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NUTRITION FINAL EXAM MASTER QUIZLET- MICROMINERALS
Terms in this set (265)
65% of iron is found in
10% of iron is found in
1-5% of iron is found
as part of enzymes
20% of iron is in
which type of iron is contained within a porphyrin structure?
which type of iron is derived from hemoglobin and myoglobin and thus is only found in animal products such as meat, fish, poultry, oysters, and clams?
50-60% of the iron in animal products occurs in which form?
molasses is a great source of which iron?
foods such as enriched breads, meat, beans, dark leafy greens, and dried fruits are good sources of what?
which forms of iron are stable in the body?
Fe 3+ (ferric)
Fe 2+ (ferrous) --> When I was 2 yrs old I went on FERRIS wheel
which iron is hydrolyzed from hemoglobin/myoglobin by proteases in the stomach and SI?
which iron is hydrolyzed from food components by HCl and proteases in the stomach releasing free iron, mostly in the Fe3+ (ferric) form?
some of the ferric iron (Fe3+) is reduced to ferrous (Fe2) in the stomach by the low pH, but in the alkaline environment of the SI, what will ferric iron (Fe3) be complexed to?
ferric hydroxide (Fe (OH)3), which is relatively insoluble and poorly absorbed
which enzyme acts as a ferric reductase enzyme and reduces Fe3+ to Fe2+ in the duodenum to improve solubility and aid absorption?
duodenal cytochrome b
which mineral is needed as a cofactor for ferric reductase activity (therefore improving absorption of non-heme iron)?
heme iron is absorbed throughout the SIs but is absorbed most efficiently in which part?
in absorption of heme iron, the heme protein is absorbed into the enterocytes by which protein?
the heme carrier protein 1 (HCP 1)
once absorbed, the heme is hydrolyzed by which enzyme to yield inorganic Fe2+ and a porphyrin ring?
what % of heme iron is absorbed?
all Fe2+ (ferrous iron) is absorbed via which transporter (this process is stimulated by low iron stores)
divalent mineral transporter 1 (DMT1)
in non-heme iron, iron present in the Fe3+ form is first reduced to Fe2+ by the ferric reductase enzyme called
duodenal cytochrome b
what % of non-heme is absorbed?
what factors enhance non-heme iron absorption?
organic acids (citric, malic, tartaric, and lactic)
meat, fish, poultry
low iron status
factors that inhibit iron absorption?
o Phytic acids (phytates)
o Phosvitin (found in egg yolks)
o Other minerals: calcium, zinc, copper, manganese
o Soy, wheat, egg, whey and casein proteins
o Herbal teas: peppermint, green tea, linden flower & chamomile
o Rapid transit time
o Decreased stomach acidity
when iron stores are adequate or high, the protein ________ is released from the liver?
when iron is high, the protein _______ promotes the degradation of ferroportin, which results in decreased transport of iron across the basolateral membrane of the enterocyte
when there are low levels of hepcidin/ when iron stores are low, increase __________ levels resulting in increased transport of iron across the basolateral membrane of the enterocytes
which protein transports iron through the enterocytes?
The protein mobilferrin transports iron through the enterocytes but attachment to another protein, _________, is required for Fe to cross the basolateral membrane.
Once in the blood iron (in its Fe3+ form) is attached to the protein __________ for transport to other tissues. Fe2+ leaving the enterocyte must therefore first be converted to Fe3+.
Once in the blood iron (in its Fe3+ form) is attached to the protein transferrin for transport to other tissues. Fe2+ leaving the enterocyte must therefore first be converted to Fe3+. This reaction is catalyzed by one of two copper containing ferroxidase enzymes:
o Hephaestin (in the basolateral membrane of the enterocytes)
o Ceruloplasmin (in the membranes of the rest of the cells in the body)
Transferrin binds to transferrin receptors on cells and the complex is then internalized into a _________. Protons are then pumped in to reduce the pH and the iron is released and the transferrin is returned to the plasma.
the number of transferrin receptors expressed by a cell is determined by the amount of
iron is primarily stored
in the liver (60%) but also in bone marrow and spleen
what are the 2 storage proteins for iron?
