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AVIS janets Doc
mark marky mark
Terms in this set (35)
What are the differences between BITC, LTC, and ATC?
BITC (Burn In TC) is a representation of the timecode, but not the actual timing. It's used for communication for specific events in a film or syncing timelines. LTC (Longitudinal TC) is shaped like a square wave and is an audible waveform. Its synchronous data and clock. ATC (Ancillary TC) is best for digital since its encoded TC into the digital recording
What is the purpose of DF?
So that the timecode will stay in sync with real-time. It accounts for speed-ups or slowdowns in transfers so it can match the changes to real-time.
What's the difference between speed error and counting error?
Counting error can be fixed by adjusting the offset - it's a positional reference. Speed errors cause drifting where the distance between audio and video will keep increasing.
What is the most important thing to pay attention to during transfers between audio and video? What is the standard speed change percentage?
Speed changes. You have to slow the Audio Capture down by 0.1% so it is equal to the Edit spec - therefore set the recorder 0.1% above what is requested in the Edit Spec.
Which Timecode Scenarios do NOT have any speed changes? What scenarios do have speed changes?
NTSC to NTSC, 24P to 24P HD, 24P HD to NTSC, and Film to Film don't have speed changes. Film to NTSC and Film to 24P HD have speed changes.
For Film (camera capture = 24fps) to 24P HD (edit spec = 48k 23.97 fps) what should you set the audio capture for?
There is a speed change by 0.1% so it should be set 0.1% above the Edit Spec. Field Recorder should be set to 48.048k and 24fps.
What is EDLs? What is its purpose?
Edit Decision Lists. It is how editors receive/sync timecode info. It manages various edits received from visual/audio editors. .PTX, .OMF, .AAF
For Film (24 fps) to NTSC (29.97 fps) the camera capture was 24fps and the Edit is 47.952k at 29.97fps OR 48k at 29.97fps. What is the audio capture?
Set the field rate to 48k and set framerate to 30fps to anticipate slowing audio by 0.1%. 48.048k and 30fps both slowed down by 0.1% is 48k 29.97fps. Therefore 48k at 30fps OR 48.048k at 30fps will work for audio capture
What is the difference between OMF and AAF files? What about MXF files?
OMF (Open Media Framework) includes volume/panning automation and clip handles, but doesn't save any track names. AAF (Advanced Authoring Format) also includes volume/pan automation and handles, but saves track names. MXF is an alternate audio format for server-based projects.
What are the different timecodes?
24hr Run Auto Mute
Ext TC Auto Rec
Ext TC/Cont Auto Rec
What does "Consolidate Media" in Import Sesion Data mean?
It includes media files from the tracks selected. If there are licensed sounds in a folder, it makes it so that you can control what the recipient has access to.
Whats the purpose of Loudness Standards?
Standardize audio loudness content for consumer media. Consumers want normalized experiences. (Home TVs, Movie Theaters, Computers/Laptops, portable devices/earbuds haven't been standardized yet.
What is LKFS/LUFS?
Unit of measurement for cumulation of energy/psychoacoustic modeling.
LKFS: Loudness, K weighted, relative full scale
LUFS: Loudness Units relative full scale
same thing dont be a bitch bitch
What are the 1770 Algorithms? Which are gated, which aren't?
TU RBS 1770-1/2/3/4
1 is not gated, 2/3/4 are gated.
Describe Program Loudness.
integrated/Average Loudness which is the main target.
Describe True Peak.
Limiter that accounts for True Peak Value. Its good for monitoring, but not the Master.
usually deviates 2 loudness units from loudness
Who sets international technical guidelines?
ITU. International Telecommunications Union set standards for almost all technology - chip sets, medicine, radio frequencies, RBS (radio broadcast services)
What are the ATSC A85 (North America) guidelines for loudness?
Algorithm: BS 1770 1/2/3/4
Program Loudness: -24 LKFS
True Peak: -2.0 dBTP
Tolerance: +/- 2LU
What is the EBU R128 (Europe) guidelines for loudness?
Algorithm: Gated BS 1770 3/ 4
Program Loudness: -23 LUFS
True Peak: -1.0 dBTP
Tolerance: +/- .5LU or 1.0 LU for Live Broadcast
EBU R128 S1
Short term max: -18 LUFS
Program Loudness: 85 dB (production basis)
True Peak: -6dBTP
General Goal: Make sure trailers don't exceed main attraction from feautre/blow up cinema
Algorithm: Home Based/Portable Devices: 1770 1/2/3/4
Program Loudness: -24 LKFS
True Peak: -1.0 dBTP
Tolerance:-18 LKFS +/- 2LU -60dBTP
What is the Sound Narrative?
An extension of the diegetic world. It shifts emotion, makes audience feel, develops characters, etc.
What is the Suspension of Belief?
Gives the audience a lick of what is normal and then takes it away to make them pay attention. Can shift using Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary actions.
Describe Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary actions. Why are they necessary?
Primary: Character/object motion
Secondary: Camera movement
Tertiary: Picture edit.
Subliminal Subtractive/Additive rely on them. Without the shots, camera movements, character movements, you can't add the subliminal narrative.
What does Subliminal Narrative Shift do?
Draws focus to the important part of the story. It causes them to extract greeted meaning from the story. Ex: Music/FX fades away.
What's dangerous about selecting elements to subtract for varying narrative impact?
It works all the time, so it should be used sparingly and you should look for different approaches to achieve impact of a particular scene.
Whats an example of when adding a sound layer helped create subliminal narrative?
In the movie "Blow" the director told the sound department that the scene is a "car crash waiting to happen". They took it literally and added the sound of a car crash on top of the sound design to the scene.
What can addition of processing be?
Can be a simple "ding" to a lightbulb. It doesn't have to be accomplished by adding very obvious layers
What is a Grammatical Narrative?
50% creative, 50% technical. It connects one scene/actor/theme to another. It indicates to the audience that perspective scene changed, but the theme has not. Its seen in voiceovers, character dialogue. Picture and Sound Department must discuss how to make it work.
What are the 3 types of grammatical narratives? define each
L cut: past scenes audio overlaps current scene
J cut: audio for next scene overlaps current scene
music grammatical: Stitches a theme of narrative in a picture montage/multiple edits. It affirms to the audience that the theme is the same even though the picture changes.
What is a Direct Narrative?
Acts as a direct storytelling role with the use of Dx, VO, FX, Foley. The audience needs it to move forward/understand the story. Budget-saving tactic
What is Perspective Narrative?
POV of the character. With 1st POV design, sound can determine audience's perspective. Changing the POV changes the narrative entirely and can reveal character traits
In Advanced Narratives, what is Subliminal Foreshadowing?
Again effective through Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary movements Ex: In Punch Drunk Love secondary movement going towards the organ and RAQ focusing. The same camera movement/ATMOS edit is repeated in the same way before and after the object is introduced.
What are the roles of Action and Function?
Action is perspective
Function is subliminal
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