate water cycles, nutrient cycles, etc.)
-important habitat for wildlife and waterfowl
How do parks best operate?
When they are not impacted by stressors
What is the ultimate goal of Parks Canada?
Protect the functions and services of parks by ensuring ecological integrity is maintained
Why are each park ecosystem and park species unique?
1. different locations
2. land use history
3. visitor use
4. biophysical environment
5. surrounding stressors
*basically all of these mean that its hard to apply general concepts because every single ecosystem is different and varies so it makes conservation biology difficult
What are the 5 goals and objectives for Conservation Biology?
4. Include measurable targets
5. Include spatial and temporal context
What does it mean to be realistic?
Be realistic given the goals of the area
What does it mean to be clear?
If goals are not clear than actions can be very different than what was needed for the location
ex. different strategies are needed to protect a vulnerable species vs maintaining the processes that manage species diversity
What does it mean to have measurable targets?
To help people differentiate if the targets have been met or not
What things do we need to consider regarding CB?
-Uniqueness of different species and ecosystems
-goals and objectives
this is because:
-species and ecosystems are not the same everywhere and concepts that are applied in the most northern parks will differ than the southern parks or urban
-they will have different management practises and different problems
-there is not a one fits all approach
What do biologists normally place the most effort and degree of importance on?
The most important species and landscape elements
What is detrimental to doing it this way?
Scientists tend to focus on one thing and end up forgetting about the other things that are also important
In order to minimize this one sided focus, what 2 approaches should we use?
Umbrella Species Approach
What is Coarse-Filter Approach?
Conserving a representative collection of ecosystems to help protect the majority of species
What is the Umbrella Species Approach?
-1 species is used to represent many
-Where we work to protect that one species and hope that others will follow and receive benefit as well
What is native biodiversity?
Plants/vegetation that is native and original to the ecosytem
Is there a difference between restoring/maximizing native biodiversity and maximizing species richness?
Some managers tend to focus on maximizing species richness when they should be focusing on maximizing native biodiversity
This is because species richness includes species that are not native to the environment.
-it can increase greatly through exotic species and decrease the natural ones - making the environment "unnatural"
What do we want with park vegetation regarding conservation biology?
2. Native biodiversity
If a park is in poor conditions should we keep the non native plants?
If it is in poor condition than restorative procedures may be done but should occur in a careful manner with natural conditions in mind
What is Metapopulation conservation?
A population of populations linked by dispersal across a broad region
ex. 1 population of species may be composed of other sub populations from immigration, emmigration and other means
-These species occur naturally but some park boundaries do not know how to fully capture them
...so we need to consider consider populations and species outside of specific park boundary for health of species inside boundaries
What is fragmentation?
-Natural and human disturbances
-roads are the main cause
-even if there are not many roads through the park the surrounding roadways can still lead to fragmentation
What does fragmentation lead to?
Some species are very susceptible/sensitive to fragmentation
-those with both long and short migration routes
-those that are extra sensitive to disturbances
What are Wildlife corridors?
They are for connectivity
we protect large areas and maintain corridors between them for dispersal ex. farmers fields with surrounding trees
What do wildlife corridors do?
Minimize the effects of ecological process and functions across broad landscapes
What do wildlife corridors allow for?
1. higher species diversity
2. Maintenance of ecological processes and functions across broad regions
3. Prevents catastrophic distrubances
What is Species Vulnerability?
Some species are more vulnerable to stress and disturbance than others
Managers should always take this into account
What are the 5 types of species
1. K Strategist
2. Summit Predator
3. Spatially Constrained
4. Migratory Birds
5. Long Distance Migration Mammals
What are K Strategists?
-live for a long time
-low reproduction rates
What are Summit Predators
-depend on species in the food chain below them
-susceptible to biomagnification of pollutants
What are Spatially Constrained Species?
-Constrained to one area
-Susceptible to disturbance from local events
ex. oil spill
Why are Migratory Birds vulnerable
-require good habitat and nesting grounds in order for population levels to be maintained
Why are long distance migration mammals vulnerable?
-these mammals require more habitat which is harder to find along their route
In what way would Conservation Biology be more successful?
-If we identified and dealt with the cause of the problem (not just the symptoms)
-Because if we only treat the problem and not the cause than we will always be behind
ex. if you reintroduce a species without knowledge of why its population reduced in the first place
Why is it complicated to deal with the cause and not just the symptoms?
Needs multidisciplinary research
ex. will provide different approaches and knowledge to apply and understand causes of problems before making a decisions
What are Ecological Thresholds?
-Critical Point of an ecosystem
When is a threshold crossed?
Crossed when a change in a driver or event causes a large response
What happens when a threshold is crossed?
Sometimes the change can be small but have a very large threshold response
Once this threshold is crossed it is harder to make changes or improvements
We need studies to identify the critical points in a location so that we do not approach these threshold points
Why do conservation biologists need to understand Multiple Stressors?
Can often be interacting sometimes cumulatively which result in large changes in ecosystems
ex. climate change will cause stress but climate change + fragmentation will have even larger affects
BASICALLY Managers need to take into account more than just once stressor at a time
How do we mitigate uncertainty in Conservation Biology?
-Use a variety of approaches and practise
-This helps more species, accounts for more predictable changes, and can have expected outcomes in regards to natural variation
-if we have a variety of approaches than if one goes wrong the impact wont be as extreme in the long run
-Park management also mitigates uncertainty
ex. prescribed burns at varying dates and times can create and maintain more diverse post fire conditions which create a habitat for a large range of species
Lecture 10 - Ecological Integrity
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Intro to Sustainability
Enviro Impact Assessments
Geomorphology & Soils
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
Latin 3ème - Les adjectifs latins
BTLPT Review Math 1
IAPP 1 Exam 1 (part 1)
APUSH Q1 Interim