Behaviour Assessment 1

1 / 55
(Define) Target behaviour (Definition) ? Example
Click the card to flip 👆
Terms in this set (55)
asked to complete an intake form, which requests general information:

determine whether an agency or behavior modifier is the appropriate one to deal with a potential client's behavior

inform the policies and procedure of agency to client for the services provided

screen for a crisis condition, that might require immediate intervention. such as child abuse or suicide risk,

gather sufficient information to diagnose the client according to the standardized categories of mental disorder,

provide initial information about which behavior(s) should be assessed.
indirect assessment procedures—assessments for which the behavior modifier or a trained observer does not directly observe the target behavior in the situation in which the behavior occurs - objective or

Direct assessment procedures are assessments in which the behavior modifier or a trained observer directly observes and records the target behaviors in the actual settings in which the behavior occurs.
might be impractical for the therapist to observe clients regularly in the situations in which the target behaviors occur. consider a behavior therapist who sees clients in his or her office at regularly scheduled appointment times.

Moreover, what if some of his or her clients want to change some of their thoughts and feelings that others cannot observe
describe the advantage and disadvantage of direct assessment procedureadvantages of being convenient, not requiring an inordinate amount of time, and potentially providing information about covert behaviors. disadvantages that those providing information might not remember relevant observations accurately or have biases that would influence them to provide inaccurate data.give main type of indirect assessment procedure.interviews with the client and his or her significant others, questionnaires, role-playing, and client self-monitoring(List) 4 types of questionair used in behaviour assessmentLife history questionnaires provide demographic data, Self-report problem checklists have the client indicate from a detailed list those problems that apply to him or her. Survey schedules provide the therapist with information needed to conduct a particular therapeutic technique with the client. Third-party behavioral checklists or rating scales allow a client's significant others and professionals to subjectively assess the frequency and quality of certain client behaviorsadvantgae and disadvantage of direct assessment procedureadvantage of direct assessment procedures is that they are more accurate than indirect assessment procedures, which is the main reason that applied behavior analysts prefer to use direct assessment procedures whenever possible Disadvantages of direct assessment procedures are that they are time consuming, require that observers be appropriately trained, and cannot be used to monitor covert behaviors(List) 6 reason for collecting data during assessment or baseline phase and throughout a program.helps the behavior modifier to decide whether he or she is the appropriate one to design a treatment program indicate that what someone thought to be a problem is actually not one. helps the behavior modifier identify both the causes of a behavior and the best treatment strategy provides a means for clearly determining whether the program is producing the desired change in behavior. publicly posted results—preferably in the form of a graph or a chart—can prompt and reward behavior modifiers for carrying out a program. - displayed data might lead to improvements by the learner separately from any further treatment program. -reactivity(Identify) what error does the case of Dr. Caldwell and the door slammer's mother refering to ? Explain how accurately recorded data counteract this error.what error does the case of the boy who went through pinching adult refering to ? Explain how accurately recorded data counteract this error.the teachers agreed that they had succeeded in reducing pinching by substituting patting. When they looked at the data recorded by an outside observer, however, they saw clearly that, although patting was considerably above the level it had been during the baseline recordings, pinching had not decreased from its baseline level. concentrating on the procedure or the patting so diverted the teachers that they had failed to notice the pinching as much as they had before introducing the procedure(Definition) reactivity ? illustreate with an examplereactivity (Tyron, 1998), which was also described above with regard to accuracy of observations. When people know that their behavior is being observed either by others or by self-recording, their observed behaviors often improve. students who graph their own study behavior by daily recording the number of paragraphs or pages studied or the amount of time spent studying might find increases in the graph to be rewardingDescribe the details of the clever graphing systen devised for the child who got the rabbit to the carrot patch7-year-old girl who each morning took an excessive amount of time taking off her outside garments and hanging them up. Each day, a circle was marked on the chart to indicate the amount of time spent in the coatroom in the morning, and a small paper rabbit was attached to the most recent circle " you can get the bunny down to eat the carrots." When the rabbit was down to the level of the carrots, the child was encouraged to keep it there. "Remember, the longer the bunny stays in the carrot patch, the more it can eat."How Ernest Heming way and Irving Wallace used self-recording to help them maintain their writing behaviourmaintained work charts while writing my first four published books. These charts showed the date I started each chapter, the date I finished it, and number of pages written in that period. With my fifth book, I started keeping a more detailed chart which also showed how many pages I had written by the end of every working day. I am not sure why I started keeping such records. I suspect that it was because, as a free-lance writer, entirely on my own, without employer or deadline, I wanted to create disciplines for myself, ones that were guilt-making when ignored. A chart on the wall served as such a discipline, its figures scolding me or encouraging me.