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Social Studies 08 Aztecs/Spanish
Study guide and vocabulary
Terms in this set (79)
Where did the Aztecs migrate to? Why did they stop and build their city where they did?
Mexico. They saw an eagle on a cactus with a snake in their mouth.
What did they name the main city? How did the design of the city signify the Aztecs view of the world?
Tenochtitlan. 4 sections for the 4 directions mirroring how they thought the world was.
How did the physical landscape affect the Aztec culture?
Coastlines, mountains, deserts, valleys. Thought the mountains were sacred.
Why did the Aztecs build pyramids?
Shaped like mountains. Used to perform sacrifices. Used for religious ceremonies.
What innovations did the Aztecs have to make in order to allow their society to have enough drinking water and farmland?
Series of dams to trap freshwater and chinampas to create farmland.
What was the name of the "islands" the Aztecs made to create more land?
How were the Aztecs able to support such a large population?
Sold cocoa beans/considered it as currency and military strength to take over neighboring tribes.
What are some problems that Mexico City is currently facing (as a result of being built on an ancient lake)?
Mexico is sinking.
Describe the Aztec gods. Why did they have multiple gods?
They each have a role or story. The gods gave the Aztecs a sense of meaning and purpose
Describe the calendars used by the Aztecs. How many days were in each calendar?
Solar and sacred. Solar was 365 and sacred was 260 days long.
Describe the practice of human sacrifice. Why did the Aztecs feel like this was a necessary practice? Is human sacrifice unique to Aztec culture?
They believed that the gods had given blood to create humans so they gave it back. If they didn't the sun wouldn't rise. Usually sacrifice prisoners/captives.
What is the "new fire" ceremony? How would the Aztecs celebrate this? How did the Spanish react to Aztec rituals when they arrived in the early 1500s?
Every 52 years the calendars would link up. people would fast, put out fires, and wait on rooftops.
How did the Aztecs expand their empire?
Spy on their enemies, find out info, make a plan based on their weaknesses and strengths.
What role did merchants and young boys play in their "warrior" society?
Merchants were used as spies. Young boys were either warriors, or sacrificed.
What is a tribute?
A tax. Payment from one state/ruler to another.
How did Aztec hierarchy differ from feudalism? How was it the same?
Both had a pyramid shape. Leader = power. Emperor is elected, King is born into leadership.
What were the duties of the Emperor? What qualities were valued most?
Emperor was elected and responsible for leading Aztecs. In charge of all military, spiritual, and economy decisions. Often chosen from military because they are natural leaders.
What are the calpolli? How did they influence Aztec society?
Calpolli were Aztec family groups. Contribute skills, trade, cleaning, building the community. They also elected their leaders.
What role did farmers, artisans and merchants play in Aztec culture?
How did Aztecs show signs of their status? How does this compare to our culture?
Wore jewelry and clothing for their status. Similar to our culture that material goods indicate status.
How could an Aztec move up in the social ladder?
Capture enemies as captives for sacrifices.
When did education begin for Aztec children? When did school start?
Aztec children educated at home until 10-15 years of age. Pampered until 3. After were expected to be obedient and hard workers.
What subjects did the Aztecs learn? What does this say about their values?
Math, history, religion, and trained to be warriors. This showed what aspects of their culture were most important.
Describe the two different school systems in Aztec culture (who was in each system, how id they learn, what did they learn).
Calmecac - Nobles. Learned orally. Religion, trained to be a warrior, and other Noble skills. Telpochalli - Commoners. Learned orally. Religion, family trade, trained to be a warrior.
How did Aztec deal with criminals?
Punishments were severe. Often included slavery/death.
Describe the life of a slave in Aztec culture.
It was not shameful, and not permanent. Could own property and work their way to freedom.
What was a major motivation for the Spanish to "discover" and explore the new world?
Gold, God, and Glory
Describe the shifts of rulers in Spain from 400 A.D. to 1492 A.D.
in 400 A.D. Spain was ruled by Visigoths. In 1492 A.D. Spain was ruled by Catholic Monarchs.
Describe how Spain was ruled while it was controlled by Muslims (in terms of art, culture, and tolerance of other religions).
Muslims let others live freely no matter their beliefs. Christians converted those who didn't agree with them.
Who were the Catholic Monarchs? Why were they influential in the expansion to the west?
Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand. They completed the Reconquista and ordered the expulsion of Muslims and Jews from Spain.
