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Ecology - Clicker Solutions
Terms in this set (117)
Sheep have lots of guts to enable cellulose digestion without help of micro-organisms
Mammal bones are largely made of
Global large-scale variation in NPP of oceans can be explained by
100% of the energy in the food eaten by deer is either
digested or passed through feces
Rabbits can survive by eating other animal's poop
Vegan food does not contain any iron
Bacteria oxidizing reduced nitrogen compounds to nitrate
Plant that are called saprophytic
get energy from fungi
Hay decomposes faster than straw
Nitrogen content of senesced pine needles may increase during early stages of decomposition
Global patterns of ocean productivity depends mostly on
Biodiesel as fuel for cars is always better for the environment than fossil fuels
Forest clearcut increases water runoff after rain
Reduction of nitrate to N2
Cycling of phosphorus in the biosphere is
After a clearcut, vigorous growth of herbs and shrubs leads to reduced loss of nutrients from the system
Industrial N2 fixation from the atmosphere has a strong influence on the atmospheric N2 content
Ammonium is an important plant nutritional ion especially on acidic soils
By living together, S oxidizing and S reducing bacteria can survive for a very long time without any further energy input from outside the system
Sulfate is a source of energy for some micro-organisms living under anoxic conditions
The atmospheric CO2 level is at its highest in
A tree lives and photosynthesizes for 250 years. Then it completely burns down in a forest fire. After that, the net effect of that tree on atmospheric oxygen is close to zero
Photosynthesis minus plant respiration
with a given water potential, clay-rich soils generally have more water than sandy soils
During succession after retreat of a glacier, soil nitrogen content usually tends to increase
Global large scale variation in NPP in terrestrial ecosystems can best be explained by
elemental mercury can bioaccumulate in organisms, while methylated mercury is usually exuded from the organism with urine
Main reason for inuit to have higher concentrations of PCBs in their blood is
They're at the top of a long food chain
Which of the following interaction is a plus minus interaction
Mosquitoes sucking blood
Which tree species is usually not considered being early successional
The atmosphere is apart of the biosphere
Coccolithophoric algae have an effect on
Temp, sulfur, water and carbon
The presence of methane and oxygen in the atmosphere of Mars indicates that there is no life
According to James Lovelock, Mars atmosphere shows that there is no life on that planet because
Its composition of chemically stable (Oxygen is more a result of life)
atmospheric [CO2] varies along the seasons because
photosynthesis is higher in the summer (most deciduous forests in northern hemisphere—highest levels of CO2 are in May)
The Gaia hypothesis was developed by
the total amount of carbon in the atmosphere is in the same order of magnitude than the amount of carbon in
turnover time of the atmospheric CO2 is about
Of only 20% of the coal that remains in the ground would be used to produce energy, increase in global atmospheric CO2 would be minimal
a car running with biodiesel produces about the same amount of CO2 per 100km than a similar car running with fossil fuel
biodiesel is always better for the environment than fossil fuels
industrial N2 fixation from the atmosphere has a globally strong influence on the availability of nitrogen and ecosystem productivity
... release of NH3/NH4+ at mineralization
plants have to convert ammonium to nitrate before they can use it for organic molecules
In absence of life on earth, most of the global nitrogen would land in the atmosphere as N2
P is often the growth-limiting element in aquatic systems
geologically old and undisturbed soils tend to have low P availability
introduction of arctic foxes on some Aleutian islands has led to profound changes in vegetation due to over-fertilization (too much phosphate)
sulfur is essential element for all living organisms
some micro-organisms can gain energy by oxidizing S
it is the methylated mercury, bot the elemental mercury, which can bioaccumulate in food-chains
the only organisms for which DDT is known to be toxic are birds (causing thin egg shells)
DDT and other organochlorides bioaccumulate because
they're fat soluble
soils developing on calcareous parent material tend to have higher pH than soils on siliceous rocks
true (around pH of 8, acidic soils go down to 4)
conifer leaf litter leads to more acidic soils than deciduous tree leaf litter
which is NOT one of Jenny's soil forming factors
during primary succession, eg. After retreat of a glacier, soil nitrogen (N) tends to increase
true (organisms bring nitrogen in)
during primary succession, eg. After retreat of a glacier, soil phosphorous (P) tends to increase
under dry conditions, sandy soils favour woody vegetation clay soils favour grasses
absence of oxygen in waterlogged soils leads to reduction of iron, turning it's colour to rusty brown
soils of organic order can be found
under wet and dry conditions
due to their low nutrient contents, soils of the chernozemic order, eg. On the Prairies, usually have low productivity
in which of the following interactions one of the interacting organisms has an advantage, the other has a disadvantage
which of the following interactions is similar to predation with respect to its effects (++, +-...)
