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Quantitative Designs II (pt 2)
Terms in this set (22)
Part 2 - Non-experimental designs
- Sometimes we can't manipulate the IV due to ethical issues or it isn't feasible and so we just measure them ___ ____ ________.
- Non-experimental research designs: are used to examine a phenomenon, explore events, people, or situations as they naturally occur.
as they happen;
- Non-experimental studies types ???
exploratory, Descriptive, & Comparative
o Exploratory: when very little is known about something and we want to gain more of an _______ about a phenomenon. Can be ________ or _________
understanding; qualitative or quantitative
o We want to gain more understanding about nursing phenomena
o Purpose: to develop theory, understand and describe phenomena, identify _______ with practice, ______ practice
o Can be _______ or _________
o ex. workplace profile of RNs in Canada
problems; justify; qualitative or quantitative
- Comparative: examines and describes _______ b/w 2 or more groups.
o Control group may be referred to as comparison group
- ________ study:
o examines relationship between X & Y
o no attempt to control or manipulate the situation
o 2 types of correlational data ???
Correlational; Descriptive & predictive
§ Descriptive correlational: examine the relationship that exists in a situation ex. Seeing How many hours you study & how long it takes to write an exam
§ Predictive: to predict the value of one variable on the basis of another variable. Ex. How long do you intend to get a pap smear vs how often do you get it. Ex. 2 they use our highschool marks for admission to program because past success can predict future success. To predict something in the ______
- ______ _______ designs: derived from correlational study.
o Tests a hypothesized model
o Tested using advanced statistical techniques (SEM)
- Time dimension of non-experimental designs include: ????
o Cross-sectional studies
o Longitudinal and prospective studies
o Retrospective and ex post facto studies
- Cross-sectional study:
o Collects data at _____ _____ in time.
o Ex. Every few years city conducts a survey to find out how many homeless people there are
- Longitudinal or prospective study:
o Group _______ moving forward
o Data are collected at 2 or > times
o Cause to effect
o Ex. Asking every year about student debt and seeing if it affects anxiety
- Retrospective or Ex Post Facto
o Looks backward in time. Study direction from effect to cause
o Group of people followed back
o Ex. Cancer and smoking
o Ex. Epidemiological studies
- More non-experimental studies she wants us to be familiar with:
o ______ study: different samples from same population. Ex. The example about Canadian nursing demographics, every time they do the survey they use a sample of different nurses not the same ones. This allows us to look at trends which can be valuable data.
o ______ study: data are collected from the same subjects at multiple points in time. (longitudinal)
o _______ study: panel study comprised of people who share some characteristic (ex. Birth cohort).
o _____-__ study: following subjects for a time. Ex. Follow up After surgery or after MI
Trend; Panel; Cohort; Follow-up
- Protection against bias in these designs:
o Close _______ b/w conceptual and operational definitions
o ______ selection and size
o Use instruments with sound psychometric properties. This can be tough when measuring something like anxiety for ex.
o Strict protocols
- Nonexperimental design advantages:
o Important designs when randomization, control, and manipulation are not appropriate or possible
o Useful in testing theoretical models of how variables work together in a group in a particular situation
o Useful in ______ or making ______
o Important to develop knowledge base on phenomenon of interest
o Difficulty explaining cause-and-effect relationships
- __________: using similar or different populations increases our confidence in the findings from non-experimental studies
- Some non-traditional research designs she wants to talk about...
- __________ research: o Used to develop and evaluate instruments, scales, and techniques
- Systematic reviews and meta-analysis: o Are approaches used to _________ the results of different studies that address a ______ research question in order to draw some conclusions about a body of research
- Secondary analysis: o Researcher _______ the data from a (experimental or nonexperimental) study for a completely different _______
-ex. study she did: Health and use of health services of children exposed to violence at home.
- Epidemiological studies: o Examine factors affecting the health and illness of ______ in relation to their ______.
o Investigate the distribution, determinants, and dynamics of health and disease
o Often focused on prevalence or incidence
- Nonexperimental critiquing criteria:
o Which nonexperimental design is used?
o Is the rational for this design evident?
o Is the design congruent with the purpose?
o Is the design appropriate for the research problem?
o Is the design suited to the data collection method?
o Are the findings presented appropriately?
o Is cause-and-effect inferred?
o Are alternative explanations addressed?
o Are the threats to validity addressed?
o Are the limitations addressed?
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