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Test #2 Notes Part 1
Terms in this set (69)
government agency or nonprofit organization that receives funding from its home country's government to then be used toward a developing country
Bilateral aid agencies
Example: CIDA, USAID, SIDA, DFID (UK- Department for International Development)
• DAC: Development Assistance Committee of the organization -
• OECD: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.
Official Development Assistance (ODA)
• Promotion of economic development and welfare of developing countries
• 25% of grant
•The money/ assistance should not be returned.
• Funding must be provided by governments for socioeconomic development.
• Donations for expanding markets, or military assistance are not considered as ODA.
• Personal donations, donations from private corporation, and through north NGOs are not considered as ODA.
Timeline of Foreign Aid 1970-1980
• Aid flow increased in between 1970s and 1980s.
• In I970, donors agreed to increase their ODA about 0.7% of their GDP by next five years.
• Due to slow growth of economy and financial crisis in 1980s, ODA was decreased.
Timeline of Foreign Aid 1990s
•After cold war period in 1990s, donor agencies cut their budget again.
• 1990s, this period is called ' Aid fatigue'
• Between 1991 and 1997, total aid dropped by one quarter
Timeline of Foreign Aid 2000s+
• In 2000, donors again increased their fund to fight against poverty,
and to meet MDG goals by 2015.
• In 2005, donor contributed US $ 107 billion in ODA, and $ 83 billion was in bilateral assistance.
• By 2005, donors only provided 0.33% of their fund what they had promised
• 2013: (US 134 billion in ODA - $ 93 billion was in bilateral and $ 41 was to multilateral aid organization)
Controversy over ODA
• Military and diplomatic initiatives
• Cost of peacekeeping operation
• Cost of paying refugee resettlement cost
• A full outstanding amount of payment of a developing country
• Tied Aid
• Donor's economy benefits from the aid it provides.
• Politics of AID
• Help the less fortunate abroad (Charity, religious belief, solidarity (left wing)
• Self interest motivation (diplomatic, commercial, and security interests)
• Foreign aid and foreign policy : Cold War period
• Foreign aid also considered as
compensation and obligation.
Political and economic liberalization, open market,
and good governance
Characteristics of Donors
• Geography/ particular region
• Security Interests
• Former colonial ties
American foreign policy and security interests
MCC (Millennium Challenge Corporation)
Free market, democracy and good governance
(Canadian International Development Agency -
Global Affaires in Canada)
mostly countries were colonized by the British
Sub - Saharan Africa.
Aid Recipient Counties
• OECD's committee maintains a list of countries that qualify as recipients of ODA.
factors are associated to receiving AID
• Need: National GDP, disaster management, and face the hunger
• International policies : Humanitarian aid, and debt relief
• Geo - strategic interests
• Neighbourhood: Haiti
• Sub-Saharan Africa received more foreign aid than other reasons
• Things changed:
• Current crisis, Refugee issues in Syria, War in Afghanistan
Current Aid Trends
• Reduction of tied aid
• Focus on Grant
• Poverty alleviation (MDGS)
• Debt Relief
• Structural adjustment plan
• Who needs the most: the poorest or well govern
• Donors' close interactions with recipient countries
Collective agreements or actions by more than 2 countries
when only 2 countries involved
advantages of Multilateralism
• To respond to problems that 'don't respect national borders', whose solution is more effective or efficient if addressed together.
• To resolve problems or disputes that benefit from having multiple accountable parties bound together in an agreement.
• Using Public Choice theory, any issue that involves public goods, common pool goods, or club goods.
Public Choice theory
any issue that involves public goods, common pool goods, or club goods.
• Mulitateral aid is about 30-35% of total Official Development Assistance (ODA)
• Arrangements among three or more states
(treaties - "rules and ways of enforcing rules")
well established in the area of trade and investment
• Eg. WTO, NAFTA, EU Common Market,
• "thanks to these rules, powerful players in global capitalism have gained and consolidated their advantages, including their means of influencing economic and
tend to favour multi-lateral approaches
tend to "pursue multilateralism 'a la carte'" - only
cooperate when it suits them.
key multilateral development actors
• World Bank, IMF, WTO
• United Nations (UN) system
• Western multilateral orgs: EU/EC, OECD
• Non-Western multilateral orgs: OAS, NAM/G77, ASEAN, ...
Purpose of Chapter 10
• Assessment of claims/counter-claims regarding their impact and effectiveness.