which of the following tree species commonly colonizes areas after a forest fire?
community development on a site after a forestry clearcut is called
competition by sea lamprey has reduced lake trout populations in the great lakes
population growth rate usually declines with increasing population density
islands far away from continents rend to have higher extinction rates than islands close to continents
islands far away from continents tend to have lower immigration rates than islands close to continents
which island has ore bird species... (Cuba vs. Jamaica)
Which Canadian province has more species of vascular plants?... (BC vs. Saskatchewan)
which Canadian province/territory has more species of vascular plants (Nunavut vs. Ontario)
black spruce is a keystone species in the boreal forest
false—not disproportionately important
herbivory may increase plant diversity
spraying insecticide can lead to increased insect pests
a successful parasite quickly kills its host
the relationship between a tapeworm and a human is symbiotic
Ectomycorrhizal mutualism can characteristically be found in
The atmospheric CO2 level is at its lowest in ...
Methane is being produced naturally in wetlands under anoxic conditions
In the Canadian North, melting of permafrost has been observed to lead to disappearance of forests.
Industrial N2 fixation from the atmosphere has a strong global influence on the availability of nitrogen and ecosystem productivity.
Which one of the following statements is true
a) Due to their ability to acquire P, cyanobacteria increase in lakes after N levels increase.
b) Due to their ability to fix atmospheric N, cyanobacteria increase in lakes after P levels increase.
c) Cyanobacteria populations can increase in lakes only after N, P and C has been added in the lake.
Ancient soils tend to have high phosphorus availability.
In absence of life on Earth, most of the global nitrogen would land in the atmosphere as N2.
Which one of the following statements is FALSE.
a) Some earthworm species are native to Canada.
b) Earthworm activity increases contents of mineral nutrients in the top soil layers.
c) Earthworms increase soil permeability for water.
d) Burrowing activity by earthworms increases soil vulnerability to erosion.
Soils of chernozemic order are usually
At field capacity, water potential of soil is negative (e.g. -0.03 MPa)
Pure rainwater (without air pollution) dissolves calcareous rocks due to its low pH.
Under arid and semiarid conditions (that is, under rather dry conditions), sandy soils usually have more plant-available water than clay-rich soils.
Soils on the Canadian shield tend to be more acidic than those on Manitoulin Island, due to their parent material.
Mycorrhizal fungi sometimes can transfer photynthates (carbon compounds) from one plant to another
Ectomycorrhizal mutualism can be commonly found in
conifers such as white spruce
arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis with plants is formed by a very small number of fungal species
Sudbury is within the
deciduous forest biome
evergreen coniferous trees on the north american west coast is there due to
mild winters and cool summers
The two main factors determining the distribution of biomes on earth are
temperature and precipitation
There is Arctic tundra in the canadian north because
cool and short summers
white pine belongs to the boreal forest but is common in sudbury due to the cold winters
What are little girls and little boys made of?
Fat, hydroxyapatite and protein
Ruminants are evolutionarily successful because they have developed a way to digest cellulose without any help from other organisms.
Some desert animals do not need to drink liquid water, they get enough from digesting dry carbohydrates.
If stranded in a desert with very little liquids to drink, but with lots of food, you should prefer eating meat and cheese compared to bread and pasta.
Endotherms have ...
High assimilation efficiency due to constant high body temperature.
Old organic matter in the soil that decomposes slowly
In brown rot lignin is decomposed.
Soil phosphorus content in old cemeteries has been shown to decrease due to immobilization.
Which statement is incorrect?
Decomposition is slow under high oxygen levels
Which of the following elements has predominantly a sedimentary cycling in ecosystems.
In winter, lake water gets mixed because water colder than 4 °C is heavy and sinks to the bottom
Transport of nutrients from one ecosystem to another over several kilometers is a problem caused by humans and does not occur in natural ecosystems
Young sockeye salmon can survive in the nutrient poor rivers by directly feeding on the carcasses of their parents.
Sockeye salmon body mass growth occurs mostly in the oceans.
When a little boy pees while swimming in a river, the N atoms in the pee move towards to ocean...
slower than water because N-containing ions are immobilized in food-chains.
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