(Compare) How does a behaviour approach differ from a traditional approach to assessment in terms of a basic assumption about performance on a test or a checklist- Identify to clasifi the mental disorder (diagnoise) - stable internal cause ( organismic ) - Cover is not - target behaiou execessve - environmental, situational(List) 2 difference in the goal of a behaviour approach to assessment compared to a traditional approachBehavioral checklists do not have norms, nor are they designed to measure character or personality traits. Rather, such behavioral assessment tools provide information necessary to design effective interventions for remediating deficits or excesses in specific situations with individual athletes.Describe a difference between the method of a behaviour approach compared to a traditional approach to assessmentUse the same : questionnaire, interview, and behaviour observationARTICLES 2 1. (define) behavioral assessment (Definition)?Behavioral assessment is the identification of meaningful response units and their controlling variables (both current environmental and organismic) for the purposes of understanding and altering human behavior.2. (List) four questions that emerged after evidence of treatment effectiveness began to accumulate?Are these appro-priate behaviors to alter? Are these valid and reliable ways of measuring these behaviors? Can these changes be attributed to the intervention? Was this the most effective intervention to use?3. (Compare) Describe the similarities and differences between behavioral assessment and traditional assessment in:a. Techniques share some techniques, e.g., interviewing, questionnaires, observations of behavior. But radically different in assumptoions, In tradi-tional assessment, it is frequently assumed that behavior is a function of relatively stable intraorganismic (e.g., intrapsychic) variables. Hence, behavior or appearance is interpreted as a sign of these underlying variables (Goldfried and Kent, 1972; Goodenough, 1949). Since the causes of behavior lie within the person, the assessment situation is thought to be of little relevance. Since these causes are stable, assessment techniques can seemingly be evaluated by their psychometric properties. behavioral assessment emphasizes environmental as well as organismic determinants of behavior. Thus, behavior is viewed as a sample of responding in a particular situation. Psychometric evaluation may be necessary, but it is not a sufficient measure of the quality of behavioral assessment. Functional utilitv must also be demonstrated:a. Individual vs. programin the assessment of individuals: (1) screening and general disposition; (2) definition and general quantification of the problem or achievement; (3) pinpointing and design of intervention; (4) monitoring of progress; and (5) follow-up. screening children for possible problems of social withdrawal. / establish an empirical relationship between two screening measures, teacher judg-ment (rankings and ratings) and peer judgment (sociometric ratings), institutional or programmatic purposes. Hawkins (1979) describes several of these purposes: classification of individuals for administrative record keeping, program evaluation, and the collection of normative data. improved reliability of DSM-III (American Psychiatric Association, 1978) will make it suitable for administrative and classificatory purposes.b. Descriptive vs. experimentalDescriptive studies are static description of an existent state of affairs. descriptive studies in behavioral assessment are often useful in describing behavioral patterns, developing assessment methodologies, and suggesting relationships - useful in the early stages of development Rubin, and Henson (1979) describe intraindividual stability in women's sexual arousal across recording sessions and across measures of arousal; Experimental - ask or answer why particular results were obtained; the controlling variables of which these results are a function are identified. A com-plete understanding of behavior requires both descriptive and experimental findings. significant effects in visual analyses of data in reversal designsthe effects of demand characteristicson social skills during analogue assessment.c. Nomothetic and idiographicre-sults of both descriptive and experimental studies are nomothetic, whereas behavioral assessment is always conducted idiographically. our knowledge of how best to move from nomothetic to idiographic levels is limited. Research provides general guidelines that are useful in the assessment of the individual client.5. Explain the triple response system and how they are related. behavioral assessment includes the measurement of overt motor, physiological-emotional, and cognitive-verbal behavior three types of behavior may covary, it is not assumed that such covariation occurs (Lang, 1968). Previous studies have often found only moderate correlations among the three response systems (e. relationship between physiological measures of sexual arousal and subjective report of arousal; correspondence between children's actual observed rates of social interaction and teacher or peer judgments about rates of interactions. the motor behavior of children in a classroom setting was recorded by Kent, O'Leary, Dietz, and Diament the physiological responses indicative of women's sexual arousal was measured by Henson and the verbal responses of mother-adolescent dyads were assessed via questionnaires by Prinz et al. (1979). Even within a particular response system, it cannot be assumed that different responses covary.6. Explain how the response system being measured influences the selection of assessment techniques.The assess- resources were no object it would be better to ment technique selected must suit the response measure the behavior directly. Those in the system that is being measured and reveal its actual applied environment, however, do have important dimensions. overt motor behavior is most frequently measured by direct beginning to attempt to provide them the assessobservation by trained observers Physiological-emotional responses strategy is the known groups method, that is, are usually measured in analogue situations, due identifying two groups of subjects that differ to instrumentation requirements. Cogni tive-verbal responses are measured via rating distressed couples, while Prinz et al. (1979) rescales, checklist, questionair, and academic test assessment technique should also suit the stage Of assessment. Devices used during screening should be less costly in terms of time and money than devices used to monitor a target behavior during intervention7. Briefly describe several empirical methods to establish the importance of target behaviors.Known groups methods, differ on a relevant dimension and then seeking specific behaviour that differentiate the two groups. Williams used to identify behavioural patterns of social interaction which distinguished happy and distressed couples differed on particular self-report measures and on ratings of tape-recorded Examine subjective ratings by others. Specific behaviour compriosing desirable social interactions by children may be identified in relation to their ability to produce positive social ratings by peers or teachers consensually acknowledged to be important. Frederiksen et al. (1979) argue for the measurement of several aspects of smoking (frequency, topography, substance smoked) because of their relationship to the smoker's health.8. Explain how organismic variable and situation specificity are relevant for behavioral assessment. Given an example of each.Organismic variables include individual differences produced by past learning and by physiology, trait, that is stable over time. Henson et al. (1979) found large intersubject differences in measures of sexual arousal, a Situation specificity. that behavior is the result of an interaction between the current situation and individual differences. The central concern is that the need to demonstrate that conclusions reached in the assessment situation can be generalized to the criterion "real-life" situation. - possible reactivity of obtrusive assessment techniques, Henson et al.'s (1979) use of erotic films and Mar-inez-Diaz and Edelstein's (1979) use of an interaction with a female confederate provide examples.9. What is the assumption of classic psychometric theory and how does this apply to the evaluation of traditional assessment instruments?Classic psychometric theory is based on the assumption that the causes of behavior are relatively stable and intra organismic. traditional assessment devices may be evaluated in terms of their psychometric properties. not much of situational factor.10. How may the following types of reliability and validity within traditional psychometric properties be viewed in generalizability theory? a. Test-retest reliability b. Inter-item consistency c. Concurrent validity d. Predictive validityConsistency is expected across time (test-retest reliability), across items (inter-item consistency), across assessment situations and techniques (concurrent validity), and across assessment techniques and time (predictive validity).P11. Explain the two reasons, according to the author, why generalizability, or the lack of, cannot be used as the sole criterion to judge the quality of behavioral assessment? Give an example to illustrate each reason.First, inconsistencies in measurement may be produced by actual changes in behavior and not by an imprecise behavioral assessment technique - Natural error, r by actual variation of unique individual The measurement of a child slampng the dooor Maybe it depends on times, behaviour may slightly chance, and natural error of measurement and we must accept Second, the quality of behavioral assessment must ultimately be determined by its functional value in increasing our scientific understanding of behavior and the success of our therapeutic interventions. structural evaluation of psychometric properties may be a necessary but not a sufficient mark of quality. examination (1979) of the consistency of visual analyses of typical data from reversal designs relies on structural properties to evaluate the quality of visual evaluation of data. This may be justifiable because the judges examined the same graphs; consistency might well be expected, although it was not found.List the four functions of assessment and give an example of each.assessment designed