FERRITIN and HEMOSIDERIN
Name the primary storage protein for iron. It is an unstable protein constantly being degraded and resynthesized to provide the available intracellular iron pool.
name the storage protein for iron which is a degradation product of ferritin and its levels increase during iron overload
Dietary iron intake cannot meet the daily needs of the body and constant recycling of the body's stores ensures adequate supply
most plasma iron comes from the degradation of
hemoglobin, ferritin, and hemosiderin
- O2 transport and storage
- Electron transport and energy metabolism
are important functions of which mineral?
transports oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body
transport and short-term storage of oxygen in muscle cells, helping to match the supply of oxygen to the demand of working muscles
iron is excreted in
blood, bile, and desquamated mucosal cells in GI tract
(We also lose iron through the skin via the desquamation of surface cells and perspiration. Only very small amounts of iron are excreted through the urine)
iron def is divided into 3 levels
o Storage iron depletion -> Iron stores are depleted, but the functional iron supply is not limited.
o Early functional iron deficiency -> The supply of functional iron is low enough to impair red blood cell formation but not low enough to cause measurable anemia.
o Iron-deficiency anemia ->Iron-deficiency anemia results when there is inadequate iron to support normal red blood cell formation. The anemia of iron deficiency is characterized as microcytic and hypochromic, meaning red blood cells are smaller than normal and their hemoglobin content is decreased causing them to appear pale.
def of what mineral may cause the following:
- dyspnea on exertion
- poor concentration/ mood disturbances
-angular stomatitis and atrophic glossitis
- alopecia (hair loss)
-brittle, spoon-shaped nails
iron deficiency anemia
increased risk of iron def in:
o Infants/young children
o Menstruating females
o Individuals with chronic blood loss
o Parasitic infections
o Gastric bypass surgery and faster GI transit time
o Celiac disease
o Those who engage in regular intense exercise
iron from plants is less efficiently absorbed than from animal sources
restless leg syndrome could be a symptom of what mineral def?
Improvements in anemia may take up to ___ weeks of supplementation to be seen.
Iron therapy to build up body stores may take up to 6-12 months of supplementation
which form of iron is usually available in supplement form?
best forms of iron
polysaccharide-iron complex (PIC)
heme sourced iron: polypeptides and predigested liver extracts
which forms of iron are associated w higher incidence of unwanted side effects?
Rapid-release iron salts such as ferrous fumarate and ferrous
o Constipation (or occasionally diarrhea)
o Dark tarry stools
o Nausea and vomiting
o Epigastric pain
may be adverse effects of what mineral supplementation?
acute iron toxicity is primarily seen in
high risk for chronic iron toxicity in those with
o Thalassemia or sideroblastic anemia
o Alcoholic cirrhosis
nutrient interactions of iron
· Vitamin C: enhances the absorption of non-heme iron
· Copper: Both hephaestin and ceruloplasmin are copper-dependent enzymes and are required for mobilization of iron from tissues. Iron has been found to accumulate in the livers of copper deficient animals.
· Calcium, zinc, copper, and manganese: Non-heme iron and other divalent minerals compete for a common absorptive pathway.
· Lead: Iron deficiency increases lead absorption and lead also inhibits incorporation of iron into heme.
blue sclera is often associated with which mineral def?
beeturia may indicate which mineral def?
assessment of iron status
o Hemoglobin and hematocrit are decreased in end-stage iron deficiency
· Blood cell indicators
o Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) may be decreased in iron deficiency
o Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) may be increased in iron deficiency
· Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and transferrin saturation
o TIBC measures the capacity to bind iron with transferrin and therefore an indirect measurement of iron. TIBC is elevated in iron deficiency due to decreased transferrin saturation of iron.
