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Stats in Psych - Chapter 2
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Terms in this set (29)
In a chart with five categories, n = ?
a) 8
b) 10
c) 5
d) 1
c) 5
Tables
A data table is a distribution, how often does each value occur, in which the values of the dependent variable (X) are tables against how frequently those values occur in your data.
frequency distributions include:
a) tables and groups
b) proportions and percentages
c) Histograms, polygons, and bars
d) a and b
d) a and b
When creating a table include:
a) all possible values from highest to lowest without skipping a value (though not present) and without repeating a value
b) a frequency column (f)
c) a third column (fx)
d) all of the above
d
The third column includes
a) 𝚺f = n. This is the sum of f, which means that we add the values of the f column. The sum should equal the sample size, n. In this case, it should be 30.
b) 𝚺fx = 𝚺 x = the sum of fx should also equal the sum of x.
Proportion (p = f/n)
a measure of the fraction of the total group that is associated with each score (the given x score). This is useful when wanting to know what proportion of our sample actually has that value, or even what proportion is right in the middle. The third column
The fourth column includes the percentage representative of the proportion (p = f/n x 100)
a) true
b) false
a) true
When is the best time to use a group frequency table?
a) when the group size is between 2-10
b) larger groups
b- When there are a lot of X values, use a group frequency table
Because there are no meaningful 0's in psych, a group frequency table can have an interval scale with values from 1-50 that are less than 1 but bigger than zero. It also used continuous variables
a) true
b) false
a) true
What are the rules when using a group frequency table?
1. About 1- intervals (range of values that are grouped)
2. Simple interval width (e.g 2, 5, 10)
3. Start or end interval with the multiple of the width (e.g 2, 5 ,10)
4. All intervals must be the same width
4 be placed in a lower limit, but 4.5 would be placed in the upper limit
a) true
b) false
True
Histograms are used when:
Histograms
a) Used when data is collected from an interval or ratio scale.
b) Bars are adjacent to each other and touch each other
c) The height of the bar corresponds to the frequency
d) The width of the bar corresponds to the real limits (e.g 7 = 6.5-7.5)
e) all of the above
e) all of the above
Polygons:
a) similar to a histogram but use a bar
b) real limits are inferred, as the line corresponds to the middle of each bar and sits right above it
c) height of the bar corresponds to the frequency
b) similar to a histogram but uses a line.
Bar graphs:
a) similar to a histogram, as the bars are touching
b) used to present data on a nominal or ordinal scale
c) height of the bar corresponds to the frequency
d) both b and c
d) both b and c. The bars do not touch, as they indicate distinct categories.
Positively skewed distribution
Contains a preponderance of scores on the low end of the scale. The mean will be higher than the median in a positively skewed distribution. Scores pile up on the left side
Negatively skewed distribution
Contains a preponderance of scores on the high end of the scale. The mean will be lower than the median in a negatively skewed distribution. Scores pile to the right
Leptokurtic
normal curves that are tall and thin, very high frequency of scores in the middle. The standard deviation is usually double that of platykurtic
Platykurtic
flat curve, with higher frequencies in the top and bottom intervals and lower in the middle. The standard deviation is higher (half of leptokurtic)
Mesokurtic
normal distribution. There are higher frequencies in the middle, but are lower on either end. The standard deviation is lower.
central tendency
The three statistics of mean, median and mode
Mode
the most common score; the highest point in the distribution.
No Mode?
The only time when there is no mode is when there is no data. Grouped frequencies indicate one mode. In the case of a rectangular distribution, this means that all of the frequencies are the same. However, this still shows no mode, even though there is data
All is true about the mode except:
a) it excludes some sample scores
b) it only gives information about one interval
c) referred to as the 50th percentile
d) it is the only measure of central tendency that can be used with dependent variables on a discrete scale (ex. # of kids in a family)
c) referred to as the 50th percentile
Median
Referred to as the 50th percentile, as it corresponds to the point of or below of which 50% of all the data falls when the values are arranged in numerical order. Can be used on a continuous scale.
Uneven amount of values?
1. (n+1)/2 = (14+1)/2 = 7.5th POSITION - does not exist
2. Order from lowest to highest
3. Add the values that straddle the median position then divide by two.
Which of the following are false in regards to the median:
a) incorporates all scores
b) it is not the preferred measure of central tendency
c) it is used in skewed distributions
a) the median does not incorporate all the scores
Which of the following are false in regards to the mean:
a) the preferred measure of central tendency because it is the least biased
b) is affected by extreme scores
c) cannot be used for nominal data
d) doesn't incorporate all scores
d) the mean incorporates all scores
In a normal distribution the mean, median, and mode have the same value. In a bimodal distribution the mean and median are the same but the modes are different.
a) true
b) false
b) false
In a positively skewed distribution, the mean falls to the right and in a negatively skewed distribution the mean falls to the left
a) true
b) false
a) true
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