Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
BU288- Organizational Behaviour I - Midterm #1
This set covers all topics from Chapter 1 up to and including Chapter 4 as well as the appendix on How to Do Research in OB. Any resemblance towards the exam is purely coincidental, this quizlet was made based on textbook learning objectives
Terms in this set (86)
What are the 3 characteristics that make up an organization?
1. Social Inventions : a focus on people, not things
2. Goal Accomplishment: a focus on common goals and survival
3. Group Effort: organizations depend on the interaction and coordination of groups of people
What's the difference between OB and HRM?
OB is the theory and HRM is the practice. Whereas OB will focus on topics such as personality, learning and motivation. HRM is focused on hiring, training+development and compensation.
What are the 2 main goals of OB?
2. Explaining OB: why do certain events occur within organizations
What is management with respect to OB? How do managers achieve their goals?
Management is the art of getting things done in organizations through other people. Managers achieve their goals by: acquiring, utilizing and allocating Human Resources.
What's the difference between the classical vs scientific vs human relations approaches to management? With that said, what's the contingency approach to management?
classical: strict specialization, high coordination. centralized top-down decision making
scientific management: advocating for standard operating procedures and using science to obtain the optimal specialization and standardization
human relations: people-oriented management, recognizing that strict specialization -> alienation, centralization -> neglects new ideas, quotas -> limit employees to the bare minimum
the contingency approach recognizes the set of dependencies that make one management style more or less viable and concludes that we need a management style based on the situation
What are the 3 overall managerial roles? Give one specific role within each.
1. Interpersonal Roles
- figurehead: symbols rather than decision-makers
- leadership : select, mentor, reward employees
-liaison : maintaining horizontal contacts
2. Informational Roles
- monitor: staying connected about trends externally and internally
- disseminator: sending collected information to others
- spokesperson: drafting press releases, annual reports, doing AGMs
3. Decisional Roles
- entrepreneur: turning problems into improvements
- disturbance handler: addressing conflicts
- negotiator: self explanatory
Whats the difference between a moderating and a mediating variable? Give an example.
moderating variable: variable that affect the nature of the relationship between ind and dep.
mediating variable: variable that intervenes or explains the relationship between the ind and the dec
What are the two kinds of internal validity ? Is one better than the other?
Convergent validity: measures of the same variable should be consistent
Discriminant validity: weak relationship between measures of different variables
No, you want both!
Define reliability and validity
reliability consistency of a measurement i.e. if you asked the same question different ways do you get the same answer
validity: the extent to which your measure reflects what it is supposed to measure
Give an example of an observational study. Now explain 1 reason why you would do it with participant observation and 1 reason why you would use direct observation.
Come to a conclusion about which you would use in your scenario.
Example: Studying the impact on productivity of playing music within a factory setting.
Participant observation: Reduces the possibility of the Hawthorne effect as hopefully it would be easier to fit in in a factory.
Direct Observation: easier to collect data on how productive employees are being and whether they are enjoying/not noticing the music.
In this situation it would make more sense to use participant observation to reduce the Hawthorne effect and because productivity could be measured through simple sensors for output.
(feel free to disagree with me I'm just giving an example)
What are the two main reasons why correlation -/> causation?
1. Spuriousness: claiming that x causes y when really it could be that z causes x and y
2. Reverse causality: claiming that x causes y when really y could cause x
What are the two main advantages to correlational research as opposed to observational research?
1. More concrete data
2. Can test reliability and validity
What kind of research is needed to make correlation => causation. Define it as well
Experimental research: actively changing or manipulating a variable under controlled conditions
What are the 7 threats to internal validity in experimental research?
1. Lack of random assignment
2. Testing: when participants change their responses to a survey after an experiment just because they went through an experiment
3. Instrumentation: changing measures within a study
4. Regression to the mean
5. History: External factors that may affect the dependent variable
6. Maturation: natural changes in participants
7. Mortality: When some participants drop out in the middle of an experiment
What is quasi-experimental design? How do researchers mitigate its issues?
