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Biology: Excretory System and immunity
Terms in this set (69)
What is excretion?
The process of getting rid of wastes after metabolism and of removing excess heat to keep body temperature constant
How does the excretory system regulate the volume and make up of body fluids?
By removing wastes and returning needed substances to the body so they can be used again
What is metabolism?
All processes of the body working together
What is homeostasis?
The ability of an organism to keep its processes the same despite environmental changes
What waste products are removed by excretion?
Nitrogen compounds(ammonia, urea, uric acid and creatinine) from the break down of proteins and amino acids or muscle action, excess water and CO2 from cellular respiration, and mineral salts built up during metabolism
What is creatine?
Found in muscle tissue. It helps the muscle produce energy during heavy lifting or high intensity exercise
What is creatinine?
It's formed when creatine is broken down. It has to be removed by the kidneys, because high levels can damage the kidneys
Since animals live on dryland, they cannot defuse dissolved __________________ into the air; it has to be changed into a chemical called _________________ that can build up in cells and transported safely
Humans have a filtering system to maintain ________________
What are the excretory organs in humans?
Lungs, kidneys, liver, and skin
How do the lungs work in the excretory system?
Get rid of CO2 and water (in the form of water vapour) which are end products of aerobic cellular respiration.
What is the skin's function in the excretory system?
The skin secretes water, salts and some urea (through perspiration). This is important for regulating body temperature
What is the livers function in the excretory system?
1)detoxify blood by removing harmful substances like bacteria, drugs and hormones. Breaking them into less harmful substances to be excreted by the kidneys
2) excretes bile
3) breaks down excess amino acids that can't be stored in the body. Breaks them into ammonia and then ammonia into urea so it can safely be transported
Excessive harmful materials in the blood can lead to __________________ which eventually causes the liver to stop functioning and death will occur
What is jaundice?
When bile isn't excreted properly and bile waste is absorbed into the blood
What is the kidney's function in the excretory system?
Regulate the concentration of substances found in body fluids (osmotic regulation)
What is the outer part of the kidney known as?
What is the inner part of the kidney called?
What is the middle part of the kidney called?
Inside each kidney there are ___________________ filtering units called a _________________
1 million; nephron
The beginning of the nephron is a cup shaped _________________ which barrows into a long coiled tube
The fluid in bowmans capsule is called?
____________ of H2O that has entered the proximal tubule as nephric filtrate has been returned to the body
At any time ______________ of blood is in the kidneys
How is ammonia produced?
When proteins are broken down this releases ammonia
Why does ammonia need to be converted into urea?
Urea is less toxic and requires less water for excretion
What stays in the blood and is not part of the filtrate?
Large proteins, Red blood cells, White blood cells and platelets
The proximal tubule uses __________________ to take needed materials back into the capillaries
Why is water not absorbed back into the ascending loop of henle?
Because the ascending loop of Henle is impermeable to water
What takes place in the distal tubule?
Tubular secretion by active transport of H+ ions, creatinine, and drugs out of blood and into filtrate and needed materials are absorbed out of the filtrate
Water that remains with the urea and excess salt is called ______________
What is the max amount of urine the bladder can hold?
How long is the urethra in men? In women?
Men 20cm, women 4cm
What is excreted as urine?
Water, urea, salts, uric acid
____________________________ is the name of the hormone which can make the membranes of the distal tubule and collecting duct more permeable to water so the your body can reabsorb more water when you are sick or exercising heavily
Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)
Waste accumulation in tissues (_______________) can lead to poisoning, starvation and suffocation
When the kidneys don't filter the blood this is called ___________________ and they must go on ___________________
Renal failure; hemodialysis
Alcohol and coffee ________________ ADH release and lead to ___________________ volumes of urine being excreted
___________________ is one of the main reasons kidneys begin to fail
What is clotting?
Solidification of blood where a blood vessel has been injured
The bloods ability to clot is reduced in 2 ways, these are....
By not having enough platelets or by having a vitamin K deficiency
What is the natural defences the body has to fight against pathogens and maintain homeostasis?
The immune system
The immune system includes what?
Bone marrow, white blood cells, lymphatic system tissues
The ability of our bodies to fight infection by producing antibodies or cells to inactivate the foreign particles is called?
What are pathogens?
Viruses, bacteria and other microbes (fungi and protozoans) which cause disease
True or false: most microbes cause little or no damage to humans
What is non-specific immunity/defences?
Protection against a variety of pathogens; protect the body from all pathogens in the same way
True or False: nonspecific immunity's effectiveness depends on the previous exposure
What is the first line of defence in immunity?
Physical and chemical barriers like skin(unbroken), sweat, tears, saliva, cell membranes, mucus, stomach acid and urine
What is the second line of defence in immunity?
Activated when pathogens get by first line defence and starts infection. Certain white blood cells secrete histamine causing the area to become swollen, hot, painful and red. Histamine also increases blood flow to the wound and allows more exchange so more white blood cells can attack. Macrophages destroy and engulf large amounts of bacteria by phagocytosis
What is specific immunity?
A variety of cells that recognize foreign substances and act to neutralize or destroy them
True or False: specific immunity develops over time in each individual depending upon which diseases a person is exposed to
What is the third line of defence in immunity?
Activated when pathogens get past first and second line and into the blood stream. Recognizes, attacks, destroys and remembers each kind of pathogen by Producing antibodies which bind to the pathogens and inactivate it. Specific because antibodies are specific to each different pathogen
What is an immune response?
When our bodies recognize foreign cells or particles, they produce antibodies or cells that bind to foreign substances and inactivate them
Foreign chemicals with large molecules on their surface ( proteins or toxins) which enter a cell and cause an immune response are called ___________________
___________________ white blood cells designed to destroy specific antigens
The two types of lymphocytes are ___________________ and ___________________
B cells and T cells
Both B and T cells are produced in ___________________, but B cells mature in ___________________ and T cells mature in ___________________
Bone marrow; bone marrow; thymus gland
The body's initial response to an antigen is called ____________________
Primary immune response
The rapid response by the immune system when it is exposed to an antigen every other time, producing high levels of antibodies is called ____________________
Secondary immune response
What happens in cellular immunity?
The antigen is in the cell. T cell recognizes antigen and helper T stimulates the T cell to divide forming killer T's and memory T's. The killer T's bind to and destroy virus infected cells. The suppressor T's then release substances to shut down killer T's. If the antigen re enters the body, memory T's will divide producing new killer T's.
What happens in antibody (humoral) immunity?
The antigen is in bodily fluids. The B cell recognizes the antigen and helper T cells recognize antigen on macrophage. The helper T stimulates B cells to divide forming plasma cells and memory B's. The plasma cells produce antibodies that bind to the antigen. When the foreign substance is under control suppressor T's shut down plasma cells and if the antigen re enters Memory B's divide producing new plasma cells
There are two types of immunity, they are?
Active and passive immunity
When the body produced its own antibodies to fight antigens this is ____________________
Active immunity develops from ____________________ or ____________________
Having had a disease or by vaccinations
When a person is given antibodies via blood from another person, or breast feeding. Very fast but temporary immunity is called ____________________
How long does passive immunity last?
What are antibodies made of?
How do pathogens enter the body?
Food we eat/water we drink, air we breath and through broken skin
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