+ : more democratic, more efficient, builds common humanity
-- : less direct way for powerful countries to assert their power/control.
OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and
• Western Multilateral Organization
• 34 countries: Europe, N.A, East Asia.
• Founded to manage European reconstruction post-WWII
• defines itself as a forum of countries committed to democracy and the market economy, providing a platform to compare policy experiences, seeking answers to common problems, identifying
good practices, and coordinating domestic and international policies of its members. (Wikipedia)
• The OECD's Development Assistance Committee (DAC) establishes common policy and standards for Development Assistance, and publishes data on 'Official Development Assistance'
• After WB, most important forum for the legitimation of concepts, norms and policies concerning development assistance.
European Commission (European Union)
• Western Multilateral Organizations
• Executive branch of the 27 countries of the European Union
• EC is now single largest multi-lateral aid donor (about $15b per year)
• Complex structure of aid funds and bodies
• European Development Fund (EDF): aid for ACP (African, Caribbean & Pacific, ~70 former European colonies),
• governed by Lome ('76 to '00, included trade preferences) and Cotonou (since 2000) conventions
• Development Cooperation Instrument (DCI): aid for non-ACP countries and specific "thematic programs" (social development, environment, ...)
stands for the European instrument for democracy and human rights; IPA for the Instrument for Pre-Accession; ENPI for the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Policy Instrument; DCI for the Development Cooperation Instrument
Western-linked 'Sphere of Influence'
• Western Multilateral Organizations
• Linkages from colonial era
1. Organization of American States (OAS) (1948):
• U.S (& Canada) and rest of the Americas.
2. Francophonie: former colonies of France (including Canada!)
• Promote French language and culture
3. Commonwealth (1950): former colonies of England (including Canada!)
• Initially, members had trade privileges with the U.K.
• Non-Western Multilateral
• Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)
• Originated in 1961, 'non-aligned' with either U.S. or USSR.
• Group of 77 (G77)
• Formed at UNCTAD in 1964
• Trade issues, block at UN
• Western countries have reduced power of NAM and G77 by
shifting key North-South economics negotiations to the WTO.
• Non-Western Multilateral
• ASEAN (Association of South-East Asia Nations)
• Mercosur (Mercado Comun del Sur): South American common
• SADC (southern Africa);
• are perhaps the most contentious, maligned and
misunderstood actors in international development"
Critiques of MNCs include
• Exploit cheap labour
• Exploit low environmental standards
• Extract profits from the south
• Able to influence/dominate smaller national governments
• Little loyalty to any location/nation
World faces a choice between 'elite multilateralism' and 'multilateralism of solidarity'.
refers to the set of " principles and rules that govern power relation between society and the state"
Forms of political rules that connect people and leaders
• Democratic regime
• Authoritarian regime
• Semi-authoritarian regime
The processes of democratization
• Democratic transition
• Democratic consolidation
TWO APPROACHES of democracy
• Procedural definition
• Substantive approach
• "The phase during which authoritarian institutions and practices are in the process of being reformed and replaced by more democratic institutions and places".
• "The phase of solidification of the democratic
foundations, where political actors no longer debate whether to retain the authoritarian regime or adopt democracy but rather how they can reinforce the democratic regime".
By the people, for the people, and of the people
• Few state officials make the decisions and control people by using violence
• No accountability to anyone for making decisions
• Countries that incorporated political reform in the post Soviet Union era.
• Still elites from old political regime hold some form of power
• Citizens can freely chose leaders who will govern them.
• Free and fair election
• State will ensure the fundamental rights and freedom to all citizen (race, gender, class, ethnicity...)
• Minimalist approach
47% countries of today's world are democratic
• Liberal democracies
• Electoral democracies
• Ambiguous regimes
• Competitive authoritarian
• Hegemonic authoritarian
• Politically close authoritarian regime
• Three principals:
a. Cultural: perception of democracy varies from one society to another
b. Socioeconomic: Equal distribution of wealth and resources.
c. Citizenship : Citizens are free to apply their rights universally, equally, and systematically.
• Brown areas: (ethnic, racial, social class, gender identities)
• Who is a citizen?
"Waves" of Democratization
• Three main historical periods:
1. From mid-19th to early-20th centuries
2. From end of WWII until early 1960s
3. Samuel Huntington's "third wave of democratization," starting in
1974 and continuing to this day
• Theoretical approaches to democratization can be based on
• The levels of analysis (International or exogenous, National or endogenous)
• The source of social, economic, and political change [Structural or systemic (Durkheim), Agency based (Weber)]
• changes happen within political, economic, institutional, cultural, and social structures.