· Serum ferritin
o Ferritin levels will be decreased in early stages iron deficiency, however, ferritin is an acute phase reactant protein and may be elevated irrespective of iron stores in the elderly and various inflammatory conditions including infections, cancer, chronic excessive alcohol consumption.
organ meats, shellfish, whole grains, nuts and seeds are a good source of what?
copper is found in 2 oxidative states in the body:
digestion of copper
Bound to organic components in food & released into stomach by HCl + pepsin & in SI by proteolytic enzymes
Cu 2+ is reduced to Cu 1+ by _________ enzyme prior to absorption
copper reductase enzyme (easy-- it's all in the name!)
The 2 pathways for copper absorption in the SI:
1) Active Carrier Mediated Transporters
· Copper transporter 1 (CTR1) & divalent mineral transporter 1 (DMT1)
· Stimulated by low Cu concentrations
2) Passive diffusion; Nonsaturable
· Active at high concentrations
factors that enhance copper absorption
· Amino acids: histidine & methionine
· Organic acids: HCl, citric, lactic, acetic, malic
* Low Cu status
factors that inhibit copper absorption
· Vit C & Cysteine
· Other minerals: Zn, Fe, Molybdenum, Ca & P
* Hypochlorhydria or excessive antacid use
copper is stored in
liver, brain and kidneys
copper is bound to various proteins, primarily
thionine forming metallothionine
copper enters the blood circulation from enterocyte via transport protein
copper is bound primarily to ________ in the hepatic portal circulation
in the liver, copper binds to ________ to be transported into other tissues as needed
1) Cofactor in Cu-Dependent Enzymes
· Cu-Zn Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)
· Cytochrome C Oxidase
· Lysyl Oxidase
· Dopamine monooxygenase (dopamine b-hydroxylase)- responsible for conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine
Tyrosinase- necessary for melanin formation
2. Angiogenesis & Neutrophil Production
Copper-dependent enzyme- [Ceruloplasmin & hephatesin]-oxidise ferrous iron [2+] to ferric iron [3+] to allow binding of Fe to transferrin for transport into blood- ceruloplasmin is antioxidant; free Cu ions powerful catalysts of free-radical damage; prevents free Fe 2+ from acting as free radical in circulation
Name the copper-dependent enzyme with antioxidant function which catalyses conversion of superoxide radicals to hydrogen peroxide which can be reduced to water by other antioxidant enzymes
Cu-Zn Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)
Name the copper-dependent enzyme which catalyzes terminal oxidative step in mitochondrial ETC in ATP production
Cytochrome C Oxidase
What is the name of the copper-dependent enzyme needed for cross-linking of collagen & elastic which are essential for forming string & flexible connective tissue?
Which copper-dependent enzyme is responsible for converting dopamine to norepinephrine?
Which copper-dependent enzyme is necessary for melanin formation?
Tyrosinase! Think of tyrosine supplement making people tanned
Which mineral has a main function of angiogenesis and neutrophil production?
which mineral is excreted in the intestine via bile?
Dietary deficiency is rare but increase risk in:
· High supplemental Zn intakes of 50mg/day+ for extended periods of time b/c Zn intake stimulates thionine synthesis which has higher binding affinity for Cu vs Zn & traps Cu in enterocyte which will be lost w/ sloughing off of intestinal cells
what mineral is associated with Menke's disease?
· X-Linked recessive mutation in Copper transport gene ATP7A- causes increased intestinal cell Copper concentration & impaired delivery of Copper to peripheral tissue = Cu deficiency- infants/ MNK syndrome do not live past age of 3yo
· Frequent antacid use
· Infants fed exclusively cow's milk-based formula
o Microcytic, hypochromic anemia not responsive to iron supplementation
o Neutropenia and subsequent impaired immune function
o Deterioration of the neurological system
Hypopigmentation of skin and hair, kinky hair
are signs of what mineral def?
are symptoms of acute toxicity of what mineral?
chronic copper def leads to
liver and kidney damage and eventually death
Acute poisoning of what mineral occurred thru contamination by storage in containers & contaminated water supply?
