Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
relationships and well-being
Terms in this set (35)
we feel good sharing our experiences with others, and our desire for high quality relationships may be connected to a deep-seated psychological impulse:
the need to belong
how was Aristotle right by stating that humans are fundamentally social in nature?
- people often hold strong opinions about single child families
- people join book clubs to make a solitary activity into a social activity
- prisons often punish offenders by putting them in solitary confinement, depriving them of the company of others.
- the prevalence of social media. people effectively have two overlapping sets of social relationships: those in the real world and those in the virtual world
research suggesting that relationships can be sources of:
- intimacy and closeness
- comfort and relief from stress
all of which help toward achieving better health outcomes
scholars have long considered social relationships to be fundamental to:
happiness and well-being
the process of defining a concept so that it can be measured. in psychology, this often happens by identifying related concepts or behaviours that can be more easily measured
what is an objective social variable? how is it used to measure social relationships?
- factors that are based on evidence rather than opinions
- they focus on the presence and frequency of different types of relationships, and the degree of contact and amount of shared activities between people. examples of these measures include participants' marital status, their number of friends and work colleagues, and the size of their social networks. each of these variables is factually based (you have x number of coworkers, etc.).
- social integration
what is social integration
the size of your social network, or number of social roles (son, sister, student, employee, team member).
what are the advantages of objective measures
they generally have a single correct answer. for example, a person is either married or not; there is no in-between.
what are subjective social variables? how are they used to measure social relationships?
- focus on the subjective qualities of social relationships. these are the products of personal opinions and feelings rather than facts
- a key subjective variable is social support which is the extent to which individuals feel cared for, can receive help from others, and are part of a supportive network
- other subjective social variables assess the nature and quality of social relationships themselves (what types of relationships people have, and whether these social relationships are good or bad)
how is social support measured?
how are the nature of relationships measured
- measures of social support ask people to report on their perceived levels of support as well as their satisfaction with the support they receive
- measures for the nature and quality of social relationships ask about the quality of a marriage, the amount of conflict in a relationship, or the quality of each relationship in one's social network
what are the strengths of subjective measures
they provide insight into people's personal experience. for example, a married person might love or hate their marriage
how are objective and subjective measures administered
- asks individuals to make a global assessment of their relationships
- daily diary methodology where they report their relationships on a regular basis (ex. 3x a day)
- many researchers combine measurements to overcome the weaknesses associated with any one measurement technique
true or false: researchers acknowledge that only psychological approaches are relevant to defining well-being, and that many dimensions—satisfaction, joy, meaning—are all important.
false. they acknowledge that both psychological and physical approaches are relevant to defining well-being, and that many dimensions—satisfaction, joy, meaning—are all important.
what is a psychological dimension of well-being? what is it defined by
- happiness (scientific term is subjective well-being) is defined by 3 components
- high life satisfaction
- positive feelings
- low negative feelings
- these components are commonly measured using subjective self-report scales.
what is a physical dimension of well being? how do researchers measure it
- health is a physical dimension of well being which is a complete state of physical, mental, and social well-being and not just the absence of disease or infirmity
- researchers examine various health variables to better understand the possible benefits of good relationships for example
- health can be defined in terms of disease, mortality and injury
physiological indicators like blood pressure or immune system strength
or health behaviours like dietary consumption, exercise, and smoking
It's impossible for a single study to look at all types of relationships across all age groups and cultures. Instead, researchers narrow their focus to specific variables, what are they?
they tend to consider two major elements: the presence of relationships, and the quality of relationships
how do researchers look at the presence of relationships
by looking at objective social variables, such as the size of a person's social network, or the number of friends they have
what have researchers discovered about having more social relationships
the more social relationships people have, in general, the more positively their sense of well-being is impacted.
a study looked at 200 university students and compared the happiest 10% to the unhappiest 10%. the happiest students were much more satisfied with their relationships, including with close friends, family, and romantic partnerships
does happiness depends on having dozens upon dozens of friends?
no, a person doesn't have to be a social butterfly in order to be happy but rather needs to have at least a few close connections.
what can a lack of social connections can lead to
loneliness and depression
Being excluded and ignored by others
In many societies, withholding social relationships is used as a form of punishment. give examples
- in cliques, if a person conflicts with the other group members, they may become socially rejected
- the Amish community practice shunning when members break important social rules. Sunning is a temporary period during which members withhold emotion, communication, and other forms of social contact as a form of punishment for wrongdoing
what happens to people when they are ostracized
- their well-being has been shown to dramatically suffer when they are ostracized
- the areas of the brain that process physical pain when we are injured are the same areas that process emotional pain when we are ostracized
why is simply having a relationship not enough to produce well-being?