• Modernization? Or Revolution?
• Agency theorists argued that political actors can make the change.
• Preference, rational choices, strategies of political actors
• Structure and agency can be either national or
international and both in bringing democratization in a country.
Nationalist Structural Approach
• " The fundamental causes of democratic transitions are structural or systemic in nature" (Emile Durkheim).
• Changes happen in social, political and economic structures of a nation.
• Influenced by modernization theory
• Economic and social transformation will lead to democratic transition
• Authoritarian structure will be removed eventually by industrialization, migration, education, class movement......
Actors: supports roles, and organized movements
International Structural Approach
•Post 1940s : Post colonial nations
•And 1980s: Cold war contexts
•Liberal democracy became a norm at
the end of 1980s.
• International clientelism: the international exchange of goods and services for political support, often involving an implicit or explicit quid-pro-quo
National actor approach
• This approach focuses more on "agency"
• "According to them, democracy is not an automatic process without the possibility of deviation, diversion, mistakes or surprise".
• Political awareness and class consciousness are essential part for building a democratic nation
• Social movement
National actor approach Examples
a. Securocrats (hardliner military officials)
b. Technocrates (softliner businessmen and
c. African national congress
d. Pan-African congress
• The women movement in Argentina (The Madres)
• The Arab Spring in 2011
International actor approach
Actors: Economic and political sections
• Powerful democratic state can put pressure on less powerful authoritarian state
• Later people from all over the world support the cause and create a huge pressure on a non-democratic regime
International actor approach Examples
International organizations, states, NGOS, Diaspora groups
• Example: Tamil Diaspora
Democratic Consolidation factors:
• Only when people of the country think it is a better alternative or a
functional political system
• Institutionalization of defeat
• Political violence among different groups
Democratic Consolidation examples
• Militant Christians
• Militant Muslims
• Militant of Sulawesi
• All three groups believed that only general Suharto can unite the country and work for diversities
The liberal view
• Violence is opposite of development
• Underdevelopment as a cause of conflict and development as a way towards peace
Western liberal thinking:
Modernization, economic progress, and democracy will bring development.
• Weber: Capitalism is peaceful, and it brings rationalization and efficiency to a society.
• Rational planning, secular institution, and role of the democratic state will work together to minimize violence.
• " When development succeeds, countries become safer; when development fails, countries experience grater risk of being caught
in a conflict traps" (Collier et al., 2003)
• Influenced by Immanuel Kant's (1795) Perpetual Peace(condition of peace among states)
• If countries achieve economic independency and
democracy they will not find any logic to go for war
• But US war in Vietnam or France's war against Algerian independency.....Cold war...
• War was essential for finding democracy
• Democratic competition among political parties to conquer power may bring conflicting issues like race, gender, ethnicity, and nationality which may lead to conflicts.
Modernity and Ethnic Conflict
• From modernist stand point, all ethnic groups will be united under modern nation state with a national identity. Therefore, there will be no conflict
Modernity and Ethnic Conflict Example:
The socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
• A. Historical ethnic Hatreds among Serbs, Croats, and Muslims
• B. Tito's Socialist regime
• C. Market Economy and political reform (neoliberal polices after 1980s)
• political contest intensified, all are concerns about their rights (ethnic)
• Systemic inequalities (social, political and economic) in modern state
• Class, caste, race and ethnicity...
Ethnic conflict: greed/ grievance debate
• Paul Collier: Individual and economic greed rather than collective grievance was the key cause of civil war.
• looting is considered as individual profit
• indicators: national dependency on primary recourses, level of schooling, and proportion of young males
• Rational choice approach
• Limitations: ???
• El Salvador: people supported rebels out of anger, fear, justice and solidarity
• Development is integral part of conflict
• Or violence is essential for change
Marx and Lenin:
conflict and violence are part of development
• the key tool that can be applied to change the exploitative (capitalist social and economic) system
• A means to bring equity among class groups, and to provide a system of redistribution.
• DANGER IN CAPITALIST SYSTEM
Colonial people needed to organize violent movements to change the unequal structure
• UN involvement in peace building process as an
institutional activism war zone areas.
• A development package:
• Political and economic reconstruction, aid to kick start, demilitarization, encourage refugees to return, trail on human right violations....
• Democratic / 'the liberal peace'
• POLTICAL AND ECONOMIC REFORM
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