to influence directly decisions regarding an individual one or more of three other functions: classification for administrative records, research for evaluating interventions, and collection of normative data.2. List the five phases of assessment (close book).: (1) screening and general disposition, (2) definition and general quantification of problem or achievement, (3) pinpointing and design of intervention, (4) monitoring of progress, and (5) follow-up.: (1) screening and general disposition, the functions or key decisions that need to be made. desirable characteristics example of a serviceIs the case is appropriate for the agency. - No a determination of where to refer the learner for more appropriate services. - Probably," the next assessment function is the determination of what further assessment may be relevant. flexible - broad range of possible problems- having significant accuracy - inexpensive - fast to safe professional time chronic headache might initially attempt to determine what neurological assessment has been done, what dental assessment has been done, w In educational environments, interviews, the Wide Range Achievement Test(2) definition and general quantification of problem or achievement, the functions or key decisions that need to be made. desirable characteristics example of a service(1) identify skill or problem area 2) quantification of the skill's level 3) where and how the learning can best be accomplished. assessment activities, each fulfill validity requirements - are good discriminators of groups (good criterion validity) neurologically based headaches and persons with headaches based on other factors.(3) pinpointing and design of intervention, the functions or key decisions that need to be made. desirable characteristics example of a service1. Select behaviour objective 2. See if existing obstacle contigency that hinder orogress, effectiveness and result 3. Identify resource to achieve goal 4. Design teaching sequence 5. Determine quantitative level of key measurement Content validity - to make sure they have it all(4) monitoring of progress, the functions or key decisions that need to be made. desirable characteristics example of a serviceGoal1. Determine current level of performance to see if need chance 2. Evaluate palatability between intervention and client Suitable: economy - edumetric (measure what is being taught) - sensitive to change - high inter agreement - high correlation btw device and measurement - patability of one index agree w another Trans male walk - Shy video(5) follow-up. the functions or key decisions that need to be made. desirable characteristics example of a serviceFunction: 1. evaluate durability and sufficiency of change 2. Side effect Desitable : all of pinpoint plus breath of coverage(to include controlling variables) and economy Ex: Consumer satisfactoryClassification for Administrative Records the functions or key decisions that need to be made. desirable characteristics example of a serviceGoal: classfy individuals for the sake of record keeping. Suitable: interobserver agreement - déirable that classification using different method but have same result EX: AMErican psychiatric association diagnostic manual to distinguish between learning --- or learning disable guideObtaining Normative, Descriptive Data the functions or key decisions that need to be made. desirable characteristics example of a serviceGoal : The researcher is simply attempting to describe, to answer the question "What normally happens?" - normative information serves as a temporary substitute for a functional analysis. - In other cases normative data are important because social norms define effectiveness. Suitable: There appear to be no characteristics that are unique to this function. .. no evaluation of profram is implied EX: MALE WALKING AND SITING IN A WAY THAT RECEIVE THE REINFORCEMENTEvaluating Interventions during Research and Development the functions or key decisions that need to be made. desirable characteristics example of a serviceGoal : to test whether the device are repeatedly shown to far exceed those of other devices will their use become routine. Desirable : sensitive to change - cost maybe less concern - board range of variables - norm referenced Example : consider whether IQ or personality test should be used in further adminission.ABLLS - Assessment of basic language and learning skillsmeasure the basic linguistic and functional skills of an individual with developmental delays or disabilities. Curriculum - DEFINITION - SCREEN - MONITORINGExperimental designMonitoring ( during to check whether) - FOLLOW - EVALUATingInterobserver agreementPSYCHOMETRIC - MONITORING -Procedural fidelityTest if changes observed during a study reflect an alteration of the subject's behavior -------- and not an alteration in the behavior of the experimenter. ( a confounder) Monitoring - Followi. Internal validityfunctional analysis of behaviora particular behavior, what elicits it, and what reinforces it. Definition - Followe. Stimulus preference assessment- determine if one or more stimuli may function to increase the rate of a specific behavior or behaviors when delivered following the occurrence of that behavior Definition - FOllow - screend. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale -- not only aids in diagnosis, but provides valuable information for developing educational and treatment plans - DEFINITON AND PINPOINTINGSocial validitySocial validity is a term coined by behavior analysts to refer to the social importance and acceptability of treatment goals, procedures, and outcomes.