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AtmosHydros - GG281
Terms in this set (379)
What happens when permafrost thaws in relation to a community?
Puts pressure on community and landscape
Water is flowing and being stored differently on a landscape
What 3 things control the amount of radiation (energy) that reaches the earths surface?
Distance from the sun
Geometric relationship between the earth and sun
What is the value of the solar constant?
Does the suns distance to the earth vary?
The sun is further away in the summer
What is the temperature of the earth on average?
What wavelengths and color do the sun and earth emit?
Sun emits in short wave (red)
Earth emits in long wave (blue)
What is the wavelength dependent on?
The temperature of the radiating body
Hot temperatures emit in short
Cold temperatures emit in long
What type of relationship does the earth have with the sun?
Does the energy from the sun that the earth feels vary from a distance?
The earth is 150 million km away from the sun
If we drew rings around the sun that went further and further away we would find that the energy from the sun is diluted over a greater volume
By the time we get out to 150 million km and just reach the earths surface, the energy the earth feels from the sun is 1400 w/m2
What is the subsolar point?
The position (point) on earth where the suns rays are directly overhead
What is the point called when the sun is 90' from the horizon on earth?
This is also considered the subsolar point
What is the equinox position?
The earth is directly above the sun
Where is the sun/subsolar point when the earth is in an equinox postiion?
The subsolar point is right at the earths equator
What is also signified when the subsolar point is right at the earths equator?
That we are in the middle of the day where the sun is directly overhead
Does the subsolar point vary?
How does the subsolar point vary?
It varies over the course of the year through its laditude
23 1/2' latitude N and,
23 1/2' latitude S
Why is is 23 1/2' N and 23 1/2' S??
Because the earth is on a tilt of 23 1/2'
What does it mean that the earth is tilted?
The earths axis of rotation is tilted 23 1/2' away from a vertical line
What should we keep in mind regarding 23 1/2'
It is a value that appears to control everything in the geometric relationship between the sun and the earth
This includes the migration of the subsolar point during the year
What 2 things does the earth do?
What is the tilt of the earth?
What does rotate mean?
Means the earth rotates on its axis
Where does the subsolar point migrate?
Over the course of the year between 23 1/2' N latitude, and 23 1/2' S latitude
What should we think of the subsolar point as in relation to the earth?
Think of the subsolar point as a marker on the earth where the earth is moving below it creating a line on the earths surface (the equator)
What does revolve mean?
The earth revolves, or moves around the sun
-think of a ballet dancer
In addition to the 2 things that the earth does, what does the earth do?
While rotating and revolving the earth ALWAYS maintains its tilt of the axis at 23 1/2'
What is 23 1/2' also called?
Tropic of Cancer
Tropic of Capricorn
Where is the Tropic of Cancer located?
Its the line north of the equator
Where is the Tropic of Capricon located?
Its the line south of the equator
What is solar noon?
The midpoint between the time the sun rises and when it sets
Is solar noon the same all the time>
No, it varies throughout the year
Is solar noon actually 12 noon, like what we are made to believe?
No, because this is just humans legislating time
ex. daylight savings
it could actually be 1pm, so an hour past 12
What is an equinox position?
Where the circle of illumination lines up with the axis of rotation
What happens when the earth reaches a summer solistice position?
The circle of illumination no longer lines up with the axis of rotation
Where the subsolar point is at the tropic of cancer (23 1/2' N)
Is the earth still tilted?
But the circle of illumination now cuts through the earth at 66 1/2' N latitude and 66 1/2' S latitude
Why is the value no 66 1/2'??
Because when you take 90' and substract 23 1/2; then you are left with 66 1/2'
When does the summer solstice take place>
When does the winter solstice take place?
When the sub solar point is at the tropic of capricorn (23 1/2'S)
How often does the subsolar point pass the earth?
touches the tropic of capricorn and the tropic of cancer once a year
What happens when the earth is at a summer solstice position in relation to the sun?
The northern hemisphere gets more light
The southern hemisphere gets less light
In what way does the northern hemisphere get more light?
25 hours of daylight
The sun never sets
-occurs if you are north of the arctic circle
In what way does the southern hemisphere get less light?
24 hours of darkness
The sun never rises
-occurs if you are south of the antarctic circle
What is the subsolar point again?
The position on earth where the suns rays are directly overhead
When you are in an equinox position what is the subsolar point value?
Still at 23 1/2'
Why do we call it the equinox position?
Because there is EQUAL light in the N and S hemispheres
What does equal mean?
Equal day lengths throughout the world
12 hour days and 12 hour nights
What happens when we are in the solstice position?
We could have longer than 12 days/nights or shorter than 12 days/nights
What is this position when the axis of rotation lines up with the circle of illumination
What does the circle of illumination mean?
The boarder of day and night on the earth
(Light and dark)
What equinox happens when we are to the north of the sun?
What equinox happens when we are to the south of the sun?
On what side of the sun does the summer equinox occur?
To the left and has greater lighting in the northern hemisphere
On what side of the sun does the winter equinox occur?
To the right and has greater lighting in the southern hemisphere
What does equinox mean again?
EQUAL day and night
What is does the equinox mean?
Axis of rotation is EQUAL to the circle of illumination
EQUAL lighting of northern and southern hemispheres
What does the earth do as it rotates around the sun?
Nods back and forward/tilts backwards and forwards
Why is it important for the earth to tilt at its axis?