Wilson's disease is a genetic disorder associated w what mineral?
- genetic disorder of Cu metabolism resulting in defective biliary Cu excretion
- Cu accumulate over time primarily in liver & also in brain, kidneys, cornea & spleen
- Tx: low Cu diet & Cu binders to increase urinary excretion
which form of copper should not be used due to low absorption?
prolonged def of what mineral can cause a secondary (functional) iron def anemia?
copper interacts with
iron (copper def can cause anemia)
zinc (high zinc doses of 50 mg/day for extended periods can lead to copper def
(Zinc intake stimulates the synthesis of thionine which has a higher binding affinity for copper than zinc and consequently traps copper in the enterocyte which will be lost with the sloughing off of intestinal cells).
*Additional copper must be taken when supplementing zinc in high doses for extended periods.
copper forms an insoluble complex with which mineral in the GI tract, preventing absorption of either mineral?
one should take additional _______ when supplementing zinc in high doses for long periods of time?
which lab test for copper is only decreased in moderate to severe deficiencies and may be falsely elevated in inflammatory conditions?
can you assess copper thorugh hair nails and saliva?
Which may be more sensitive tests for assessing mild copper deficiencies, but these tests are not readily available to patients.
Red blood cell super oxide dismutase and platelet cytochrome C oxidase activities
shellfish, beef, read meat, nuts and legumes are a good source of what?
what mineral is found in all tissues and fluids?
are animal or plant sources more absorbable for zinc?
absorption of zinc is decreased by
maillard rxn products and phytates
which mineral needs to be hydrolyzed from amino acids and nucleic acids in the stomach and SI by HCl, proteases and nucleases before being absorbed?
absorption of zinc occurs
primarily in SI
which absorption route of zinc occurs with higher intakes?
Passive cellular diffusion
which process of zinc absorption is more efficient w low zinc intakes, mediated by ZRT and IRT proteins (ZIP4), and has DMT1 (divalent mineral transporter) playing a minor role?
what factors ENHANCE zinc absorption?
· Organic acids (citric, picolinic)
· Low pH
· Amino acids, glutathione
* Low Zn status
what factors INHIBIT zinc absorption?
* Folate (B9) & other minerals (Fe, Ca, Mg)
which mineral is usually stored bound to thionein as metallothionein?
COPPER IS ALSO BOUND TO METALLOTHIONEIN
which minerals are bound to metallothionein?
zinc and copper
which protein transports zinc within cytoplasm of the cell
CRIP (cysteine-rich intestinal protein)
zinc is transported across basolateral membrane of enterocyte by
ZnT1 (zinc transporter 1) into blood
once zinc is transported into blood, zinc is bound to various proteins, primarily
this mineral has important roles in
· growth & development
- immune response
- neurological function
at the cellular level, zinc has a function in 3 categories
- catalytic role
- structural role
- regulatory role
which mineral possesses direct antiviral activity against rhinovirus and HSV?
300+ enzymes are dependent on zinc as a co-factor including
- alcohol/retinol dehydrogenase
- carboxypeptidase A & aminopeptidase
- polyglutamate conjugase- alkaline phosphatase
which mineral regulates gene expression by acting as transcription factors
zinc (zinc finger motifs)
which mineral has a role in cell signalling, influences insulin release, as well as nerve transmission?
which mineral is required for T-cell differentiation and function?
How is zinc excreted?
through GI tract as part of enzymes and intestinal cells that have been shed
when treating common cold, approx 10 mg in lozenge form of this mineral should be given every 2-3 hours for up to 5 days
which mineral should be added when supplementing zinc for a long time?
Growth retardation and skeletal abnormalities
Delayed sexual maturation
Dermatitis, especially around orifices, impaired wound healing
Impaired immune function
Dysgeusia (impaired sense of taste)
White spots on fingernails
are all signs of def in which mineral?
night blindness, impaired wound healing, and white spots on nails are a sign of what def?
pts with severe burns, prolonged diarrhea, chronic alcohol abuse are at higher risk for what mineral def?