Experimental research that lacks random assignment and random sampling due to an inability to do so. Researchers mitigate by controlling for those variables when doing their statistical analysis
What is external validity? List 5 ways to increase it
Definition: how generalizable your study is.
To increase it:
1. Consider psychological realism (why are your participants doing the things that they do?)
2. Do reprocessing/calibration (using statistical methods)
4. Try field experiments (get out of the university setting)
5. Use inclusion/exclusion criteria to get a more representative sample
What is the Hawthorne effect and how do you mitigate it?
The Hawthorne effect is a favourable response of subjects in an experiment to a factor other than the independent variable.
To mitigate this, studies require double blinding if not blinding
Describe the three approaches towards understanding personality
1. Dispositional approach: individuals possess stable traits that influence their attitudes or behaviours
2. Situational approach: characteristics of the organizational setting influence attitude and behaviour, people don't have dispositions towards certain traits.
3. Interactionist approach: Individuals' attitudes and behaviour are a \function\ of both dispositions and situations
What theory came out of the interactionist approach to personality?
trait activation theory: the belief that situations activate certain personality characteristics
Which one of the 5 factors of personality has been shown to be the strongest predictor of job performance?
Conscientiousness: being dependable, responsible rather than careless and impulsive.
How can managers deal with employees who are low in conscientiousness?
1. Create strong situations; you want to limit the amount of autonomy that the employee has
How is extraversion related to job performance? Give an example of an occupation where an extrovert would perform well and one where they would not perform well.
Extraversion has a positive effect in occupations that require interpersonal interaction. It has a negative effect in occupations that require the opposite.
Perform well: Sales
Not perform well: Amazon Worker (go Bezos!)
How would you describe the impact of neuroticism on job performance?
Neuroticism is more of a discontinuous graph when plotted against job performance. There is a minimum threshold within certain job categories but outside of that, being lower in neuroticism within the same job doesn't do much.
What kinds of perks would you give someone with high openness
Development opportunities, educational conference invitations. Any time they get a chance to learn something new
Consider the three approaches to personality. In each of them, describe what variable behaviour , situation and disposition play.
Dispositional: IV = disposition, DV = situation
Situational: IV = situation, DV = behaviour
Interactionist: IV = disposition, DV = behaviour, modV = situation
Describe the locus of control and its impact on employees
a set of beliefs about whether your behaviour is controlled mainly by internal or external forces.
employees with a internal locus of control are less stressed, less burnt out, are career planners and less absent to work.
Describe self monitoring and what jobs high monitors do well in
definition: the extent to which people observe and regulate how they look and act in social settings.
Occupations: any jobs that require some form of 'acting': lawyers, PR managers, salespeople etc.
What is the relationship between self-esteem and behavioural plasticity? What does this mean?
Those with lower self esteem have higher behavioural plasticity, thus they are more likely to get influenced. This results in worse reactions to negative feedback.
What are the implications of high positive affectivity vs having high negative affectivity?
High PA => job satisfaction and performance, more creativity
High NA => more stress, probability of injury increased, higher absenteeism
Define proactivity and general self-efficacy
proactivity: tendency to take personal initiative to enact positive change
general self-efficacy: the belief that you can do well in challenging situations
List 5 traits of personality and associated levels that a lawyer might need to have to do well in their job (max 3 from the 5 factors)
1. low in neuroticism
2. high in conscientiousness
3. high GSE; especially high core self efficacy
4. high self monitoring
5. high in proactivity: get them billables!
List 5 traits of personality and associated levels that an accountant might need to have to do well in their job (max 3 from the 5 factors)
1. low in extraversion
2. high in conscientiousness
3. low self monitoring
4. lower baseline neuroticism
5. low in opennesss
What is operant learning theory and how does it differ from classical conditioning?
operant learning theory: learning to operate on your environment to achieve certain outcomes.
The key difference lies in the direct connection between stimulus and behaviour in classical conditioning. This direct connection does not exist in OPT.
Describe the two actions related to unpleasant stimulus. What is the difference between them and their outcomes?