Means that the energy of the sun is being distributed on the earth
What would happen if the earth had a greater tilt of the axis than the 23 1/2'?
Energy would be distributed even more, meaning that poles would be warmer and the equator would be cooler
What does insolation mean?
Incoming solar radiation
What would happen if there was no tilt at all?
We would have a REALLY hot equator
The poles would be REALLY cold
Our subsolar point would be at the equator year round
The tilt also dictates our seasons so we wouldnt have any seasons
How can you tell if a planet is tilted?
this is relative to the path it takes around the sun
Why is the height of the sun important above the horizon?
Controls the density of energy at the grounds surface
Time of day, year, and latitude
What does it mean that it controls the density of energy at the grounds surface?
Because if we think of the sun as being a flashlight, the point where it hits the equator on the earth is where the most energy is being directed. Like a flashlight, everything surrounding that point is illuminated but not by much.
When a flashlight is at 90' is where it is most concentrated
So is the suns energy fairly high when its tilted towards the poles?
No, because just like a flashlight, when you tilt a flashlight you get a pancake effect which disperses the amount of energy versus directly it to a specific location
When the sun is directly at its 90' position in relation to the Earth is its energy quite strong?
Yes, it is 2.5x greater
How the suns rays strikes a surface is dependent on what 3 things?
Time of year
Time of day
What does time of year have to do with anything?
The sun doesnt rise to the same altitude above the horizon at solar noon because the sub-solar point is always migrating
What does time of day have to do with anything?
The sun rises and its angles are the sharpest in the evening
During the day the energy of the sun is most concentrated
What does latitude have to do with anything?
When the suns rays strike the earths surface its most concentrated when the surface is at its 90' mark versus when it strikes the earth at an angle
(remember the flashlight)
As we go further north and also as we go further south the sun will strike at a greater angle
When the sun hits the curve of the earth it pans out at a larger area and disperses its energy
What 3 questions do you ask yourself if you want to calculate the noon sun angle?
1. Where you are
2. Time of year/date
3. Where is the subsolar point for this date
What does it mean if your noon sun angle is really high?
That the sun is hotter and more directly overhead and closer to its 90' mark
Are we able to predict a subsolar point at any time and any place?
Yes because of the geometric constant between the earth and the sun
What is life like living at the equator?
Not much fluctuation because the equator only ever moves 23.5' S and 23.5'N
Because of this the solar energy input is about the same
This also means that there is barely any seasons
What is life like living further away from the equator?
You get more variation and severity in seasons
If you go to the poles for example, you will have full days of sunlight or darkness
What controls the amount of solar radiation reaching the earth?
1 distance from the sun
2 geometric relationship between the earth and sun
3 atmospheric filtering
What is the solar constant or distnace from the sun from earth
1400 w/m2 (at right angle 90' to the suns rays)
What does the geometric relationship between the earth and sun include?
Tilt of axis
Rotation of axis around the sun
Revolution of axis around the sun
What do the geometric relationship factors also control?
the Angle of Incidence
What is the angle of incidence?
The angle where the suns rays are striking the earths surface
What is the angle of incidence controlled by?
Time of year
Time of day
What does location (latitude) mean?
How far you are away from the equator
What does solar energy fuel in regards to the earth and seasons?
It fuels natural phenomenas
ex. tectonic plate shifting, volcanic activity
Why should we think of the sun as fuel?
Think of a receptacle for a plug is energy provided by the sun
Without the receptacle tan the light will not be able to carry out its processes
How is solar radiation able to flow through the earths atmosphere, interact with it, as well as interact with the ground surface and oceans? 4 things
Need to know:
1. Nature and forms of radiation
2. Laws governing energy flows
3. laws describign radiation from surfaces
4. budgets of radiation and energy
What is radiation?
wavelike transmission of energy
A mode of energy transfer
long and short wave
Why is the large majority of long wave short wave?
Because when short wave is emitted, it is in turn absorbed accroding to the temperature of the radiating body and expresses itself in long wave
What does the earth do when it received radiation?
Absorbs it and emits in in other ways
What is wavelength controlled by
Temperature of the radiating surfac
What happens if you have a cold object?
It will radiate in longwaves
What if you have a warm object?
It will radiate in short wave
What are laws governing energy flows?
Laws build within one another
You cannot defy another law
Examples of laws governing energy flow are:
energy moves from surplus to deficit (whiteboard is hotter than room, then energy will move from the board into the room)
Rate of energy movement is proportional to the energy gradient (whiteboard is really hot, then energy will move rapidly away from it)
Energy cannot be created or destroyed (conservation of energy)
What is the conservation of energy equation?
I = a + t + fishy delta
What does the conservation of energy equation mean?
All energy must be accounted for and certain amounts of that force of energy will be transmitted absorbed and reflected
We have to use all energy received
Energy will have 3 things done to it:
What are laws that describe radiation from surfaces?
What does weins radiation law describe?
The inverse relationship between the temperature of an object and the wavelength it emits
What does stefan-boltzman radiation law describe>
Flow of radiant energy from a surface is directly related to the surface temperature raised to the fourth power
if you increase the temp of a radiating body a little bit, the the amount of energy coming back from that body is actually increased by a lot
What are budgets of radiation and energy
Sun emits solar radiation in shortwaves to the earth
the earth transmits it
absorbs it, or
reflects it (into long waves or for other uses)
How can we think of Budgets of radiation and energy?