· Premature and low-birth-weight infants, and older breast-fed infants and toddlers with inadequate intake of zinc-rich complementary foods.
· Pregnant and lactating women
· The elderly
· Those with inflammatory bowel diseases or severe prolonged diarrhea
are at higher risk for what mineral def?
which mineral is used in common cold?
which zinc forms are less bioavailable
sulfate and oxide
why does prolonged zinc intake lead to copper def?
Zinc intake stimulates the synthesis of thionine/metallothionine which has a higher binding affinity for copper than zinc and traps copper in the enterocyte which will be lost with the sloughing off of intestinal cells.
what mineral is required for conversion of retinol to retinal (vitamin A)?
explain zinc/ vitamin A interaction
a zinc deficiency could result in decreased mobilization of retinol from liver stores
calcium, magnesium, and iron may decrease what mineral absorption and vice versa?
are good sources of what?
is seafood the best form of selenium?
no because high levels of mercury decrease absorption by forming insoluble complex w selenium
selenium in foods occurs almost exclusively as organic compounds as
selenimethionine and selinocysteine due to its structural similarity to sulfur
selenium is primarily abs in the
which vitamins enhance abs of selenium?
A, C and E (ACED THAT SELENIUM)!
what inhibits selenium abs?
phytates and heavy metals (mercury especially)
selenium is primarily absorbed in the
which mineral binds to various proteins such as VLDL, LDL, and selenoprotein P?
which minerals enhance immune function and have direct antiviral activity?
selenium and zinc
selenium is a co-factor in selenium-dependent enzymes such as
o Iodothyronine deiodinases (IDI)- Selenium is an essential element for normal development, growth, and metabolism because of its role in the regulation of thyroid hormones.
o Glutathione peroxidase (GPX)
o Selenoprotein P (SEL P)
· Enhances immune function and may also have direct antiviral activity
selenoprotein P (SEL P)
SEL P functions primarily as a transport protein for selenium but it also acts as an antioxidant that protects endothelial cells from damage by reactive nitrogen species.
which mineral can be excreted by the lungs as dimethylselenide (unpleasant smell)
- decreased activity of the glutathione peroxidases as well as thyroid deiodinases
- Muscular weakness
- muscle wasting, and cardiomyopathy (inflammation and damage to the heart muscle) have been observed in
which mineral def causes Keshan disease?
which mineral def causes Kashin-Beck disease?
Keshan disease is a cardiomyopathy that affects young women and children in a selenium-deficient region of China.
-It is thought that oxidative stress induced by a selenium deficiency results in changes in the genome of normally benign strains of the Coxackie virus that then invade and damage the heart.
Kashin-Beck disease is characterized by the degeneration of articular cartilage between joints and is associated with poor selenium status in areas of northern China, North Korea, and eastern Siberia.
The disease affects children between the ages 5 and 13 years.
Severe forms of the disease may result in joint deformities and dwarfism.
garlic breath odor
can be a result of what def?
what mineral is called for in a pt with Hashimoto's Thyroiditis and HIV?
organic form of selenium
inorganic forms of selenium
Both inorganic and organic forms of selenium can be metabolized to selenocysteine by the body and incorporated into selenoenzymes and no form has consistently been shown to be better than another
which mineral deficiency can trigger or worsen hypothyroidism in those with severe iodine deficiency?
toenail clippings reflect status of what mineral for up to 1 year?
selenium (urinary concentrations are only reflective of recent intake not long term stores)
Meats, whole grains, green beans, broccoli, chocolate, and spices such as cinnamon, cloves, bay leaves, and turmeric, tea, beer, wine, and grape juice, and Brewer's yeast
are all good sources of?
chromium exists in foods and the body only in its
trivalent state (Cr3+)
chromium abs occurs in
factors that enhance chromium abs
Vitamin C and picolinate
factors that inhibit chromium abs?
chromuim is thought to be stored along with what mineral?