This is a question regarding punishment vs negative reinforcement.
Punishment: application of an unpleasant stimulus, used to reduce the probability of a behaviour
Negative reinforcement: removal of an unpleasant stimulus, used to increase the probability of a behaviour
Describe the two actions related to positive stimulus. What is the difference between them and their outcomes?
This is a question regarding positive reinforcement vs extinction.
Positive reinforcement: application of a pleasant stimulus, increasing the probability of a behaviour
Extinction: the removal of a pleasant stimulus, used to reduce the probability of a behaviour
What are the common errors in reinforcement
1. Confusing rewards with reinforcement, reinforcement is tied to behaviour
2. Lacking diversity in reinforcee preferences
3. Neglecting other important sources of reinforcement such as feedback or social recognition
Give an example of a positive and negative behaviour and explain the two approaches you could use to increase the probability of the positive behaviour and the two approaches you could use to decrease the probability of the negative behaviour.
(I was too lazy to fill this in, will do it later)
What is social cognitive theory and how does it differ from operant learning theory?
SCT says that people learn by observing others. It says that behaviour occurs through triadic reciprocal causation, meaning personal and environmental factors work together to influence behaviour
What are the 3 components of social cognitive theory?
1. Observational learning
2. Self-efficacy beliefs: a more task focused version of GSE where people have beliefs about their ability to do certain tasks
3. Self-regulation: combining self observation, self evaluation and self reinforcement to address discrepancies between the self and everyone else
List 5 characteristics of effective punishment
1. Limit emotions
2. Must be actually aversive
4. Don't inadvertently reduce a desired behaviour
5. Clearly identify the desired behaviours that are to replace the undesired behaviour
What reinforcement timing is needed for fast acquisition?
continuous + immediate reinforcement
What reinforcement timing is needed for persistence in behaviour?
Partial + delayed reinforcement
List 3 characteristics of effective reinforcement
1. Specific to the behaviour
2. Considers individual preferences
3. Involves performance feedback and social recognition
What 3 factors influence our perceptions?
2. Motivational State
3. Emotional State
Between a perceiver and its target, what is the most important factor that adds information to the target?
According to social identity theory, how do we define ourselves?
based on our personal characteristics (personal identity) and our membership of social categories (social identity)
We define ourselves by looking both between social groups and within an individual social group
Walk through Bruner's model of the perceptual process and identify where the social identity theory aspect comes into play and where confirmation bias comes into play
New Target -> Openness to cues -> Familiar cues found -> Target categorized -> Cue selectivity -> Category strength
Target categorized is where social identity theory plays, we look at what kind of social category we can place target in
Confirmation bias is in that category strength step of the process, we "confirm" that our categorization was true
List and define the 6 biases in person perception
1. Primacy effects: reliance on first impressions
2. Recency effects: reliance on last impressions
3. Central Trait Bias: organizing your thoughts around characteristics of interest (height, weight, physical appearance)
4. Implicit Personality Theory: making connections between personality characteristics that aren't necessarily true
5. Projection: attributing your own thoughts and feelings onto others
6. Stereotyping: generalizing about people in a a social category
What are the 3 steps to stereotyping?
1. Creating the category
2. Assuming that some individuals have certain traits
3. Perceiving that all individuals in the category possess the same traits
What are 3 characteristics of perception from Bruner's Model? Give an example of a particular perception and how these 3 characteristics come into effect.
Consider the gorilla basketball experiment (similar to the double dutch experiment). In this case selectivity involves us focusing on counting some number. The constancy relates to how the target is constantly there. The consistency relates to the fact that we have to create an overall picture of the target we perceive as having bounced or jumped x times
Why do stereotypes persist?
1. It makes it easier to process information about people quickly and efficiently
2. Selective perception reinforces the stereotype as well
What 3 types of cues do we use when forming attributions? How does this relate to what types of attributions we create?