Think of our own budget...we have money from our job, we bring it to the store, and we apply it at the bank, education, meals
How does solar radiation pass through the atmopshere, interact with it, and the ground surface/
The atmosphere acts as an energy filter
-it is a transformer of energy from short wave to long wave
How much nitrogen is in the atmosphere?
How much oxygen is in the atmosphere?
How much argon, CO2, and water vapour are in the atmosphere?
What does argon, CO2, and water vapour include?
What do greenhouse gases do?
prevent long wave from escaping the earth and absorb them
How do we know how much energy gets to the earths surface?
Think about the 4 laws we talked about before
1. Nature and forms of radiation
2. Laws governing energy flows
3. laws describing radiation from surfaces
4. budgets of radiation and energy
What is Law 4 Budgets of radiation and energy again?
-Means you canNOT destroy or create energy
-You account for all of it
-We think about money and budgets, we never lose money we just find other uses for it
Why is the atmosphere like an energy filter?
It controls the amount of energy able to penetrate and reach the grounds surface
How does the energy filter change over time?
if it becomes more opaque to long wave then atmospheric temperatures will rise.....due to the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere
Where is the greatest amount of insolation (incoming solar radiation)?
It is along the tropic of cancer and tropic of capricorn because these are our subsolar points
Why would this matter?
Because this subsolar point produces the max direct amount of heat and energy causing air and temperature to rise
What does rising air and temperature cause?
Convergence where air masses within the southern and norther hemisphere (on either side of the subsolar point at the equator) are now coming towards the subsolar point at the equator
The air rises and forms clouds through adiabatic cooling which rises and does what?
Moves away from the equator and subsides in the tropics of capricorn and cancer
Air mass then sinks, gets heavier and warmer creating cloud coverage
What does all of this cloud formation talk mean?
The Hadley Cell Cycle
What is the Hadley Cell Cycle in laymans terms?
Air heats up from the equator, reaches a point where it moves and sinks at the tropics
Do different surface reflect the same?
of course NOT
What are the components for the Earths Energy Budget?
-comes from sun aka solar radiation
-absorbed in earth, re-emitted long wave
-if you are standing on ground you will experience incoming and outgoing long and short wave
What is albedo?
The fraction of incoming solar radiation that is reflected and lost
What does a high albedo mean such as 90%?
-high reflectivity of the suns energy
What does a low albedo mean such as 4%?
-low reflectivity of the suns energy
How does the tax man analogy work in regards to albedo?
If you look at your pay cheque you have a 5% tax rate (this is what the government takes off of your cheque)
This means you have 95% to spend
Same as if the government takes away 10%, then we have 90% to spend
Basically if we reflect just a little bit, then we have energy to do other things like transmission or absorption
What do lakes/oceans/water bodies have in albedo?
What does asphalt have in albedo?
What is the energy balance?
Q* = Qe + Qh + Qg
What are the essentials to the energy balance?
Net all-wave radiation
this means short and long waves
The energy transfer is only done by radiation
We take into account the energy that comes in and comes out in long/short wave
What does the Energy Balance encompass?
All energy flows
Represents how energy is moved around
What is Qe?
Latent Heat Flux
-This heat is hidden
-its there but can be released later to contribute to energy balance
What is Qh?
Sensible Heat Flux
-heat you can sense with a thermometer
-directed upwards from the earth
What 2 forms of energy transfer does sensible heat use?
Convection (where there is a presence of wind)
What is Qg?
Ground heat flux
-heat directed downward to the earth
How does Qg direct heat downward into the ground?
How does energy flow?
From surplus to deficit
Which means that energy moves things to the ground surface and moves it away as well when need be
What are the 4 ways of energy transfer? aka how does energy move?
What is Conduction at the molecular level?
The transfer from one layer of molecules and energy to another
Think of the lines of x's that Quinton layered on top of each other
We have one layer of molecules at a surface, the surface warms up, those molecules get excited, and it in turn warms the layer above it...etc.
What is Convection?
Movement of wind and water
If you introduce wind over a surface then it enhances the process of molecular conduction
We are disturbing the molecules via turbulence from the wind or other means to get a flow of heat
What is latent heat?
Hidden heat that has phase changes
Where energy is used in orderto transfer water from one phase to the next
Can be a phase change from a solid to a liquid to ice and back again
What are the different phase changes of water?
Release of latent heat
Absorption of latent heat
What does the release of latent heat entail?
What is condensation?
If you condensate water that evaporated you release 2500 j/g back into the surface energy balance
you are putting that energy back in you can use it again for other purposes
The key is putting energy back INNN
What does Absorbing Latent Heat entail?
When you take energy OUT of the surface energy balance
What is evaporation?
Uses energy derived from raidation
What is sublimation?
A direct result from ice to vapour
its a 2 step process
melt the ice, evaporate the water that melts, absorb the joules back into the atmosphere
What is melting
For every gram of ice that you melt it costs 334 J
What is the condensation the reverse of?
What is melting the reverse of?
What flux happens during the day?
energy flows from areas of surplus to deficit
daytime heat heats up ground surface, energy is being sent back to the air, and you have enough energy left to satisfy latent energy to evaporate water
What happens in night time fluxes?