Inorganic chromium preferentially binds to transferrin but if transferrin sites are unavailable chromium will bind to _________ for transport in the blood.
which mineral potentiates the action of insulin?
(Chromium helps facilitate insulin binding as part of the glucose tolerance factor (GTF). GTF acts as a physiological enhancer of insulin activity, binding to insulin and potentiating its action about three-fold.
Chromium also enhances the effects of insulin by acting as part of the protein chromodulin)
which mineral is excreted 95% through urine?
Impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance
are all signs of what def?
individuals who exercise regularly at high intensity
may be higher in those with insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus
are all at higher risk for which mineral def?
Most chromium toxicity in the research is associated with the _____________ which is a carcinogen.
hexavalent form (Cr6+)
which mineral in high dose may cause enhanced dreaming and psychomotor agitation?
when is chromium used?
in T2DM: helps control serum glucose levels
which form of chromium should be avoided?
which form of chromium is best
picolinate most bioavailable
what is the chromium containing compound extracted from brewer's yeast?
Glucose tolerance factor (GTF)
Fish, seafood, kelp & other seaweed
Meat, eggs, beans
are great sources of which mineral?
iodine is found in the body
in its ionic form: iodide I -
100% of which micromineral is absorbed?
70-80% of what mineral is in the thyroid gland?
we have 40-50% times higher concentration of what mineral in the thyroid cells than in blood?
storage of what mineral requires a sodium-dependent active transport system with a sodium/iodine symporter?
iodine is transported freely as _______ in the blood
which mineral is an essential component of thryoid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), and is therefore essential for normal thyroid function?
formation of thyroid hormones
regulation of thyroid function
are all functions of what mineral?
which mineral is excreted freely through the kidneys?
which mineral has been used to treat fibrocystic breast disease?
which mineral is common in many areas of the world due to low levels in the soil?
iodine deficiency was virtually eradicated in North America after the widespread use of iodized salt in the 1920s but modern iodine status has begun to decline once again in North America due to a decrease in the consumption of iodized salt.
o Vegans and vegetarians, but not if they regularly consume seaweeds
o Infants of mothers who smoke
o Exposure to high amounts of goitrogens
are at higher risk of developing which deficiency?
Goitrogens are substances that interfere with iodine metabolism and inhibit thyroid hormone production.
· Halide ions (i.e. bromide), thiocyanate, and perchlorates inhibit the uptake of iodide by the thyroid gland.
· Some edible plants contain varying amounts of thiocyanates and goitrin, particularly brassica vegetables, soy, millet, and cassava.
· Perchlorates also interfere with the organification of iodide required for thyroid hormone synthesis.
· Polycyclic hydrocarbons and some phenol compounds also interfere with iodine metabolism in the body and act as goitrogens.
Thyroid enlargement, or goiter, is one of the earliest and most visible signs of _________ deficiency?
more severe cases of this def can result in hypothyroidism
Iodine deficiency has adverse effects in all stages of development but is most damaging to the
(thyroid hormones are important for myelination of the central nervous system, which is most active before and shortly after birth)
fetal iodine deficiency
Caused by an iodine def in mother. One of the most devastating effects of maternal iodine deficiency is cretinism. Cretinism is a condition caused by severe congenital hypothyroidism and results in irreversible mental retardation.
- short stature
- severe mental retardation
- hearing loss, deaf mutism
- spasticity & muscle rigidity
- Cause: iodine deficiency during 1st & 2nd trimesters of pregnancy
- severe mental retardation
- delayed/incomplete sexual maturity
- goiter & hypothyroidism
- puffy features
- dry skin & hair
- Cause: iodine deficiency in 3rd trimester & several years after birth
which cretinism is caused by iodine deficiency in 1&2 trimesters of pregnancy?
which cretinism is caused by iodine def in 3rd trimester & several years after birth?
iodine def in children and adolescents is often associated w
(School children in iodine-deficient areas show poorer school performance, lower IQ test scores, and a higher incidence of learning disabilities)
inadequate intake of which mineral may result in goiter and hypothyroidism in adults?
