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Terms in this set (63)

Introduction
- Key: C minor
- Tempo: Grave
- Meter: Common

- opens in Cm with homorhythmic, chordal texture and crisp, dotted rhythms reminiscent of the French overture
- dramatic contrasts achieved through marked accented, unexpected pauses and abrupt changes of volume
- emphasis on diminished seventh chords heightens the tension
- descending chromatic scale (cadenza-like passage) leads directly without pause to the exposition and makes use of the rare 128th note

Exposition
- Key of C minor
- Form: sonata form,
- Tempo: allegro di molto e con brio
- Meter: cut time

- rapidly ascending right hand melody covers two octaves
- agitated quality is accented by staccato articulation and broad crescendo
- left hand present rumbling tremolo octaves

Bridge
- begins modulation away from tonic key
- incisive syncopations propel the music forward

Second Theme Group (Theme 2a)
- unexpected modulation to Eb minor instead of expected relative major key
- sharp contrasts in register require rapid hand crossing

Second Theme Group (Theme 2b)
- Eb Major is finally established
- melody and bass move outward in contrary notion with the left hand employing Alberti type figuration

Development
- new key if G minor. Dotted note figure from the intro is presented
- starting with m 137 the key signature is eliminated and the music continues in E minor
- bridge material is combined with the introductory material (w/o the dotted rhythms)
- suspense is generated by the extended dominant preparation

Recapitulation
- first theme returns in tonic of C minor
- bridge is eliminated and first theme expanded to act as a transition
- second theme group returns in F minor (subdominant key) in an unexpected departure form conventions of sonata form
- after 16 measures, it is restated in C minor
- the codetta returns, confirming the tonic key

Coda
- recalls fragments of the dotted rhythm chords from the intro
- the absence of downbeats results in a sense of uncertainty and reminiscence
- end with a string authentic cadence marked fortissimo
First movement

Key: C# minor
Tempo: Adagio ma non troppo e Molto espressivo
Meter: cut time
Texture: fugal
Number of voices: four

First: C sharp minor, Adagio ma non troppo e molto espressivo, cut time, fugue
Second: D major, allegretto Molto Vivace, 6/8, sonata
Third: B minor, allegro moderato - adagio, 4/4, recitative and transition
Fourth: A major, andante ma non troppo e molto cantabile, 2/4, theme and variations
Fifth: E major, presto, cut time, scherzo and trio
Sixth: G sharp minor, Adagio quasi un poco andante, 3/4, rounded binary with written-out repeats
Seventh: C sharp minor (ends on tonic major triad), allegro, cut time, sonata

Opening movement is characterized by a texture akin to Bach's fugues, built around motivic elements that return in later movements - specifically two pairs of semitones separated by an augmented second - and places unusual emphasis on the Neapolitan chord. Cyclical form is further achieved when the finale quotes the first Movement's theme.

- first violin present subject, followed by second violin, viola and cello. Follows custom of a fugal exposition.
- four bar subject in two parts: a four note motive and a series of flowing quarter notes
- second violin and cello present the theme as a real answer in F sharp minor (the subdominant) instead of the expected dominant.
- chromatic notes impart harmonic instability creating an intense and introspective character
- Beethoven breaks apart the original two-part theme and plays the parts on top of one another. The two part theme provides all the material to move forward, similar to the fortspinnung techniques in Bach's music
- a bold tonal plan includes modulation to distant keys
- final theme statement by cello in augmentation. Earlier the first violin states the theme in diminution.
- pairing of instruments used to achieve textural reduction