Which of the following chemical food preservatives is used in the wine industry but may cause asthmatic reactions in some individuals?
c. propionic acid
d. benzoic acidb. sulfitesBleach is an example of which group of chemicals used for disinfection?
a. heavy metals
d. bisbiguanidesb. halogensWhich chemical disinfectant works by methylating enzymes and nucleic acids and is known for being toxic and carcinogenic?
a. sorbic acid
d. hexaclorophenec. formaldehydeWhich type of test is used to determine whether disinfectant solutions actively used in a clinical setting are being used correctly?
a. disk-diffusion assay
b. phenol coefficient test
c. in-use test
d. use-dilution testc. in-use testThe effectiveness of chemical disinfectants has historically been compared to that of which of the following?
b. ethyl alcohol
d. formaldehydea. phenolWhich of the following refers to a germicide that can kill vegetative cells and certain enveloped viruses but not endospores?
a. high-level germicide
b. intermediate-level germicide
c. low-level germicide
d. sterilantc. low-level germicideSanitization leaves an object free of microbes.
True or FalseFalseIonizing radiation can penetrate surfaces, but nonionizing radiation cannot. True or FalseTrueMoist-heat sterilization protocols require the use of higher temperatures for longer periods of time than do dry-heat sterilization protocols do. True or FalseFalseSoaps are classified as disinfectants.
FalseFalseMercury-based compounds have fallen out of favor for use as preservatives and antiseptics. True or FalseTrueA medical item that comes into contact with intact skin and does not penetrate sterile tissues or come into contact with mucous membranes is called a(n) ________ item.noncriticalThe goal of ________ ________ protocols is to rid canned produce of Clostridium botulinum endospores.commercial sterilizationIn an autoclave, the application of pressure to ________ is increased to allow the steam to achieve temperatures above the boiling point of water.steamDoorknobs and other surfaces in clinical settings are often coated with ________, ________, or ________ to prevent the transmission of microbes.copper, nickel, zincIf a chemical disinfectant is more effective than phenol, then its phenol coefficient would be ________ than 1.0.greaterIf used for extended periods of time, ________ germicides may lead to sterility.high-levelIn the disk-diffusion assay, a large zone of inhibition around a disk to which a chemical disinfectant has been applied indicates ________ of the test microbe to the chemical disinfectant.susceptibility or sensitivity1. Which of the following would be a sign of an infection?
a. muscle aches
d. nauseac. feverWhich of the following is an example of a noncommunicable infectious disease?
a. infection with a respiratory virus
b. food poisoning due to a preformed bacterial toxin in food
c. skin infection acquired from a dog bite
d. infection acquired from the stick of a contaminated needleb. food poisoning due to a preformed bacterial toxin in foodDuring an oral surgery, the surgeon nicked the patient's gum with a sharp instrument. This allowed Streptococcus, a bacterium normally present in the mouth, to gain access to the blood. As a result, the patient developed bacterial endocarditis (an infection of the heart). Which type of disease is this?
d. zoonotica. iatrogenicWhich period is the stage of disease during which the patient begins to present general signs and symptoms?
d. prodromald. prodromalA communicable disease that can be easily transmitted from person to person is which type of disease?
d. nosocomiala. contagiousWhich of the following is a pathogen that could not be identified by the original Koch's postulates?
a. Staphylococcus aureus
b. Pseudomonas aeruginosa
c. Human immunodeficiency virus
d. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimuriumc. Human immunodeficiency virusPathogen A has an ID50 of 50 particles, pathogen B has an ID50 of 1,000 particles, and pathogen C has an ID50 of 1 × 106 particles. Which pathogen is most virulent?
a. pathogen A
b. pathogen B
c. pathogen Ca. pathogen AWhich of the following choices lists the steps of pathogenesis in the correct order?
a. invasion, infection, adhesion, exposure
b. adhesion, exposure, infection, invasion
c. exposure, adhesion, invasion, infection
d. disease, infection, exposure, invasionc. exposure, adhesion, invasion, infectionWhich of the following would be a virulence factor of a pathogen?
A. a surface protein allowing the pathogen to bind to host cells
B. a secondary host the pathogen can infect
C. a surface protein the host immune system recognizes
D. the ability to form a provirusA. a surface protein allowing the pathogen to bind to host cellsYou have recently identified a new toxin. It is produced by a gram-negative bacterium. It is composed mostly of protein, has high toxicity, and is not heat stable. You also discover that it targets liver cells. Based on these characteristics, how would you classify this toxin?
d. leucocidinc. exotoxinWhich of the following applies to hyaluronidase?
a. It acts as a spreading factor.
b. It promotes blood clotting.
c. It is an example of an adhesin.
d. It is produced by immune cells to target pathogens.a. It acts as a spreading factor.Phospholipases are enzymes that do which of the following?
a. degrade antibodies
b. promote pathogen spread through connective tissue.
c. degrade nucleic acid to promote spread of pathogen
d. degrade cell membranes to allow pathogens to escape phagosomesd. degrade cell membranes to allow pathogens to escape phagosomesWhich of the following is a major virulence factor for the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus?
d. fimbriaeb. capsuleWhich of the following pathogens undergoes antigenic variation to avoid immune defenses?