1. Consistency cues: repeated behaviour is believed to be evidence of dispositional motivation
2. Consensus cues: behaviour that is outside of the social norm leads to evidence of dispositional motivation
3. Distinctivness cues: is this behaviour repeated across different situations? If it is, greater chances that this is a dispositional motivation
How would a strong or weak situation relate to how we form attributions? Give an example of a strong/weak situation, a behaviour that might occur in such a situation and how you'd categorize the attribution of that behaviour.
Assuming the behaviour is negative, how would you deal with it?
In a stronger situation, consensus cues are easier to spot. In a weaker situation, consensus cues are not as obvious as the norms of the situation are not concrete.
An example of a strong situation would be a factory assembly line. In this case a behaviour we might see would be talking on the phone instead of assembling the parts. This would be a consensus cue that clearly tells us something about the disposition of the person performing the behaviour.
In this example it would be effective to use some form of punishment, perhaps reducing the time off that the person gets.
What are the 3 main biases with respect to attributions?
1. Fundamental attribution error: how we over emphasize dispositional expectations at the expense of situational ones.
2. Actor-Observer Effect: actors and observers making different attributions (e.g. being late to work, actors tend to have situational reasons whereas observers make dispositional ones)
3. Self-serving bias: taking credit when successful and avoiding responsibility when failure
What cues are we ignoring when we are making the fundamental attribution error?
We are failing to see the distinctiveness cues. If we did see them, we would notice that situations do impact behaviour
What are 6 reasons to care about workplace diversity?
1. Cost argument
2. Resource Acquisition argument: as labour pool shrinks and changes composition this one is particularly important (ESG scores!)
3. Marketing Argument
4. Creativity Argument
5. Problem Solving Argument
6. System Flexibility Argument: decreasing the standardization of your work systems make them more fluid and able to react faster to environmental changes
What are the 4 influences on your self-efficacy beliefs
1. Performance Mastery
3. Verbal Persuasion and Social Influence
4. Physiological State
What 3 characteristics do managers need to have to gain employee trust?
What is organizational support theory and how does it relate to perceived organizational and perceived supervisor support
organizational support theory is the belief that if employees have a high perceived organizational support (they believe the organization values their contributions and their well-being), then they will feel an obligation to care about the org's welfare and will help achieve organizational objectives.
perceived supervisor support also plays a role in POS as it is the extent to which an employee believes their supervisor cares about those things as well.
What are some of the main perceptual biases present within the recruitment and selection stage of HRM from the perspective of the new employee?
Signalling theory: job applicants filling in the knowledge gaps about an organization using their experience in recruitment/selection
-> e.g. asking discriminating questions
With respect to the interview stage of HRM, is it better to have them less or more structured? Why? How would you do what you've described?
It is better to have a more structured interview because of its increased internal validity.
To structure an interview better you want:
1. Evaluation standardized
2. Only job-related questioning
3. Consistent questioning across applicants
4. Professional rapport building, avoiding personal questions
What are some of the main biases in performance appraisals
1. morning bias: employees who work earlier getting better ratings
2. leniency errors
3. central tendency
4. halo effect (similar to implicit personality theories)
What do values reflect?
1. What we consider to be "good" and "bad"
2. How we "should" or "should not" behave
Our perceptions lead to our ________ management
"Impression Management": systematics ways we behave to create and maintain desired impressions in others' eyes
What 4 characteristics of effective rewards?
1. Paired with desired behaviour
2. Greater than expected
3. Valued in general
4. Used sparingly
What are the 2 different kinds of values?
1. Terminal Values (goals you want to achieve in your lifetime):
- comfortable life, happiness, self respect
2. Instrumental Values (the means to the terminal ends):
- ambition, courage, honesty
Describe what work centrality is
Work centrality is a measure of how work is valued in each culture. There are cross national differences in the extent to which people look at work as a central life interest
What are the the 4 basic dimensions of Hofstede's study on work-related values? Define them. What is the 5th dimension proposed by Micheal Bond?
1. Power Distance: the extent to which members of a society accept an unequal distribution of power
2. Uncertainty avoidance: the extent to which people are uncomfortable with uncertain and ambiguous situations
3. Masculinity/Femininity: clearly diffrentiated gender roles vs gender fluidity
4. Individualism/Collectivism: sort of self explanatory
5. Long term/short term orientation
How does a tight culture differ from a loose culture? How does this relate to situations in the study of personality? How might that relate to our attributions of an individual in a tight/loose society?
