Chapter 2 study guide

Which of the photoreceptors are more peripheral and are active in the dark?
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Traits of photoreceptorsThere are few cones in the periphery Rods are luminance sensitive Photoreceptors detect overall level of luminance and colourWhere are photoreceptors located in the eye?retina. Fixation is described as.... a brief period where the eyes stop moving & process the visual sceneWhat are mirror neurons?Neurons that fire both when someone does something as well as when someone watches someone else do somethingWhat is the correct order to Selfridge's Pandemonium model?Image demon --> Feature demons --> Cognitive demons --> Decision demonThere are three types of cone-shaped photoreceptors in the human eye. To which colors are the three cones maximally sensitive?Blue, red, greenThe ability to tell when one word in a conversation ends and the next one begins is a phenomenon calledspeech segmentationWhat is the term that describes the likelihood that a particular sound is to follow another within a single word?Transitional probabilitiesWhich part of the human eye consists of the greatest concentration of cone photoreceptors?FoveaYou close your eyes and try to imagine coffee, however, in addition to coffee, you envision a cup containing the coffee and it being on top of a table. This is an example ofScene schemaWhich of the following explains why we may understand symbol "x" in the word "fix" as a letter in a word, but in "3 x 5" recognize it as multiplication?Top-down processingWhat part of the eye controls how much light enters through the pupil by manipulating the size of the pupil?Iris. Processing that begins with sensory input of incoming stimulus and ends with representation of the information in our mind is precisely known as:bottom-up processingAfter input, the next phase in the Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) model is?Sensory memoryWhat is the definition of a whole report, in the context of George Sperling's studies?trying to report everything that was presentedOne of the problems of pattern recognition in template theories is that the pattern cannot be recognized if some of the stimulus is blocked or covered up. What is this problem called?OcclusionWhat did Sperling's patients report in the initial sensory memory experiment (1960)?Saw the whole array of items but no longer had access to them in memory. At what age has it been shown that infants gain understanding of transitional probability (or statistical learning)8 monthsJeremy, a farmer by trade, notices a faint figure in the distance. After a moment, he decides it must be a young calf lying in the grass. Jeremy's conclusion was likely due in some part to:unconscious inferenceWhich part of the brain is responsible for determining an object's identity?Temporal LobeThe pathway from the visual cortex to the parietal lobe is known asThe action pathwayThe task that our brain undergoes when determining the object responsible for the image on our retina is calledThe inverse projection problemThe ability to recognize the sofa despite seeing it from different areas in your house is calledViewpoint invarianceProsopagnosia, the inability to recognize faces, is caused by a defect to the Fusiform Face Area, which is in what area of the brain?The Temporal Lobe. The intensity of a neural response is mainly the result of what?The rate of firing of many action potentialsWhat are the two main components that help people make estimates of the probability of a given outcome based on the Bayesian influence theory?Likelihood of a given outcome and prior probabilityWhat principle states that lines tend to be seen as following the smoothest path?principle of good continuation. In Gauthier's (1999) experiment, participants underwent a 4-day training session to become "Greeble experts." How did the participants' FFA responses to faces and Greebles change?Face responses decreased, and Greeble responses increasedEndel Tulving proposed that long term memory is divided into three components. What are they?Semantic, episodic, proceduralWhat are cones sensitive to?ColourThe finding that the Olympic symbol is perceived as five circles, not as nine shapes, is an example of what?Principle of simplicityThe method in which a part of an animal's brain is removed in order to test which perceptual abilities are affected is known as) Brain ablationWhy do computers make many mistakes while perceiving scenes or objects?computers lack information stored and accumulated over the course of a human lifetimePhysiological studies have revealed the human brain contains different processing streams that enable perception, determination of location, and interaction with objects. Based on Ungerleider and Mishkin's (1982) and Milner and Goodale's (1995) research, which pathways would be activated if a person saw a ball on the ground and picked it up?The ventral- or perception pathway would be activated when the person identified the ball. The dorsal- or action pathway would be activated when they reached down to pick the ball up.Expecting to see jewelry and diamonds at a Tiffany's or a Kay's is an example ofScene schemaWhat is a scene schema?Knowledge of what a scene typically containsWhich theories of perception focus on top-down processing and how knowledge and expectations inform perception?ConstructiveWhich of the following word strings all refer to the same pathway?where, action, dorsal