What was the Spanish Inquisition? What events in Canadian history compare?
When non-Christians were forced to convert, move, or die. They compare to Residential schools.
What were the 3 "G's" that motivated exploration?
Gold, God, Glory.
How did the Aztecs describe the Spanish ships, guns, and men to Moctezuma?
They called ships "floating castles" and thought the guns were lightning.
Describe the steps that Cortes took that led him from Spain to Tenochtitlan (which other areas did he go to and conquer?).
Spain to Cuba to Mexico.
What were the 5 steps in the Conquistadors formula?
1. Gather men for the mission. Second in charge of the previous mission would lead the next.
2. Determine with enemy group was the most powerful.
3. Greet the powerful group with kindness and arrange a meeting with the leader.
4. Kidnap the leader and force the people to surrender to Spain (make the group turn on the leader by making them think their leader is working with them)
5. Take the remaining people as slaves and prepare for the next expedition.
Who was Velasquez? What did Cortes do to anger him?
Led the mission to Cuba. Cortes was his own man. Didn't follow many orders and had his own goals in mind.
What gave the Spanish an advantage in their fight against the Aztecs?
They had better armor, weapons, and use of horses.
Who was Malinche? Why was she vital to the Spanish conquering the Aztecs?
She could translate between the groups and was loyal to Cortes.
How did other tribes treat the Spanish when they arrived? How did this aide in conquering the Aztecs?
Lots were fearful and angry of the Aztecs so they joined the Spanish.
How did Moctezuma initially greet Cortes?
Treated him with respect. He mistook Cortes as an Aztec God who was prophesied to return to Tenochtitlan.
What was the fate of Moctezuma (what became of him)?
He was kidnapped and stoned by his people. He died by the stones/Spanish.
Describe the factors that led to the fall of Tenochtitlan.
Death of Moctezuma led to problems with leadership Spanish recruited enemies to fight Aztecs.
What did the Spanish do to Tenochtitlan after they gained control of it?
They tore the city down and removed Aztec temples and buildings. They made Aztecs do the remaining work of removing buildings and statues.
How did the Catholic church work to convert many of the Aztecs to Christianity?
Franciscan Order. Ordered Aztecs to remove the remaining of their religion.
Who was the Franciscan Order?
They were sent to convert Aztecs to Christianity.
What was the ecomienda system?
System of farming/economics that Spanish used.
What was the "king's fifth"?
A 20% tax paid to the King of Spain.
Who are the Mestizo? What did Cortes do that led to the creation of this culture group?
Children of Aztec/Spanish parents (like Metis in Canada). Cortes made laws to encourage Spanish men to Aztec women to create mixed offspring.
When did Mexico become independent from Spain? Why did they decide this was necessary?
Frustrated with the tax and King so they became their own country.
How is Mexican culture a hybrid of Spanish and Aztec culture?
Traditions like the Day of the Dead incorporate Spanish and Aztec culture (Art and celebrations).
People who had invaded Spain from the north at the end of the Roman Empire.
The area of jurisdiction of Islamic rulers.
A state-run system of courts in Spain where non-Catholics were put on trial.
Men and women from religious orders with the authority to teach and convert people to Christianity.
In 711 A.D. a Muslim force led by this man crossed the Strait of Gibraltar and landed in Spain.
Small areas often ruled by princes.
The belief in the existence of one god.
The sons of poor nobles.
The Christian reconquest of Spain from the Muslims.
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain.
The belief in the existence of many gods.
Code of Chivalry
A set of values meant to govern the behavior of all Christian soldiers.
The word that the Spanish used to describe the leader of an expedition to colonize other lands.
Swords, halberds and crossbows.
Someone who acts as a go-between or mediator between two people or groups of people.
Spanish conquistador who led the conquest of the Aztec people.
A disease that spreads rapidly and affects many individuals at the same time.
The language spoken by the Maya people.
Long, rifle-like guns that were fired from the shoulder.
An infectious disease that affects many people over a large geographical area.
The language spoken by the Aztecs.
The economic system the Spanish set up in all their colonies in the Americas.
The representative of a sovereign in a foreign jurisdiction.
A group of Catholic priests who took a vow of poverty, chastity, and obedience and worked with the poor and lower classes.
The economic system the French used in New France.
Descendants of Spanish settlers in Mexico.
A prediction based on prior knowledge and experience.
Persons of mixed race of Spanish and Aztec descent.
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