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Terms in this set (26)
More than 5 servings/day observational VS less than 1 serving/day
44% cancer reduction
1940's: the wide spread availability of antibiotics resulted in enormous declines in the number of deaths from infectious disease. Very quickly, heart disease and cancer replaced infection as the number one killers in Canada.
Early nutritional scientists attempted to assess the impact of various dietary factors on risk of heart disease and cancer.
673g/day vs 147g
28% reduction in ischemic stroke
each increase of servings
6% lowers risk of stroke (everytime you increase your daily fruits and veggie by 1 serving you decrease your risk of stroke by 6%
what was the reduced risk of stroke when comparing highest vs lowest quintile for fruit and veggie consumption
Fruits & Veggie
Lock et all bull world heath
reduced risk for CVD (31%)
lung cancer (12%)
What is beta carotene and is the best biomarker of what
Beta carotene is a antioxidant and the best biomaker of fruits and veggies
plasma beta carotene ______ less in those with cancer
lower beta carotene _______ higher cancer risk
plasma beta carotene 21% less in those with cancer
lower beta carotene = 60% higher cancer risk
Greenburg et all
8 years 2k people
higher quintile of plasma beta carotene showed what?
48% reduction n all cause mortality
43% reduction in CVD death
10 years 800 men
What did the highest turtle vs lowest show
53% reduction of coronary event in highest tertile
hak et al (case control)
what did the highest 4 quintiles vs lowest display?
higher carotenoid levels (as biomarkers of F&V) inversely correlated with ischemic stroke risk
Bjelakovic et al
Vitamin A increased 16% mortality
BC increased 7% mortality
Vit E increased 4% mortality
Vitam C no effect
Lancet et all
RCT 20k (ages 23-33) CHD patients
600mg Vit E
no effect on incidence of coronary events in those with CHD
RCT 13 years
22k male physicians vs placebo
supplemental BC 50mg BC alternating days
no difference in malignant neoplasms cancer death, deaths due to CV disease or MI
This study was a _____, with a 5-8 year follow up with ____K smokers. They were given supplemental 50mg Vit E, or 20mg Beta carotene or BOTH vit E and beta coratene.
The result showed that no effect of _______ and ______ increased cancer risk by 18% and mortality by _______ in smokers
This study was a RCT, with _____ high risk population including smokers, asbestos exposed workers and coal miners.
They were given supplemental 30 mg of _____________ and 25000 IU of ________.
The Results showed that there was ____________(increase/decrease) lung cancer risk by 28%. Death from lung cancer increased by ___%. Also Death for heart disease __________ (increase/decrease) by ____%. In smokers, asbestos exposed workers and coal miners.
Miller et al
There was a meta analysis done which used supplemental Vit E 150IU/day which showed a _________ (increase/decrease) risk of death.
Arch Intern Med
There was prospective cohort with _____k males. The use of supplement use of ____, _____, or ______. The results showed ________ supplement use on CVD
There was prospective cohort for 11 years and 42k ________ & _______ women. Which tests the use of ______ vs _______ Vit C. There was a mean total intake of 85mg - 667 mg.
The results showed the following in regards to stroke & CVD
Dietary Vit C =
Supplemental Vit C =
Take away: DO NOT SUPPLEMENT VIT C IN DIABETES
diabetic & non diabetic
increased risk of stroke and CV events in diabetes
There was a RCT for 2 months done on _______ smoking men. There was a test of supplemental
_____- 500 mg
_____ - 200 mg
_____ 100 mg + _____ 250 mg
________ - 90 mg
There was ____________ on urinaary 8-oxodG (cancer risk) in smokers. Its important to note the the cancer protective effect of F&V are from it as a ________ not a single __________
Vit E + Vit C
There was a RCT done on 77 men eating ____ servings of fruit & veggies a day. They were given supplemental Vit C - 272 mg, Vit E 31 mg and folic acid 400 mch. The results showed there was ________ in men already eating 2.6 serving of fruit & veggie.
There was a RCT done on 23 health males for a 2 week period. They were testing the effect of dietary juices. They were given the following:
10g ______ one at a time.
The results showed that all three interventions __________(increase/decreased) to DNA damage to lymphocytes
Test of 10 subjects within 50 minutes. They were given 113ml __________ red wine. The results showed 10% antioxidant ________ (increase/decrease) in blood.
Test of 10 subjects within 50 minutes. They were given ________ red wine phenolic extract. 333 mg ______ for 2 weeks. The results showed 10% ________ (increase/decrease) in blood antioxidant capacity
There was 10 healthy vs 10 with Type 2 diabetics (T2DM) who were given pomegranate juice at 250/day for ____months. They showed a decrease in ___________ by 56% and decrease _________ by 28%
Ann Nutri Metab
There was an RCT for 2 years with 81 elderly deficient in nutrients.
The agent was supplemental trace elements, vitamins or trace elements + vitamins.
There was a __________ (increase/decrease) of infectious disease by ______%. Vitamin only ______ (increase/decrease) by 125%.
* in elderly this is a population that is likely deficient always consider base line
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