- in order for a relationship to improve well-being it has to be a good one
- high quality relationships between parents and children are associated with increased happiness, both for teenagers and adults
social support was linked to higher ___, higher ___, and lower ___
higher life satisfaction, higher positive affect and lower negative affect
how do the quality and quantity of social relationships affect a person's health?
- having a larger social network and high quality relationships can be beneficial for health, whereas having a small social network and poor quality relationships can actually be detrimental to health
- friends and romantic partners might share health behaviours, such as wearing seat belts, exercising, or abstaining from heavy alcohol consumption.
- people who experience social support might feel less stress and stress is associated with various health problems
why are intimate relationships important?
- intimate relationships are the closest form of social bond. It is more than being physical in nature, it entails psychological closeness
- having a single confidante (a person with whom you can be authentic and trust not to exploit your secrets and vulnerabilities) is more important to happiness than having a large social network
what is the difference between formal and informal relationships
- formal relationships are those that are bound by the rules of politeness (respecting your elders, workplace relationships and new acquaintance relationships). they are less relaxed because they require self-control
- informal relationships (friends, lovers, siblings) allow people to relax and express their true feelings and opinions using language that comes naturally. in these relationships people are more authentic
which relationship (formal vs. informal) translates to more happiness and why
informal because it allows a person to be comfortable and vulnerable
what is the most common way researchers investigate intimacy?
- though marriage because it's the most common intimate relationship
- they compare married people vs single people and they compare married people vs divorced/widowed people
- the transition from singlehood to marriage brings an increase in subjective well-being
- experiencing divorce, or the death of a spouse, leads to adverse effects on subjective well-being and these effects are stronger than the positive effects of being married
because happiness rates in married people are high does that mean that getting married will make you happy?
- no it depends on the quality of relationship you have with your spouse
- when a person remains in a problematic marriage, it takes an emotional toll
- the lower a person's self-reported level of marital quality, the more likely he or she is to report depression
what is it about bad marriages, or bad relationships in general, that takes such a toll on well-being?
- conflict between partners as a major factor leading to lower subjective well-being because negative relationships are linked to ineffective social support and are a source of stress
- cases of physical and psychological abuse can be detrimental to well-being
- victims of abuse sometimes feel shame, lose their sense of self, and become less happy and prone to depression and anxiety but these effects dissipate once the relationship ends.
why do high quality work relationships make jobs enjoyable and less stressful
- workers experience mutual trust and support in the workplace to overcome work challenges.
- liking the people we work with can result in more humour and fun on the job.
- supervisors who are more supportive have employees who are more likely to thrive at work
- feeling engaged in our work and having a high job performance predicts better health and greater life satisfaction
what are the implications of poor work relationships on a person's job
- they can make the job feel like hard work
- supervisors that are sources of stress have a negative impact on the subjective well-being of their employees
- employees who rate their supervisors high on the "dark triad" (psychopathy, narcissism, and Machiavellianism) reported greater psychological distress at work, as well as less job satisfaction
Some researchers argue that social relationships are central to subjective well-being, but others contend that social relationships' effects on happiness have been exaggerated. why?
when looking at the correlations (the size of the associations) between social relationships and well-being, they are typically small
but even though the effects are small, they are robust and reliable across different studies
Other sets by this creator
happiness/subjective well being - exam study
gender - exam study
language and language use
attachment throughout the life course - exam study
Other Quizlet sets
LAW EXAM 2
NU 326 Medications
Name and explain two brain abnormalities that help us understand schizophrenia.
What questions do developmental psychologists raise concerning nature versus nurture?
What is homeostasis? How does it affect behavior?
What is the study of how the structure and function of genes interact with our environment to influence behavior called? a. Molecular behavior genetics. b. Evolutionary psychology. c. Biopsychosocialism. d. Heritability e. Natural selection.