A condition in which the thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormone.
SXS: fatigue, weight gain, cold intolerance, slower response times, impaired mental fxn and constipation.
Large doses of iodine should not be given to pregnant women as it may cause goiter and hypothyroidism in the developing fetus.
- burning of mouth, throat & stomach
- increased salivation & swelling of salivary glands
- metallic taste
- N V & D
- severe headache
are all signs of what acute mineral toxicity?
when would we recommend high dose iodine?
cancer (esp radiation-induced thyroid cancer)
too much iodine supplementation may result in
iodine-induced hyperthyroidism in iodine-deficient pops and hypothryoidism and goiter in iodine-sufficient pops
seaweed is a great plant source of
selenium def can exacerbate the effects of what mineral deficiency?
high doses of Vitamin A decrease which mineral uptake by the thyroid gland?
· Whole grains, legumes, nuts and seeds
· Leafy green vegetables
are all good sources of what?
which mineral is rapidly cleared from the blood and accumulates in the mitochondria of tissue cells with the highest concentrations being found in bone, liver, pancreas, and kidneys?
are fxns of which mineral?
o Bone demineralization with increased serum calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase levels
o Altered carbohydrate and lipid metabolism
Dermatitis, decreased growth of hair and nails, and changes in hair and beard colour
are all signs of what def?
there's an increased risk of manganese toxicity in
o Liver failure and cholestasis (Manganese is eliminated from the body mainly in bile. Thus, impaired liver function may lead to decreased manganese excretion).
o Children (Compared to adults, infants and children have higher intestinal absorption of manganese, as well as lower biliary excretion of manganese)
Signs of manganese toxicity
o Adults: neurological symptoms similar to those of Parkinson's disease including tremors, prolonged reaction time, and memory problems.
Children: cognitive and behavioural deficits and hyperactive behavioural disorders.
calcium, magnesium and iron decrease absorption of which mineral?
· Whole grains
· Legumes, especially lima beans, peas, lentils
· Sunflower seeds
are all good sources of what mineral?
name the two molybdenum-dependent enzymes in the body
o Sulfite oxidase
Sulfite oxidase catalyzes the conversion of sulfite (SO32-) to sulfate (SO42-) which is required for the metabolism of the sulfur-containing amino acids (cysteine and methionine).
o Xanthine oxidase
Xanthine oxidase catalyzes the hydroxylation of various purines and pyrimidines to uric acid.
molybdenum is excreted mostly as molybdate in urine
increased incidence of gout may be seen in populations with high amounts of _________ in their soil?
which mineral may be used for preventing asthma attacks or in sulfite sensitivities?
which mineral interacts with molybdenum?
copper (forms insoluble complex preventing absorption of both minerals)
which mineral is not technically considered an essential nutrient but is important for the health of bones and teeth?
which mineral is primarily absorbed in the stomach as hydrofluoric acid (HF) through passive diffusion?
is protein-bound or fluoride from fluorisilicate or monofluorophosphate less absorbed?
what enhances fluoride absorption?
phosphates and sulfates
what inhibits fluoride absorption?
calcium and magnesium!
they form insoluble complexes with fluoride and significantly decrease absorption when present in same meal
95% of fluoride is found in
bones and teeth
once in the bloodstream, fluoride rapidly enters
mineralized tissue (bones and teeth)
which form of fluoride hardens bone and tooth enamel?
topical fluoride decreases production of acid by oral bactera
which mineral is cleared from body very quickly through urine?
nausea, abdominal pain, and vomiting are symptoms of acute _____ deficiency?
