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Terms in this set (32)
aggression is (definition)
An intentional action aimed at doing harm or causing physical or psychological pain
- an action that is unintentional may be perceived as aggression
how, whether, when, and where we express aggression is what?
learned and depends on our circumstances and culture
When is male aggression encouraged?
when it fulfills a central part of the male role
how does age influence violence?
- the older you are the less crime you commit
- puberty and testosterone influence aggression
- prefrontal cortex is not developed until older
how does gender influence violence?
- it is the first predictor of violence
- men are more likely to engage in spontaneous acts of aggression (depending on culture)
- women more likely to do relational
- most extreme violence is by men and inflict more injury than women
What is catharsis?
- the act of letting of steam reduces aggression
what is overkill?
- when retaliation is more severe than the initial insult
- overkill maximizes dissonance
- in reality retaliation usually exceeds original thing
what is relational violence?
- more psychological
- social form of aggression ex. sabotaging social relationships/reputation
- higher rates in women
- starts early in age
what are the causes of aggression? (not heat, etc)
social learning and external causes
what does social learning have to do with aggression?
- social cognitive theory: people learn how to behave through cognitive processes, such as their beliefs and perceptions of events, and through observation and imitation of others
perception is important to aggression. (attention, perception/interpretation, introspection)
what does anonymity do to aggression
- People who are anonymous tend to act more aggressively
- Anonymity induces deindividuation, a state of lessened self-awareness, reduced concern about what other people think of them, and weakened restraints against prohibited forms of behavior.
what are the external causes of aggression?
alcohol; pain, discomfort, and hunger; heat and global warming; rejection, exclusion, and taunting; and frustration, deprivation, and aggression
how does alcohol affect aggression?
- lowers inhibitions and loosens restrictions on committing negative acts, more impulsive
- disrupts the way we process information and react to social situations ex. missing sarcasm
- impairs reasoning
What is the "think drink" effect? Why can this lead to aggression?
- When people people expect alcohol to have a certain effect on them, it often does.
- Self fulfilling prophecy
- they think that they are going to act more aggressively so they do
how does pain and discomfort affect aggression?
- it just does
- ex. dog feels pain and bites you
- fight or flight
how does hunger affect aggression?
- Hunger and low blood sugar can increase levels of anger and aggression.
how does heat affect aggression?
- There is a direct correlation between how hot it is out and violent crime (not more crime just the type)
How does rejection, exclusion, and taunting affect aggression?
- Social pain registers in our brains in much the same way as physical pain.
- high school is a place for all this
- linked to school shootings
- aggression is the victim's response
when is frustration the most pronounced?
- frustration leads to aggression and is pronounced when the goal is within reach, expectations are high, the rule of fairness has been violated, and the goal is blocked without a compelling reason
How does Relative Deprivation affect aggression?
- The deprivation felt when we see others enjoying a better situation or when we are deprived of something relative to our expectations
- As long as people live with hopes that are unsatisfied, they will feel frustrations that can result in aggression.
what is air rage? and what cause of aggression is it related to?
- relative deprivation and frustration
- Presence of 1st-class cabin produced 4x as many aggressive incidents. Especially when you board at the front and walk through 1st class
what does the textbook imply about mass media and aggression? and what does lecture say?
mass media like video games cause aggression but correlation not causation - maybe violent people are more likely to watch stuff like that in the first place
- Longitudinal studies have found that with exposure to violence in television, movies, and video games, children showed increases in aggressive tendencies and decreases in prosocial behaviours (may be confounding variables)
How does desensitization affect aggression?
Decreasingly distressed by seeing people hurt.
Frequent exposure to violent media, has an impact on many children and adolescents, although the impact is greatest on those who are already prone to violent behavior
What is hostile attribution bias?
the tendency to perceive hostile intent in others
- usually caused by child abuse
what does gun control and media have to do with causes on aggression?
people linked videogames and media to school shooting
What is the weapons effect?
The tendency for weapons to enhance aggressive thoughts, feelings, and actions by their mere presence
Why doesn't severe punishment reduce violence?
•Distance of the punishing agent (leads to compliance, not internalization)
•Can lead to frustration, which may encourage further aggression
what is punishment defined as?
- punishment is any outcome that reduces behaviour
- does not work as well as reinforcement
- related to cognitive dissonance
What did the Brown and Elliot Study find about aggression?
in preschool, they trained workers to ignore aggression and reward behavior that is incompatible with aggression
Found a decline in aggressive behavior after a few weeks
what reduces aggression?
- the presence of other people in the same circumstances who choose conciliation over retaliation curbs aggression (bc social norm) - opposite is probably true bc conformity
- building empathy
What did the Feshbach study find?
a negative correlation between empathy and aggression in children: the more the level of empathy, the less the likelihood of behaving aggressively
High relationship between empathy and non-aggression
- Group therapy and empathy training decrease aggression
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