d. Giardiac. PlasmodiumA difference between an acute disease and chronic disease is that chronic diseases have an extended period of __________.illnessA person steps on a rusty nail and develops tetanus. In this case, the person has acquired a(n) __________ disease.noncommunicableA(n) __________ pathogen causes disease only when conditions are favorable for the microorganism because of transfer to an inappropriate body site or weakened immunity in an individual.opportunisticThe concentration of pathogen needed to kill 50% of an infected group of test animals is the __________.LD50A(n) __________ infection is a small region of infection from which a pathogen may move to another part of the body to establish a second infection.focalCilia, fimbriae, and pili are all examples of structures used by microbes for __________.adhesionThe glycoprotein adhesion gp120 on HIV must interact with __________ on some immune cells as the first step in the process of infecting the cell.CD4Adhesins are usually located on __________ of the pathogen and are composed mainly of __________ and __________.surface; proteins; sugarsThe Shiga and diphtheria toxins target __________ in host cells.protein synthesisAntigenic __________ is the result of reassortment of genes responsible for the production of influenza virus spike proteins between different virus particles while in the same host, whereas antigenic __________ is the result of point mutations in the spike proteins.shift; driftprotease and phospholipaseCandida can invade tissue by producing the exoenzymes __________ and __________.
protease and phospholipaseprotease and phospholipaseThe larval form of Schistosoma mansoni uses a __________ to help it gain entry through intact skin.protease1. Which is the most common type of biological vector of human disease?
d. arthropodsd. arthropodsA mosquito bites a person who subsequently develops a fever and abdominal rash. What type of transmission would this be?
a. mechanical vector transmission
b. biological vector transmission
c. direct contact transmission
d. vehicle transmissionb. biological vector transmissionCattle are allowed to pasture in a field that contains the farmhouse well, and the farmer's family becomes ill with a gastrointestinal pathogen after drinking the water. What type of transmission of infectious agents would this be?
a. biological vector transmission
b. direct contact transmission
c. indirect contact transmission
d. vehicle transmissiond. vehicle transmissionA blanket from a child with chickenpox is likely to be contaminated with the virus that causes chickenpox (Varicella-zoster virus). What is the blanket called?
d. vectora. fomiteWhich of the following would NOT be considered an emerging disease?
a. Ebola hemorrhagic fever
b. West Nile virus fever/encephalitis
c. Zika virus disease
d. Tuberculosisd. TuberculosisWhich of the following would NOT be considered a reemerging disease?
a. Drug-resistant tuberculosis
b. Drug-resistant gonorrhea
d. West Nile virus fever/encephalitisd. West Nile virus fever/encephalitisWhich of the following factors can lead to reemergence of a disease?
a. A mutation that allows it to infect humans
b. A period of decline in vaccination rates
c. A change in disease reporting procedures
d. Better education on the signs and symptoms of the diseaseb. A period of decline in vaccination ratesWhy are emerging diseases with very few cases the focus of intense scrutiny?
a. They tend to be more deadly
b. They are increasing and therefore not controlled
c. They naturally have higher transmission rates
d. They occur more in developed countriesb. They are increasing and therefore not controlled___sporadic diseasea disease found occasionally in a region with cases occurring mainly in isolation from each other___endemic diseasea disease found regularly in a region___pandemic diseasea disease in higher than expected numbers around the world___morbidity ratethe number of disease cases per 100,000 individuals___mortality ratethe number of deaths from a disease for every 10,000 individuals___experimentaluse of a set of test subjects (human or animal) and control subjects that are treated the same as the test subjects except for the specific treatment being studied___analyticalobserving groups of individuals to look for associations with disease___prospectivea comparison of a cohort of individuals through the course of the study___descriptiveexamination of current case histories, interviews with patients and their contacts, interpretation of medical test results; frequently conducted while outbreak is still in progress___retrospectiveexamination of past case histories and medical test results conducted on patients in an outbreak___Florence Nightingalecompiled data on causes of mortality in soldiers, leading to innovations in military medical care___Robert Kochdeveloped a methodology for conclusively determining the etiology of disease___Joseph Listershowed that surgical wound infection rates could be dramatically reduced by using carbolic acid to disinfect surgical tools, bandages, and surgical sites___John Snowdetermined the source of a cholera outbreak in LondonThe ________ collects data and conducts epidemiologic studies in the United States.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or CDC________occurs when an infected individual passes the infection on to other individuals, who pass it on to still others, increasing the penetration of the infection into the susceptible population.Propagated spreadA batch of food contaminated with botulism exotoxin, consumed at a family reunion by most of the members of a family, would be an example of a ________ outbreak.point sourceA patient in the hospital with a urinary catheter develops a bladder infection. This is an example of a(n) ________ infection.nosocomial or healthcare-associatedA ________ is an animal that can transfer infectious pathogens from one host to another.vectorThe ________ collects data and conducts epidemiologic studies at the global level.WHO (World Health Organization)Which of the following is an example of a noncommunicable infectious disease?Tetanus, caused by the endospore producing soil bacterium Clostridium tetani. • Legionnaires disease is caused by Legionella pneumophila, a bacterium found watercooling towers (HVAC systems).