Dental Fluorosis (Mottled Enamel)
mottling, staining, and pitting of the teeth. It is a result of excess fluoride intake prior to the eruption of the first permanent teeth
o Intake of fluoride at excessive levels for long periods of time may lead to changes in bone structure known as skeletal fluorosis. The early stages of skeletal fluorosis are characterized by increased bone mass, detectable by x-ray. If high fluoride intake persists joint pain and stiffness may result from the skeletal changes. The most severe form of skeletal fluorosis is known as "crippling skeletal fluorosis," which may result in calcification of ligaments, immobility, muscle wasting, and neurological problems related to spinal cord compression. Crippling skeletal fluorosis occurs only when fluoride intake exceeds 10 mg/day for at least 10 years.
Skeletal fluorosis is endemic in many world regions with naturally high fluoride concentrations in drinking water. Rare cases of skeletal fluorosis in North America have been observed in consumers of large volumes of tea.
impaired neurodevelopment in children may be associated with toxicity of what mineral?
dental decay prevention and osteoporosis are therapeutic uses for
fruit, grape, raisins, avocado, wine, cider and beer are a good source of what?
more than 85% of which mineral is absorbed?
boron is found primarily in
bones, teeth, nails and hair
boron is found in the blood as
boric acid, orthoboric acid, and borate monovalent anion B(OH)4
Hormone synthesis and binding
Regulation of the inflammatory response
are all fxns of which mineral?
how does boron help bone development?
Boron appears to affect the composition, structure, and strength of bone. Some evidence has also shown it to enhance the positive action of estradiol on bone and generally promote absorption and retention of minerals in the bones.
which micromineral can help in treatment of osteoporosis?
deficiency of this mineral may cause problems with decreased cognition and psychomotor function
o Nausea, vomiting,
o Poor appetite with weight loss
o Patchy, dry, erythematous skin
are all signs of chronic toxicity of which mineral?
· Bananas, green beans, root vegetables
· Whole grains, water and beer
are all good sources of what?
dietary fiber inhibits absorption of silicon
which mineral is concentrated in the connective tissues (bone, skin, blood vessels, tendons)
* Formation, growth and development of the connective tissues.
o involved with bone mineralization and crystallization
o bone cell differentiation and collagen synthesis.
- a component of mucopolysaccharide-protein complexes of found in connective tissues which act as a cross-linking agent contributing to the structural integrity of connective tissues
describes the fxn of what mineral?
o Smaller, less flexible long bones
o Decreased femoral and vertebral mineral concentrations
o Skull deformation
o Increased plasma alkaline phosphatase
Diminished bone collagen formation and increased collagen breakdown
are all signs of which mineral deficiency?
toxicity of this mineral presents primarily as kidney stones but high intake has also been associated with decreased activity of several antioxidant enzymes including glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase
this mineral may help brittle nail syndrome
silicon (think silica supplement for collagen and nails)
the plant Equisetum averense has high content of what mineral?
silicon decreases absorption and increase excretion by kidneys of what mineral?
silicon interacts with
aluminum (decreasing its absorption)
radishes and mushrooms (as well as fish, shellfish, black pepper, parsley and dill) are a good source of what mineral?
only <5% of this mineral is absorbed
Vanadyl (V4+) is better absorbed than vanadate (V5+)
(vanadate is better absorbed)
Vanadium is converted to _______ in fluids and vanadyl binds to albumin and transferrin for transport in the blood.
which mineral has pharmacological effects but as of yet no specific essential biochemical functions have been identified?
which mineral can substitute for zinc, copper and iron in enzymes?
which mineral can increase insulin sensitivity and actually mimics the action of insulin in the body?
which mineral can
o Stimulate glucose uptake into cells
o Stimulate glycogen synthesis in the liver
o Inhibit gluconeogenesis
Inhibit lipolysis in adipose tissue
which mineral can be supplemented in pts w diabetes for blood sugar support?
o Green tongue
o Diarrhea, abdominal cramps
o Disturbances in mental function
- Kidney damage
are all signs of what mineral toxicity?
green tongue is a sign of
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