Equation is much smaller
This is because there is no incoming solar radiation (shortwave from the sun)
so you only have incoming and outgoing longwave radiation
Again energy flows from surplus to deficit
energy is at grounds surface, the surplus is below and above it so the soil layers below the ground are sending energy upwards
Qe - water is present because there isnt enough energy to evaporate water so present water will condensate and go back into the energy balance
How does energy move?
From surplus to deficit
Why is longwave radiation really low in dry environments?
Because in order to have evaporation you need energy and water
And we dont have any energy or water to fulfill that need
So all the solar energy is given to sensible heat and latent heat instead of ground heat flux
What are the energy conditions in a wet and damp surface such as an irrigated blueberry orchard?
High longwave energy
Because the location even when it gets dry still has a supply of water, it is also an open field so it has direct and intense solar radiation
Longwave is high and dominates, leaving little playing room for Qh (sensible heat) and Qg (ground heat flux)
What is surface energy balance?
A theoretical balance that doesnt exactly exist in the environment but it makes it easier for us to understand processes
What about the surface energy balance?
We should think of it as a volume showing that energy enters into the volume and is stored both below and above the layer
What is the radiation balance equation?
Q* = short wave down - short wave up ++ longwave down - long wave up
What is the energy balance equation?
Q* + Qe + Qh + Qg +/- deltaS
What is +/- deltaS?
This is showing a change in storage
We use this is we are thinking of a volume
Ex. air temperature that goes up and down constantly and is changing is the change in the storage of energy in the volume of air where the thermometer is located
What is flux convergence and divergence?
Where we are able to apply deltaS (aka change in storage)
What is the energy balance supplied by?
How is the energy used?
It is partitioned according to the energy availability that is according to uses (latent, sensible, ground heat flux)
What is a flux convergence?
Where there is an upward flux
This is where we can collect temperature data for sensible heat (Qh)
What happens when you cool things down?
You energy outputs are exceeding the inputs
What happens when you heat things up?
Energy inputs exceed outputs
Why does temperature change/elevation change with the troposphere?
At the ground surface the ground is a poor transmitter
This means that energy is stacked into reflection/absorption
If its not a good reflector then it is either stacked into transmission/absorption
Why do we get hot as we rise in the atmosphere?
There is little energy being absorbed as we rise in the atmosphere because its being transmitted elsewhere
Does the atmospheric filter have anything to do with this?
the ozone layer preferentially absorbs energy and re-emits it in long wave which heats up the atmosphere
What is the atmosphere composed of?
What are the 2 layers?
What is the Heterosphere?
gases are sorted by their molecular weight
basically at like 80km in the atmosphere is where its located
What is the Homosphere?
Gases are blended as the chemical components are similar
location is surface of earth to 80km mark
What is the Troposphere?
Where most of the aerosols in the atmosphere are
Where most of the water is in the atmosphere
What are aerosols?
Less than 10 microns but larger than 0.001
They remain suspended in the atmosphere
What are the 2 things that aerosols provide?
Provide a surface for moisture to condensate on
Why do aerosols need a surface to condensate?
If water is in the atmosphere then we know it needs a surface to condensate or it wont condensate at all
Aerosols provide this surface to allow for moisture to enter into the atmosphere
What is the thickness of the troposphere?
0-12km high above the poles
15km thick at equator
Why is the equator thicker?
The earth rotates on its axis which creates a centrifugal force that spins and pushes the atmosphere out at right angles to the direction of the axis of rotation
If we're at the poles we dont have this effect which is why there is a thinner atmosphere out there
What is atmospheric pressure?
The atmosphere is made up of gases which are fluid like and are compressible
Is water compressible?
Is gas compressible>
What happens to these gases when they are low in the atmosphere?
They are in bulk
Because a large majority of the atmosphere in terms of mass is in the troposphere which means there is a lot of mass pressing down on the gas molecules
Is there a location in the atmosphere where the gas molecules arent as compressed?
A boundary layer is involved
Its at a certain height in the atmosphere where a thermometer is unable to reach it
How would you have temperatures above 0 over an ice pack?
Wind is prominent in this where it carries energy from one location to the next
So if it carries from a cold area then it will be fine, if it carries from an area that is grass and already warm, then it will likely melt
What contributes to snow melt?
Qh (sensible heat)
What does the atmosphere act as?
What does it filter?
Energy coming in
Where does the ground mainly get its source of heat?
but its a poor transmitter so it has to absorb from other things
If it absorbs then it is re-emitted in the long wave
What are the layers in the atmosphere from bottom most to topmost?
What makes up atmospheric pressure
What are gases
A fluid that responds to grades
What does the atmopshere do to gases?
It mass is so heavy that it compresses gases
Is pressure linear?
What does linear pressure mean?
As you go down 1 unit, your pressure goes up 1 unit
If you go down 5 units, pressure goes up 5 units
Why does this linear relationship occur?
Because you cannot compress water
Therefore the more water you have the more incremental increase in pressure as you get deeper and deeper into water
What does kelvin refer to?
Meaning it starts at absolute zero
What is the molecular conduction process
first layer of molecules in contact with grounds surface, warms up, and causes a chain reaction of warming in all the layers above that
What does molecular conduction process talk about?
Temperature is a direct reflection of the molecular vibrations of individual molecules
Basically the more you warm a molecule up and give them energy the more they get excited and manifest into heat/temperature
What does absolute zero mean?