Tight cultures have strong clear standards for behaviour, whereas loose ones are more flexible
Tight cultures are like super sized strong situations. Seeing an individual act different (consensus cues) in a tight culture gives us strong evidence for a dispositional attribution
How do attitudes relate to behaviour and values? Give an example of a belief, value, attitude and behaviour.
Attitudes are a stable tendency to respond consistently to the same specific objects, situations, people.
Beliefs/Values -> Attitudes -> Behaviour
Belief: "My job interfering with my home life"
Value: "I dislike things that hurt my family time"
Attitude "I dislike this job"
Behaviour "I'll search for another one"
What are 3 employee attitudes that managers might want to change?
1. Attitude towards workforce diversity
2. Attitudes towards anticipated changes
3. Attitudes towards following safety precautions
What determines job satisfaction?
1. Discrepancy : discrepancy between job outcomes people get and the outcomes that they perceive they obtain
(A)distributive fairness: equal reward distribution, equity
(B) procedural fairness: fairness that occurs when the process used to determine those outcomes is seen as reasonable
(C) interactional fairness: occurs when people feel that they have received respectful and informative communication
4. Mood and Emotion
How might distributive fairness be evaluated in feminine cultures vs individualistic cultures?
1. in individualistic cultures, we'd expect equality of opportunities, tied to performance, individual contributions and inputs
2. feminine cultures: allocating outcomes towards need instead of performance
What are 4 ways that managers increase procedural fairness?
1. Managers follow consistent procedures over time and across people
2. Use accurate information and appears unbiased
3. Allow two-way communication during allocation process.
4. Welcome appeals of the procedure
What's the difference between mood and emotion?
Mood: less intense, longer lived
Emotion, intense and short-lived caused by a particular event
What are the 2 main ways that mood and emotion affect job satisfaction? How does one of them relate to the study of personality?
Emotional contagion: tendency for moods and emotions to spread between people or throughout a group; interactions make them converge
Emotional labour: requirement for people to conform to certain emotional "display rules" in their job behaviour, kind of similar to self monitoring
What are the 4 other key contributors to job satisfaction?
1. Mentally challenging work
2. Meaningful work
3. Adequate compensation
4. Career Opportunities
What aspect of a job has the strongest predictive ability towards job satisfaction?
The work itself
What are the 5 main outcomes of job satisfaction?
1. Absence from work
4. Organizational citizenship behaviour: voluntary informal behaviour contributing to organizational effectiveness
5. Customer Satisfaction and Profit
What are the 4 characteristics of Organizational citizenship behaviour?
2. Spontaneous (no one ordered it)
3. Contributes to org effectivness
4. Unlikely to be picked up and rewarded by some performance evaluation system
What are the 3 different kinds of organizational commitment?
1. Affective commitment
2. Continuance commitment
3. Normative commitment
How are affective commitment and continuance commitment related to job performance
affective: strong positive correlation
continuance: strong negative correlation
Why do we study perception?
To better understand how people make attributions about events
What are the 3 factors in the situation that influence perception?
2. Work Setting
3. Social setting
What are the 6 factors found in the perception target?
What is one way to influence someone's attitude by forcing them to engage in a behaviour?
Cognitive dissonance: when behaviour and attitude contradict and so to reconcile that we often change our attitude to justify the behaviour.
Sets found in the same folder
BU288 Midterm #1
BU288- OB Midterm 1 Testbank
BU288 Midterm 2 Testbank
BU288 Chapter 1
Sets with similar terms
OBM Exam 2
BA 350- Exam 1
Organizational Behavior and Leadership (ch5,6,7)
Other sets by this creator
BU121 Final Exam Kakoot Questions
BU121 Sample Final Exam
BU121 Final Exam (Operations/Sustainability, Negot…
LA3 - Entrepreneurial Finance