Eating Disorders

Bulimia Nervosa
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Two aspects must be observed. - E.g. Brian has already eaten a hamburger with four patties, a chocolate shake, and an order of French fries. He is now eating a second order of French fries, uncontrollably shoving handfuls of them in his mouth. - eating an amount of food larger than most people would eat during a certain period (for example, two hours) as well as feeling a lack of control over what and how much one is eating
I afford myself a daily diet of 800 calories. At whatever point in the day I have eaten over 600 calories, I always make myself vomit. Usually, this takes place in the afternoon after I have let myself have half a piece of string cheese. - making herself vomit every day after eating only 600 calories is an example of this type of behaviour
can appear to others as emaciated, frail, or starved. - the person with the disorder sees himself or herself as still needing to lose weight (usually in certain areas). - likely continue at all costs and cause the person to rationalize that restrictive eating habits, excessive exercise, or binge eating/purging is necessary out of fear of becoming obese
People with anorexia nervosa are just as fearful as people with bulimia nervosa of gaining weight and losing control over their eating habits. However, people with anorexia are:Proud of their dietBeyond cultural considerations, critical periods in development are also known to influence the prevalence of eating disorders. The fact that young men tend to develop __________ during puberty that creates a change that ________ characteristics ascribed to the ideal body type for their gendermuscle and lean tissue; aligns withPrevalence rates for eating disorders also reflect cultural themes. Which factor most likely contributes to the prevalence rate of anorexia found in African American women?African American women have a more positive self-image than Caucasian women. - African American women have with their bodies, their tendency to have a more positive self-image, and the observation that Caucasian men prefer thinner female figures than African American men.Postpubescent girls have a higher prevalence rate of eating disorders than postpubescent boy because:due to the fact that girls tend to develop body fat during puberty, whereas boys develop muscle and lean tissue. - For boys, these physical developments are similar to the ideal body type for their gender. - However, for girls, these physical developments are in opposition to the ideal body type for their gender, causing a greater propensity for developing an eating disorder.Dr. Gaffney is recruiting participants for a study on bulimia. If he expects his participant group to follow the trends found in the prevalence rates for bulimia, a majority of the male participants will most likely be:Athletes - a sport that requires weight regulation (eg. Wrestling)Fallon and Rozin (1985) observed the following results in their experiment:Women tend to rate their current body type as heavier than the one they think men find most attractive. - Women tend to rate their ideal body type as thinner than the one they think men find most attractive. - Men tend to rate their ideal body type as more muscular (heavier) than the one that females find most attractive.A woman that rated her current body type as a ___ would most likely say that men think that body type ____ is most attractive.5; 3 - These findings support the notion that women believe their current body type is than the body type men find most attractive.To account for these gender differences, researchers have found the strongest connection with cultural and social factors, especially those portrayed by the media. Which of the following is an example of how social factors influence these differences in body image?findings support the notion that women believe their current body type is heavier than the body type men find most attractive - present a conflict that exists between reality and fashion, something that is most likely perpetuated by the media.Researchers have found that genetics account for up to 50% of the causes of eating disorders, with the inheritance of:poor impulse control or emotional instability that could make it more likely a person will cope with the stress and anxiety of stressful life events through binge eating. - inheritance of perfectionism is speculated to make it more likely a person will have a need for order, causing an increased propensity for doing so through a strictly controlled dietFelix, recently diagnosed with bulimia nervosa, volunteered to be a participant in a study investigating how a change in the neurotransmitter serotonin affects binge eating. Researchers have been altering and recording his serotonin levels through prescription medication, all the while observing the number of times he exhibits binge eating behavior.Felix was most likely binge eating on a day when his serotonin levels were low. Of the days given, this would be Day 4.Serotonin:abnormally low serotonin levels are a result of cyclical eating pattern, not the cause of it. - the low serotonin levels that are both caused by disordered eating and linked with impulsive behaviour only serve to maintain a cycle of disordered eating from which it is hard to break free.Researchers have identified cyclical patterns of thinking in people diagnosed with eating disorders, with this diagram illustrating one of these patterns. Select the missing piece of information to complete the cycle.Purging - AAnxiety in Eating DisordersPerson with an eating disorder reduces his or her anxiety by compensating for the calories, possibly through purging or excessive exercise, setting in motion a cycle that perpetuates the eating disorder.Reducing Anxiety in Eating Disordersthe immediate relief he or she feels only serves to reinforce the purging behaviour - highlights the cyclical process to developing and sustaining an eating disorderAs with all disorders, an integrative model provides the most comprehensive understanding of how a disorder develops. Select the statement that accurately describes this model in the context of eating disorders.Analyzing the interaction of social, biological, and psychological factors provides a comprehensive understanding of how eating disorders develop.Drug treatments have not been found to be effective as a treatment strategy for patients diagnosed with Anorexia Nervosaeffectiveness of using these drugs alone does not have a substantial, long-term effect, - considered most effective for treating bulimia nervosa are those proven effective for treating mood and anxiety disorders, possibly because the root cause, or trigger, of eating disorders, can be emotional reactions to food.Deborah, a 15 year old diagnosed less than a year ago with restricting type anorexia nervosa, has restored her weight and is starting cognitive therapy. Select the statement that describes a component of cognitive therapy that will be most effective for preventing relapse in a case like Deborah's."I understand that thinness is not a sign of self-worth, and thankfully my family agrees".Why is CBT most effective in treating less severe cases of bulimia nervosa?preferred form of treatment since it is associated with faster recovery - changing dysfunctional attitudes about body shape and interpersonal disruptions. - this creates a need to decrease the person's anxiety over becoming obese and losing control over eating and to remove the emphasis that thinness is a determinant of self-worth, happiness, and successTherapy ApproachTreatment Approach 1: First, I need you to understand the negative impact binge eating and purging has on your body and how these techniques aren't as effective as you think they are. Once you understand this, we will work on altering your current thoughts and attitudes surrounding body shape, weight, and eating.ObesityA person is considered obese when his or her body mass index (BMI) is 30 or greater, calculated from height and weight. To identify a person's BMI on a grid, you move across the horizontal row that corresponds to the person's height and stop when you get to the square that intersects with the vertical column for the person's weight. The number inside this square indicates the person's BMI.The medical costs and consequences associated with obesity have caused widespread research into its causes, spawning a plethora of treatment strategies. The most successful programs are _______ behaviour modification programs, a component of which should be to reduce a person's __________Professional directed; sedentary lifestyleNight eating syndromeeating a third or more of one's daily intake after an evening meal and getting out of bed at least once during the night for a high-calorie snack. The person is awake when he or she gets out of bed for the snack—not sleepwalking—and in the morning is not hungry and often skips breakfast