A theoretical temperature where all molecular motion stops
Means we cannot get colder than that
We can only go up in terms of molecular motion which affects temperature (by increasing it)
What is the value of Kelvin?
How do we measure temperature?
What is the specific way that climate technicians measure temperature?
measure once daily at the same time every day
Taken within the shield of the station (stephenson screen)
What is the height that all climate stations are at?
1.2 metres above the grounds surface
Why are climate stations consistently at 1.2m above the grounds surface?
This is a value used everywhere to ensure that data is consistent
If someones climate station was 5 metres above the ground and yours still at 1.2m would the temperature really not be the same?
because the further above ground we get, the colder the temperature gets
What does the climate station look like?
White (to reflect heat via high albedo)
Slats on screen (for ventilation)
Stephenson screen one is more difficult to use, why?
You have to pull out the thermometer inside the screen and manually read it
other climate stations are electronic and some have the thermometer outside of the station
What is the thermometer called in the stephenson screen station?
(measures daily max and min)
Why should temperatures be taken at the same time of day
Because temperatrues can vary so much
even below the screen of the station could have a different temperature
What controls air temperature
Why do global factors influence air temperature?
Time (of day/year)
What is latitude
Distance from subsolar point
Radiation at the equator doesnt really change because the sub solar point isnt very far away from the equator, no sesons, and not much cloud cover
Higher latitude/elevations produce extreme temperatures and seasonality
Proximity to water bodies has an effect as well (scotland is further N than montreal but has warmer winters and colder summers bc of water nearby)
What does time of day/year have to do with global factors in regards to air temperature?
sun rises at different times and your minimum temp is always taken just before sunrise
Why is proximity to water bodies important?
Water takes time to warm up and takes time to cool down
What is involved with the local/regional factors that affect air temperature?
Proximity to urban areas
Proximity to large water bodies
What does elevation include?
There are variations of elevation all over the world
climate stations are located all over
Higher elevation, lower temperatures, higher fluctuations because of air density, less atmospheric filtering, closer to solar constant
Why is there more fluctations in temperature at higher elevations
Air is more dense
Takes longer and more energy to heat up and cool down
What does proximity to urban areas have to do with anything?
These change the ground surface
Can affect albedo
Increases dry and moist surfaces
think of pavements
What does proximity to large water bodies have to do with anything?
Think of oceans and lakes
Energy is being moved
They are good transmitters
They take energy and dissipate it over a volume rather than just at its surface
What else does Proximity to large water bodies include?
Downwelling of shortwave radiation
Mixing of energy
What do thermal properties include?
How a surface receives and responds to energy
Some require more energy to warm up
What does evaporative cooling mean?
If you have an endless water supply over an ocean and enough energy...
then evaporation will take place
If you evaporate you are taking energy out of the energy balance which creates a cooling effect
What is the fuel that drives all earths processes?
Short wave radiation aka sun
Where is shortwave radiation transferred to control?
All-wave radiation aka Q* equation
What is Q* controlled by?
The nature of the surface
A surface could be highly reflective therefore high albedo, or low reflectivity therefore low albedo
What do we do do the energy balance equation when we are taking into account a volume?
Which is the change in storage
What happens when you have positive storage?
What happens when you have negative storage?
What temperature are we at just before sunrise?
How does elevation influence temperature?
What are global actors fagain?
Time of day
Time of year
What are local/regional factor?
Proximity to urban areas
Proximity to large water bodies
What happens when you increase in elevation?
Experience colder temperatures
Fluctuations in day and night time temps
Why when its colder do we get more fluctuation at a higher elevation?
Molecules/gases are heavy and settle in the troposphere There is so many that have settled it takes a long time for them to warm up and to cool down, they are also further away from the solar constant
BUT when we are at high elevations we are closer to the solar constant and reduces the compression of gases, they are actually instead very few and far between which causes higher fluctuations and bouncing between temperatures
What does insolation do in regards to water bodies?
Strikes a translucent surface (water) and will have good transmission and reflection and less absorption
which contributes to the air temperature absorption and such
What do large water bodies do in the summer?
keep things cool
What do large water bodies do in the winter?
keep things warm
Where are the most extreme and varying temperatures found?
In areas further away from larger water bodies
Areas at the poles
ex. interior and northern america, russia
Why is the south pole so much colder even though the S and N poles are the same distance from the sun?
-surrounded by large body of water
-right at sea level (so no elevation)
-land masses surrounding it
-far from water bodies
-located in centre of a continent
-further away from water the colder in the winter and warmer in the summer
-has higher elevation due to tall glaciers
What is ice albedo feedback?
When you take away highly reflective surface (such as ice) and are now faced with low reflective surfaces (such as the ground)
What is the amount of moisture a parcel can hold controlled by?
What happens when a parcel of air increases?
Its moisture that it can hold also increases
What are the 3 phases of water?
Gas (Water vapour)
What happens to water when Qe is applied?
It can break its hydrogen bonds and allow it to reform
ex. break liquid water and allow it to form into water vapour
What happens when we break the hydrogen bonds of water?
Its density also changes
Which is most dense:
Water at 1000 kg/m3
Does the volume of water increase when turned to ice (frozen)
Will increase by about 10%
What is the least dense form of water?
How do phase changes occur with water?
When you absorb or release latent heat
Melting is equivalent to _____
Evaporation is equiv. to ______
Sublimation is equiv. to _______
Is there more water in the atmosphere than on earth?
