Upgrade to remove ads
Biology - Chapter 55: Primate Origins and Evolution
bad b*tches 12 bio 1m03
Terms in this set (53)
Approximately when did the Triassic period occur?
200- 250 millions year ago (Ma)
Pangea occurred during what time period?
Triassic period (200-250 Ma)
What is Pangea?
The Earth is made up of mantle and crust that is able to shift and move overtime, hence during Pangea this had occurred, forming a supercontinent
The Earth is made up of crust and mantle that is slowly able to shift a little overtime, during the making of Pangea, what was this process called?
What was the name of the taxonomic group that evolved during the Triassic period (200-250 Ma)?
Did the Therapsida group have a horizontal posture like many other vertebrates?
No, they had an upright posture in comparison to vertebrates like reptiles. This contributed to some metabolic advantages (increased oxygen) over reptiles
Therapsida groups, the group that had evolved from the Triassic period had metabolic advantages over other vertebrates like reptiles, why was this the case? Explain evidence.
First of all, metabolic advantages refer to increased intake of oxygen.
1. Their upright posture definitely helped with this.
2. There were also skeletal modifications suggesting muscular diaphragm for increased breathing. 3. Finally, a secondary palate existed allowing for breathing while eating.
Has the Earth stayed the way it was since Pangea?
No, Pangea occurred about 250 Ma (Triassic Period) and overtime, continental drift happened, causing separate continents that we know of today
What was the lineage within the therapsids called?
What were some of the characteristics of the Mammilia? From what lineage were they from?
1. cheek teeth with multiple cusps
2. muzzle lips and whiskers
3. bone nasal passages
5. female nursed with nutritious milk
6. smol bodies
How were the Mammalia groups divided into?
They were divided into groups based on how they were nurtured/reproduction
What were the groups for Mammalia called?
Monotremata (egg-laying), Marsupiala (pouch-bearing). Placentalia (placental)
What way did the Monotremata Mammalias reproduce
What group of Mammalia were egg laying peeps?
What group of Mammalia were puch bearing?
How did the Marsupiala group of Mammalia reproduce
What group of Mammalia were placental bois
How did the Placentalia group of Mammalias reproduce/bear children
What was the K-Pg
A massive extinction of about 3/4 of plants and animals that had occurred about 65 Ma.
Who survived the K-pg?
Primates: humans, apes, monkey, chimpanzees, lemures..etc
Describe some of the main characteristics of primates. Where did they originate from?
relatively large brains
forward facing eyes
nails rather than claws
mobile shoulder joints
oppposable thumbs (toes)
flat cheek teeth, nipping incisors, enlarged canines
lemurs, lorises, tarsiers can all be treated as a separate clade. What is a clade and together, can they form a bigger clade? (flip to see chart)
A clade, is what forms when merging all the lineages together. (showing similar descendant/ancestor) Also, they can merge into a bigger clade called Prosimians
Difference between a clade and taxon on a phylogenic tree
Separate lineages from the tree together (sister taxons) called clade
Taxon is just a separate lineage on the tree
What is the second oldest era to follow the Triassic period (200-250 Ma)?
Paleogene period (60-20Ma)
During the Paleogene, what happened?
Pangea begins to disassemble
When did the Paleogene period happen, what it the oldest or newest period of time (relative to present)
2nd oldest period of time, 60-20Ma
What group had evolved from the Paleogene period
Plesiadapiforms had evolved from the Paleogene period
How did the characteristics of the Paleogene animals (Plesiadapiforms) compare to primates? (primates existed before them cuz of K-pg
They did have some similar features like long grasping fingers, mobile elbow and ankle joints and opposable thumbs. However unlike the primates, they were supposedly less developed by having smaller sized brains, non-forward facing eyes, angled incisors and claws (earlier development of primates)
Did the Plesiadapiforms ever develop any other primate traits other than the couple they had before when they first developed after the Paleogene period (60-20Ma)?
Yes, this happened in the span of 2 years! However, they were separate species from the Plesiadapiforms called Adapidae and Omomyidae
What were the two groups that developed primate traits after the Plesiadapiforms group had evolved called?
Adapidae and Omomyidae
What does the purple rectangle represent on the phylogenetic tree?
It represents that all members of this group are extinct
Why would the primates not have a purple rectangle around its name in the phylogenic tree even though Adapimae and Omomidae groups are extinct?
