Biology Chapter 1

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All living cells are composed of cells
The cell is the basic functional unit of life
Cells arise only from preexisting cells
Cells carry genetic information in the form of DNA. This genetic material is passed on from parent to daughter cell
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Terms in this set (41)
are composed of actin. Provide strucutral protection for the cell and can cause muscle contraction through interaction with myosin. Help form cleavage furrow during cytokinesisMicrofilaments___ are composed of tubulin. They create pathways for motor proteins like kinesin and dyneinMicrotubulesStructure of a eukaryotic flagella9 + 2 - 9 in a circle 2 in the hollow middleare involved in cell-cell adhesion and maintenance of the integrity of the cytoskeleton. Help anchor organellesIntermediate filamentsFundamental tissue composed of thin-walled living cells that function in photosynthesis and storage.parenchymaSimple epithelia have __ layer Stratified epithelia have __ layers Pseudostratified epithelia have ___ layerone, many, appear to have many but it is oneEpithelial cells are ___ - Cube shaped ___ - long and narrow _____ flat and scale likecuboidal, columnar, sqamoussupport the body and provide a framework for epithelial cellsConnective tissuesArchae similarities to eukaryotesstart translation with methionine, similar RNA polymerases, histonesArchae similarities to prokaryotessingle circular chromosome, divide by binary fission or budding____ - spherical bacteria ____ - Rod bacteria ___ - spiral bacteriaspherical, rod, spiralcan survive in environments with and without oxygen and will toggle between metabolic processesfaculative anaerobescannot use oxygen for metabolism but can survive in an oxygen rich environmentaerotolerant bacteriaGram positive bacteria turn ___ while gram negative bacteria turn __ ___purple, pink red____ ______ bacteria have thich cell walls composed of peptidoglycan and lipoterichoic acidGram positivehave a thin cell wall composed of peptidoglycan and an outer membrane containing phospholipids and lipopolysaccharidesgram negative positivescontain a filament composed of flagellin, a basal body that anchors and rotates the flagellum and a hook that connects the twobacterial flagellamoving to chemical stimulichemotaxisExtrachromosomal bacteria can be carried in ____ in prokaryotesplasmidsPlasmids that integrate into the genomeepisomesthe transfer of genetic material from one bacterium to another across a ____ bridgeconjugationthe transfer of genetic information from one bacterium to another via a bacteriophage vectortransductiongenetic elements that can insert into or remove themselves from the genomeTransposonsThe bacteria adapt to new local conditions during the ___ phase Growth then increases exponentially during the _______ phase As resources are reduced, growth levels off during the _____ phase As resources are depleted bacteria undergo a ___ phaselag, exponential, stationary, deathIn bacteriophages the __ ____ injects the genetic material into a bacterium, __ ____ allow the bacteriophage to attach to the host celltail sheath, tail fibresviruses that can be translated by the host cellPositive senseviruses that require a complementary strand to be synthesized by RNA replicase before translationNegative sensebacteriophage produce massive numbers of new virions until the cell lysesLytic cycleThe virus integrates into the host genome as a provirus, or prophage which can then reproduce along with the cell. Can remain in the genome indefinitely, or may leave the genome in response to a stimulus and enter the lytic cycleLysogenic cycleinfectious proteins that trigger misfolding of other proteins usually converting an a helix into a beta sheet, decreases solubility of proteins and increases resistance to degradationprionsare plant pathogens that are small circles of complementary RNA that can turn off genesViroids