Most of our water is found in oceans where surface water found in ice and glaciers is overwhelming
Why does temperature not freefall in the winter?
Because of latent heat
When you freeze water it releases heat which ends up off-setting the rate of cooling
It kind of acts as a buffer
Why does out West temperatures get below 40'?
Because there is buffering going on with sublimation
There is the freezing of moisture in the air
How is water expressed?
What is vapour pressure?
Think of the gas molecules being compressed due to atmospheric pressure...there are also water molecules intertwined with this and when those are compressed that is vapour pressure
How is the relative amount of water in the air represented?
What is relative humidity?
The amount of water held in a parcel of air
relative to the max amount that it could hold
at that temperature
What does the relative humidity definition mean?
That air can hold different amounts of water in the vapour phase
just depends on the airs temperature
What does it mean if a parcel of air can relatively hold 70%?
That the air parcel can hold 30% of moisture before its saturated
What is the key to relative humidity
only when you change temperature does the relative humidity change
we dont even have to take out molecules from it, the same number remains there
ex. water molecules in a room remains the same all the time, only thing that changes is the capacity of the room to hold water vapour....an increase in RH makes it harder for the room to hold water vapour
What happens with warmer air and RH?
Greater ability to hold water vapour
What happens with colder air and RH?
Less ability to hold water vapour
Condensation is likely to occur due to over-saturation
What is the Saturation Vapour Pressure?
relationship of vapour pressure to temperature
If you increase the temperature of a parcel of air what happens?
The amount of moisture that parcel can hold increases
If you keep holding onto the moisture then eventually the parcel will become super saturated and condensaton will occur
To reach saturation we have to add molecules
We dont have to touch the molecules at all
What happens if we lower the temperature further down from its saturation point?
We enter into supersaturation mode
How do we get condensation on a cool surface?
ex. cold glass of water with ice
Think about the layers of x's molecules that are surrounding the surface of the glass
The cold glass is cooling the layer of molecules and air around it, causes the molecules to move, brings itself to dew point temperature and creates saturation and then condensation
What happens when you have condensation on a warm surface?
ex. hot cup of tea
we are warming the layers of molecules outside of the tea cup
this causes RH to decrease/lower because it is drawing the air out for humidity to not occur
What happens when temperature increases
because warm air can hold more vapour than cold air
What happens when temperature decreases?
What is the key thing to think about regarding temperature and relative humdiity?
RH does the opposite to temperature
when temp rises, RH lowers
when temps falls, RH rises
What is atmospheric lifting expressed through?
What is the process of differential heating in atmospheric lifting?
If you have warm air in the middle, air becomes unstable
Warm air expands and begins to rise and becomes unstable and has low density and low air pressure
this means that the buoyancy force is raising it
What happens if a parcel of air is cold?
higher density so it remains at the earths surface due to gravitational forces and high air pressure
What if buoyance and gravitaitonal forces are equal
the parcel of air will remain where it is and wont move up or down
what happens when a parcel of airs temperature is higher than the surrounding air?
The parcel is unstable and will rise
it will eventually hit a dew point
condensation will occur
it will release heat
what happens if an air parcel is the same temperature as its surrroudings?
It will remain exactly where it is
it is stable
What are the 3 things an air parcel does as it rises through the atmosphere?
1. expands (density goes down
2. Temperature goes down (falls)
3. Relative Humidity increases (at earth RH may be 10%, but once you rise and hit the dew point temperature than the humidity will be 100%)
What is the adiabatic lapse rate?
Describes how a parcel of air in itself is cooling due to expansion
it has internal processes of heating and cooling without an exchange of energy between the air parcel and its surroundings (ambient air)
Is the adiabatic lapse rate affected by latent heat?
What is the Dry adiabatic lapse rate?
A constant value at 10'km
where your parcel of air is NOT saturated
affected by latent heat
if the rate of the parcel rise is higher than the rate of heat is also higher
What happens again if a parcel of air is unstable?
change the rate of cooling
What is the saturated adiabatic lapse rate?
when the parcel IS saturated
RH = 100%
What is the environmental lapse rate (ELR)
The change in temperature as you rise through the atmosphere
(doesnt have anything to do with air parcels)
literally just the change in temperature like if we walked up the CN tower and stuck a thermometer outside every 10 steps
Why is condensation important?
allows light to reflect
allows sunsets to occur
because it provides aerosols for these processes
What are condensation nuclei
they are formed from condensation
larger they get they form a raindrop
cant be kept in the atmosphere because they are too heavy for buoyancy therefore rain
How do you saturate air
add water to it
What happens when an air parcel rises and gets further from the grounds surface?
it will cool and eventually get to a dew point temperature
where its saturated, condenses, and releases heat
What is the dry adiabatic lapse rate
when the condensation level and the dew point temp is reached
parcel cools down and reaches dew point then SALR takes over
What does the SALR do to an air parcel as it rises?
1. expanding (density goes down)
2. Temperature drop
3. RH increases (dependent on temp)
How does an air parcel decend?
once you fall 100% below RH you are not saturated and are actually dry now
Is the DALR a constant?
Is the SALR a constant?
has a parcel of air that rises
What happens when an air parcel rapidly rises?