Adapmiae and Omomymae are actuall earlier primates (not develop full characteristics of primates yet) however, there are still OTHER primates that exists that are still alive so, this wouldnt mean that the entire taxon of primates are extinct
Flip the diagram to see picture of Plesiadapiforms. How did scientists prove that they did not have forward facing eyes based on this diagram?
The diagram indicates that there is no posorbital bar . Post (later- behind the eye) orbital (eye socket) bar (bone) - hence researchers were able to interpret this such that they didnt have forward facing eyes
Where were Aegyptopithecus found?
Egypt, Africa (Fayum deposits)
Who are Aegyptopithecus ?
Also apart of primate fossil record, located in egypt, found even earlier tho (40-30 Ma)
How did Aegyptopithecus differ from other primates, or did they have the same exact features?
They mostly did have the same features, however, they did have a unique features called the saggital crest. Extending from the skull to the cheekbones, enhancing/bettering their chewing abilities
What does the Platyrrhines mean
"flat noses" big sad wish i had a ph(l)at nose instead of a phat nose ;-;
Where did the Platyrrhines originate from?
South America, dating to 36Ma
What did scientists discover about old specimens of Platyrrhines ? Whom did they ressemble.
They actually resembled fossil found in North Africa (they compared their teeth)
Since the teeth of Plattyrhines resembled old specimens from North Africa, what were the conclusions that scientists lead to about these species?
That they actually originated from North Africa and THEN came to live/migrate to South America
Where were the Catarrhines found?
They were actually found in 2010 in Saudi arabia , approx 29 Ma
What does Catarrhides mean
down noses, old world monkeys
"down noses, old world monkeys" what species was this called
With what other groups were the characteristics of Chatterhines similar to?
Cercopithecidae and Homonoidea (from chart)
Were the Cattarrhines classified to be apart of the Cercopithecidae and Homonoidea taxon (same group) or were they seperate from them?
although they did have SOME strikingly similar characteristics, this does not mean that they are of the same group. However, it has been hypothesized that they share a common ancestry (same clade)
What are hominoideas knows as? (check chart)
Where did the Hominoidea originate from (when too lolz)
Kenya and Uganda, 20Ma
To what other species were the characteristics of Hominidea similar to?
common ape traits
Relative to other primates, did Hominoidea share common traits with them?
Yes and no, well although primates did have large brains, hominoidea species had larger brains in comparison to other primates.
What were some of the ahcaracteristics of Hominoideas (apes) - remember relative to other primates
unspecialised cheek teeth
long arms (ill suited for moving around branches), short legs
wide flat trunks
locomotion: hang from/stand on brainches in the trees, knuckle walk and walking upright as well
DAMN I DID THAT FROM MEMORY R U PROUD OF ME HUMAN WHO'S DOING THIS QUIZLET TOO
Apes, Hominoidea bois were approaximately found to be living 20Ma, had there been any changes that occurred to this population (speciation?)
Yes, after adaptive radiation happened there had been two fossils found associated with these apes (that survived this event) called kenyapithecus 13Ma and sivapithecus 12Ma
This entire chapters talks about how the diversity of today has been lead by many other primates and species before, what was the very last thing that happened leading up to this present time?
Apes (Hominoidea) underwent Adaptive radiation, and 2 ape species were found to be living around that time (fossils)
Then, following events involving climate change where climate become more cooler lead to the final stage of the present time where diversity can be observed. english gon but makes sense in myhead ok
Order of species (mainly primates) leading up to to the present time
1. Therapsida (After Pangea occurred)
2. Mammalia, splitting to three types: Monotremata (egg), Marsupilia (pouch), Placentalia (placenta)
3. Primates (after K-pg)
3a: Plesiadapiforms (Paleogene period), two types emerged, Adapidae and Omomyidae
3b:Aegyptopithecus, from Egypt, special saggital crest (extends from skull to mouth, better chewing)
3c: Platyrrhines (flat nose), South Africa, originally from North Africa (migration occurred)
3d: Catarrhines (combo features from Cercopithecidae and Homonoidea lol did not remember that) - all shared common ancestor
3e: Hominoideas, apes, leading to current diversity of present time
GIRL I DID THAT ALL FROM MEMORY IM PROUD OF MYSELF - except for that one part lolz
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Biology - Chapter 49, Biology 1M03
Current bio unit
Grade 12 Biology, Unit 4: Homeostasis (P…
Grade 12, Unit 3 Biology: Molecular gene…
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
First 2 Monetary Tests
earth and space test 2