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Prejudice and Intergroup Relations
Terms in this set (36)
what is categorization? and what do they allow us to do?
- a shortcut or aid that is necessary to reduce the complexity of the social world
- Categories are the basis for normal prejudgment, make decisions quickly, simplify life, help learn from the past - whether to approach or avoid
what is social categorization?
- Categorization based on perceived groups in society
- can create attitudes which influence individuals to react to a situation in a similar manner to what they did previously
what are the major types of categorization?
race, gender, age,
- some others you'd need more information ex. sexuality
what are ingroups and outgroups?
We carve the world into groups that we belong to (ingroups) and groups that we do not belong to (outgroups); E.g., your country, religion, sports team.
how do ingroup and outgroup members shape perception?
- Outgroup members are perceived to share similar characteristics, motives, and other features
- Ingroups members are perceived to be comprised of unique individuals who happen to share one or two common features
What is the outgroup homogeneity effect?
the tendency to assume that there is greater similarity among members of outgroups than among members of ingroups
what is ingroup bias?
- The idea that all Ingroup members are distinct (attribute individuality and other positive attributes to ingroup members)
- favour towards ingroup people; favouritism
why do we have outgroup homogeneity and ingroup bias?
- Simplify our social environment
- Enhance our self-concept
what is the problem with categorization? what do these lead to?
- We form these categorizations largely automatically and use them in the same way
- We over-categorize
- We do it wrong
- We misinterpret categories
- leads to biased beliefs and stereotyping
what is prejudice rooted in?
- The emotional, rooted in gut feelings/ responses associated with stereotypes (This is what makes them resist rational argument)
- talked time to realize we don't condone thingf
what is the precursor of behaviour? what components lead to this?
- cognitive and emotional components
what is the behavioural component of discrimination?
The inappropriate and unjustified treatment of people based solely on their group membership
How does society affect discrimination?
- cultural and societal institutions create bias through social reproductions (the matching of others); social norms ex. more socially acceptable to be biased towards elderly
what are the difference between prescriptive and descriptive stereotypes?
look to textbook
What is ambivalent sexism?
combination of benevolent and hostile sexism - leads to gender inequality
what is hostile sexism?
the condemnation of women with negative instead of positive stereotypes and the use of threats and violence to enforce women's subservience to men
What is benevolent sexism?
acceptance of positive stereotypes of males and females that leads to unequal treatment ex, women need protection
what are the statistics about drugs and race?
- Statistics show white people use drugs with far greater frequency than their minority counterparts, but are arrested, prosecuted, and punished far less frequently
- crack has worse punishment and is found in black communities despite same compound
Crandall, Eshleman and O'Brien, 2002 and social norms?
Asked two groups of participants to rate 105 groups of people
First group rated how acceptable in society it was to have negative feelings toward each group ex. nuns
Second group rated their own feelings towards the groups First group not asked about their personal preferences
.96 correlation between what society thinks and what they think
E.G.: the groups
elderly people, Black Americans, police officers, lawyers, feminists, liars, child abusers, people with open sores, spelling bee champions, homeless people, racists, etc...
Correlation between normative appropriateness of prejudice & expressed level of prejudice: r = .96
what are the motivations to respond without prejudice?
internal and external motivations
- personal non-prejudices standards
- important to self-concept not to be prejudiced towards groups
- social pressure to comply with non-prejudiced norms
- and be high or low in these relates to private and public conformity
what do social psychologists use to measure indirect or implicit measures of prejudice?
response latency - how fast one responds on an index of attitude accessibility, and this relates to attitude strength
Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz (1998) Implicit Association Test. Details. What does it measure?
developed to test the relative strength of various associations
Participants make a series of FAST sorting decisions organized into blocks
Taps implicit (automatic or unconscious) associations in attitudes beyond the reach of usual self-report measures
Leads to bias and discrimintation if we don't have enough time
Looking for relative strength - how fast if you were primed with black face are you to say good or bad, are you slower to sya black and good? Response latency,
Reaction Time (DV) and Condition (IV) In line with stereotype, called Congruent Opposes stereotype, called Incongruent Responses on incongruent and congruent trials are compared If the reaction time is the same, it indicates no strong association (no bias)
-measures : Strength of association between a social category and a valence
how and why are stereotypes maintained?
- Difficult to give up
- often unconcious
- Cognitive Dissonance is activated: Want to be fair, good, and rational (perception of correct) Versus the stereotype (perception of correct) - stereotype reinforced through confirmation bias
What is illusory correlation and how does it relate to prejudice?
- The joint occurrence of two distinctive events (minority member - Group B & distinctive event - negative behaviour) probably attracted more attention and caused faulty impressions.
- More attention then more deeply encoded
what are the main causes of prejudice?
1. Economic and political competition or conflict
2. Displaced aggression (mad at covid so you want to blame someone Asians)
3. Maintenance of status or self-image (we're not prejudices we're right)
4. Conformity to existing social norms
how does economic and political competition relate to prejudice?
- Prejudiced attitudes tend to increase when groups are in conflict over mutually exclusive goals
- Resentment can arise because of a perceived zero-sums fate; only one group can get what they want
- Length and severity of the conflict is determined by the perceived value and shortage of a given resource.
what is the realistic conflict theory? (Campbell)
Prejudice arises due to groups competing for resources. There has to be competition present.
What is the scape goat theory?
- the process of blaming innocent—and powerless—outgroups for our troubles
- Social norms are crucial: can incite civility or hostility
- sometimes demagogues are political leaders who seek power by exploiting people's prejudices, fears, and resentment, channelling these feelings onto scapegoats which emerge during conditions of anxiety and uncertainty, appealing especially to those who feel they are falling behind or have lost status in the social order
Maintenance of Self-Image and Status relates to prejudice how?
- need to justify our behavior and sense of self.
- good predictor of prejudice is whether a person's social status is low or declining; we crap on others to make ourselves better comparatively
- we need to feel good about our ingroups
how does conformity influence prejudice?
- social norms
- even through casual exposure or by the law
- Society creates prejudiced beliefs as people conform to the accepted practices of their major institutions
how does self-fulfilling prophecy relate to prejudice?
we expect something to occur (stereotype) so we act in a way that in turn creates the stereotypical behaviour in the other person
What is the stereotype threat and how does it affect abilities?
- The experience of anxiety or concern in a situation where a person has the potential to confirm a negative stereotype about their social group
- the anxiety about potentially confirming the stereotype can be so debilitating, that is actually impairs performance on the relevant dimension
- especially with high-identifiers
how does blaming the victim create prejudice?
- People tend to attribute personal responsibility to the target for any inequitable outcome that is difficult to explain
- uses cognitive dissonance
- we can't explain why they are going through that thing so it must be their fault
how do we reduce prejudice?
>contact hypothesis: direct contact with ppl we have prejudice towards leads to greater mutual understanding and friendship
- cross group friendships are beneficial
- must take place in place where both groups have equal status, equal goals, and are cooperating successfully; and contact is supported by society, law, and customs
> Interdependence: a situation in which individuals need one another to succeed in reaching a mutual goal. Carry over effects for other groups - cooperation becomes new norm
What is a jigsaw classroom?
a cooperative learning method used to reduce racial prejudice through interaction in group efforts
- involves interdependence
- motivated to help others because it helps the group
A lot of people do not have close relationships with people of other races, religions, and ethnic groups; therefore, a great deal of suspicion and misunderstanding prevail
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