Rapidly condensates and rapidly generates and releases heat
What happens when you reach a dew point temperature?
you CHANGE rates
ex. turn a heat on inside a parcel of air and it kicks out energy, latent heat, and vapourization
What is the lifting mechanism for a parcel of air called?
What is Orographic Lifting
Air comes off ocean and is forced over a land mass
It rises and the ELR tells us local and regional factors are now being taken into consideration
as the air parcel rises, it will cool and go through Buoyant lifting processes
as it climbs up the mountain DALR takes
as it descends over the mountain the parcel warms
Inland areas that experience orographic lifting may also experience what?
Chinook winds within their descending DALRs
As the air warms and descends it is dry which causes the temperature to rise 10-15' within a day
What are the different cloud types that we studied?
What are Cirro clouds?
could be stratus or cumulus
What are alto clouds?
could be stratus or cumulus
what are nimbo clouds?
could be stratus or cumulus
What does stratus mean?
What does cumulus mean?
What is a cloud that Quinton considered the outlier?
it cuts through all height layers
is a thunderstorm cloud due to intense daytime heating and convection
these do NOT occur in the arctic because there isnt enough daytime heat
What is fog?
A cloud that is not in contact with the ground
it is capable of lifting
Can transform into a cloud
If a cloud lowers and touches the ground what is this considered?
What are the 2 types of fog formations?
What does Advection include?
Cold-water advection fog (blanket fog)
Warm-water advection fog (sea smoke)
What is cold-water advection (blanket fog)
cold water body with
relatively warm air that moves horizontally over it
the lower levels of these warm air molecules are right in contact with the cold water surface
these molecules begin to cool down and eventually this lower air layer will reach deq-point temp
release latent heat
Looks like a blanket because its in constant contact with water
What is warm-water advection fog (sea smoke)
this is the reverse of cold-water
now have a warm water body and relatively cold air that is moving horizontally over it
the layer of molecules closest to the waters surface begin to heat up, when their temperatures rise they get further and further away from the waters surface
Will then cool down,
releast latent heat
Invection is involved in this as well
What is invection?
the air parcel will not uniformly rise but will rise in various locations
(not uniform like blanket fog)
What is radiation fog formation?
overnight there is constant long wave radiation from the earth
as the earth cools down the air above it does as well
if the air above it cools down before sunrise to the point that it reaches dew point temp then it will condensate and release latent heat...fog is the result
Do you need a movement of air for radiation fog?
the air parcel that exists in that spot will cool down to dew point temp and do its thang without it
When the sun rises and now warms the ground that radiation fog was residing on, does the fog leave?
Yes the fog leaves when the sun warms up the air that the fog is in
The fog will leave but the moisture that it contained will still be present there
What is circulation?
circulation is made through differential energy
this energy causes differential density in air
this air is less dense than water and will rise
if the air is more dense than water it will fall
How do you generate movement by differential heating?
Circulation causes differential density which is the cause for movement
What does wind and atmospheric circulation include?
What is wind
air motion/movement in regards to the earths surface
responds to differences in pressure
caused by differential heating of the ground
explains local winds and air movements everywhere
what is atmospheric pressure?
caused by gravity acting on the mass of a column of air
▪ Analogy: if you are standing on the earth's surface than image that above you is a column of air, if you could magically move up and through that column than the pressure you will experience is less and less and less, opposite to when you descend down that column (like when you are in an airplane your ears pop due to pressure) because now there is more pressure above you and you are feeling it increase
What change/decrease is felt in pressure with elevation?
exponential decrease in pressure with elevation
How do you measure atmospheric pressure?
Is wind easy to measure?
because its driven by pressure
What are barometers used for?
air column has molecules with mass
this mass has a gravitational pull on the mercury which forces the mercury up the tube to show elevation
How does atmospheric pressure change with elevation?
Atmosphere contains gas which is compressible and water is not
What factors influence wind pattern?
Pressure gradient force
What is the pressure gradient force
H-L force (high to low)
Is a result from differential heating
Air will rise above a surface that's warmer, will expand, be unstable
so theres an area of high pressure and different differential heating that is going over the landscape
the air responds to this by moving from a surplus to deficit (areas of high pressure to areas of low)
What is the pressure gradient a driver of?
wind and flow in the atmosphere
without force or pressure there wouldn't be any movement
What is the prime mover?
The prime cause of moving wind in the atmosphere
without it we wouldnt have wind, or the coriolis effect or friction
What is the coriolis force?
wind moves h - l like with the pressure gradient but its now deflected to the right
it actually bends as it moves and doesnt quite hit the low but moves to the side of it
How does the coriolis force change when as we rise?
The magnitude of it changes but increases with wind velocity
its zero (minimum) at the grounds surface and least dominating, but maximum at the high point
as you rise the friction force becomes less dominant and the coriolis force takes its place and becomes most dominant
it pulls the the arrow of H - L to the right and deflects it
so the friction force makes an appearance but then runs away after because the deflection is so strong
What is the friction force?
opposite to the coriolis force
the maximum is at the ground surface and the minimum is at the high point in the atmosphere
Acts as a counter to the pressure gradient force
Imposes friction on movement of wind
What happens when we are at our upper limit to wind velocity aka geostrophic wind?
the coriolis force balances the pressure gradient
What is the geostrophic wind
where you are at the top of the boundary layer and there is not more movement
its kind of stuck
fricitional force is zero here and has no effect
at the GW height, coriolis matches the magnitude of the pressure gradient .....so the direction of wind flow at the top of the boundary layer is not parallel to the isobars
What is a boundary layer?
