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Terms in this set (21)
Freud's 3 major personality systems
ID: unconscious paychological energies that motivates to avoid pain and obtain pleasure.
EGO: the referee between the needs of instinct and demands for society. Makes decisions and faces consequences.
SUPEREGO: the voice of conscience. Judges the actions of ID, handing out good or shameful feelings.
In addition to the individuals own unconscious, all humans have a shared collective unconscious, containing memories, symbols, images and themes called ARCHETYPES.
Personality included extroversion vs introversion. Ambivert: both qualities.
Big Five theory of personality
1) extroversion vs introversion
2) neuroticism vs emotional stability
3) agreeable vs antagonistic
4) conscientiousness vs impulsiveness
5) opened to experience vs resistance
Principles of humanistic psychology proposed by Maslow
Traits important to personality include the journey to self-actual i action, a person who strives for a life that is meaningful, challenging, and satisfying.
Principles of humanistic psychology proposed by May
A belief in free will. Existentialism: emphasizes inevitable challenges of human existence such as the search for the meaning of life, the need to confront death, and taking responsibility for our actions . Our personalities reflect the ways we cope.
Principles of humanistic psychology proposed by Rogers
How you behave depends on your subjective reality. To become fully functioning, we need unconditional positive regard, love and support. Incongruence: results in a sense of being out of touch with your feelings, not being true to yourself, which produces low self regard, defensiveness, and unhappiness.
Joseph Goebbels "The Big Lie"
The tendency to believe something is true only because it has been repeated so many times.
Ex) nazi propaganda
attributing behavior to the environment ex) Joe stole money because his family was starving
attributing behavior to the person's disposition and traits ex) Joe stole money because he is a thief
Fundamental Attribution Error
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation (Situational Attribution) and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition (Dispositional Attribution)
Self- Serving Bias
a readiness to perceive oneself favorably.
2 main types:
1) the bias to chose the most flattering and forgiving attributions of our own lapses
2) just-world hypothesis: attributions are affected by the need to believe that justice prevails
A belief about people, groups, ideas or activities
Inner tension that a consumer experiences when two attitudes or behaviours are in conflict
implies that a person has had a sudden change of mind without being aware of what is happening
the process of creating, reinforcing, or changing people's beliefs or actions
Adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
An extreme form of conformity, the tendency to think alike and suppress dissent. When the need for total agreement overwhelms it's need to make the wisest decision.
diffusion of responsibility
the tendency for individuals to feel diminished responsibility for their actions when they are surrounded by others, reducing the individuals personal sense of accountability.
the failure to offer help to people in need as they assume someone else will do it for them
The most extreme form of diffusion of responsibility occurs in large, anonymous mobs or crowds
Consists of a negative stereotype and a strong, dislike or hatred of a group. Opinion remains immune to evidence.
-economic: official forms of discrimination
-cultural: disliking "them" to unify "us"
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