Layer of air that feels the surface and responds to the friction imposed due to air movement on its surface
Where does friction force come in in regards to the boundary layer?
it finally is able to exert itself within the layer
frictional force slows down air as it fluidly moves over a surface
the layer of molecule of the air touches the surface of the ground and what basically happens is that friction is applied via pressure gradient force
there is then no movement and its stuck
called zero-slip condition
What does the pressure gradient force, coriolis force, and friction force have in common?
They all rely on one another
Without pressure gradient you wouldnt have coriolis or friction
and friction is intertwined into coriolis a little bit
What is differential heating?
aka preferential heating
is the cause of the pressure gradient
something is heated, it expands, becomes less dense, unstable, rises and leaves surface
denser air moves in from all sides (wind) to replace the rising air
ex. think of a flat balloon on theground that pulls itself upwards like jello and becomes a ball in the sky
What does differential heating do to the earth?
Causes differential pressure over the earths surface
What are the 4 atmospheric lifting mechanisms?
What is Conversion
When air comes together
What is convectional
local heating and differences in the energy balance
when a strip of ground heats up and the ground surrounding it is still wet keeping their surfaces cool
this creates unstable air
What is the orographic effect?
When we lift and cool
What is frontal?
similar to orographic
pushes air above a land mass
also involves ALR and DALR
What does differential/preferential heating look like during the day?
moving from low to high
then high to low
from no pressure to high pressure
this sends air away from itself
ex. island that has a body of water heating up, wind comes off the water and moves high up the island
What does differential/preferential heating look like at night?
ONLY goes from H - L in this case
the island now cools down
ocean is now warm due to solar radiation
high pressure on the island pushes the pressure to low away from the island
What should we remember at night regarding pressure?
High moves to Low
High pressure will push air away from itself
Low pressure will pull air into itself
What are isobars
lines of equal pressure
include ridges and valleys
What should we keep in mind regarding wind pressure and gradients?
Moves from surplus to deficit
High to low pressure movement (creates wind)
What do pressure gradients include?
when we enter into a valley the isobar pressure gets steeper and the wind gets faster (isobars get closer together on a map)
Is the rate of flux proportional to the pressure gradient?
It increases because the gradient increases (aka when isobars are closer together)
What do tightly spaced isobars mean?
Higher pressure gradient and higher flow rate (faster winds)
What are isotopes on a map?
These are the opposite to isobars and represent slower winds speeds
What would happen if we lived on a uniform/non rotating planet?
earth would be the same everywhere
equator would have the most heat and lowest pressure
high pressure at poles
no coriolis effect
What does out rotating (non-uniform) planet look like?
Oceans are warm and have cold surface
We have areas where air can rise along a trough (equator) and descend into cells
Where do we feel the maximum coriolis effect on our earth?
At the poles
This means that air is deflected on its way to the low pressure areas
This causes air to descend at high pressure cells
How does the coriolis force move on our rotating planet?
Hight to low
it is deflected (due to earths rotation) though so it doesnt really every get to low
What happens if the Coriolis force is deflected to the right?
Means it was deflected from the northern hemisphere
What happens if the Coriolos force is deflected to the left?
Means it was deflected from the southern hemisphere
What does the Coriolis force deflect>
because the earths surface is curved
the force acts as a way to deflect air as it moves
What is also within the coriolis effect?
What are the 2 types of velocity used within the coriolis and deflection effect?
What is Angular Velocity
Expressed 1x per day
(1 revolution/day every 12 hours)
What is Actual Velocity?
Depends on latitude
Greater at lower latitudes (you travel more distance as you get closer to the equator)
if we laid a string around the top line on the earth we could see how far its moved in 24 hours
if we did the same thing but at a lower latitude we would see the earth travelled a MUCH longer distance than at the pole
Do we have to keep actual velocity in mind when we travel by plane? or if we launched a rocket?
If we launched a rocket at 80' latitude to hit at 40' latitude.....it wouldnt be a straight target....it would move and curve to the right
because the closer we go to the equator the faster the earth moves
If we launched a rocket from the equator to a pole what would it look like?
The rocket would appear to be moving faster because the velocity from the equator will be maintained as it shoots its way poleward
Are the earths poles faster than the earths equator?
the earths equator is faster than its poles and you have to travel a much longer distance to get around it
Is there deflection at the equator (coriolis force effect)
If you shot a rocket from the equator to another location along the equator it would land in the intended spot
What happens to the degree of deflection if you move from the equator to a pole?
The degree of deflection increases because the coriolis force is more pronounced
If you move from the equator to the northern hemisphere where do you deflect to?
If you move from the equator to the southern hemisphere where do you deflect to?
Why does the Coriolis Force deflect to the right in the NH and the left in the SH?
Due to the rotational direction of the earth
When you think of an orange and you spin it, it rotates around and around
if you move your head up to the north pole and look down the earth moves CCW
If you move to the south pole and look up the earth is moving CW
This means that without any change in direction the rotation of the earth is opposite to the 2 hemispheres
What should we think about when we are thinking about the earths rotation and deflection patterns? What happens in the northern hemisphere and in the southern?
Deflects to the right
Rotates to the left (CCW)
Deflects to the left
Rotates to the right (CW)
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