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VTNE - Exotic Animal
Terms in this set (151)
Which of the following may help decrease dental abrasions in pet ferrets?
a. housing the ferret in a wire cage
b. offering a raw diet consisting of bones, chicken, and green vegetables
c. offering a natural-prey diet or moistening dry kibble
d. annual periodontal treatments
offering a natural-prey diet or moistening dry kibble
which of the following diagnostic tools that is best used to evaluate real-time GI motility in ferrets?
a. magnetic resonance imaging
b. computed tomography
which of the following is/are common presenting signs in a ferret with ibuprofen toxicity?
a. arrhythmia and vomiting
b. generalized neurologic signs
c. heart failure
d. excessive drooling and tachycardia
generalized neurologic signs
Which of the listed diseases best fits the statement that follows?
It is most commonly transmitted by aerosol exposure, but it can also be spread by direct contact with conjunctival and nasal exudates, urine, feces, skin and sometimes fomites. The incubation period is generally 7 to 10 days in the ferret. The disease spreads by viremia after it is in the body, and it is almost always fatal.
a. Canine distemper virus
b. Influenza B
c. Pneumocystis carinii
Canine distemper virus
In ferrets, the heart is best auscultated between which of the following ribs?
a. 5 th and 7th
b. 6th and 8th
c. 2nd and 4th
d. 1st and 3rd
6th and 8th
Ferrets with vestibular signs demonstrate all of the following except:
c. Left or right-sided head tilt
d. Head pressing
which of the following areas contains more than half of all lymphoid tissue in the rabbit?
a. nervous system
b. GI tract
c. urinary tract
d. heart and lungs
which of the following is a microsporidium obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that causes neurologic disease in rabbits?
a. encephalitozoon cuniculi
b. baylisascaris procyonis
c. toxoplasma gondii
d. pasteurella multocida
which of the following tools is the most useful option to help diagnose syncope in a rabbit?
a. thoracic radiographs
c. computed tomography of the thorax
A lactating doe presents to the clinic for anorexia, depression, lethargy, and fever. What is the most likely the cause of her symptoms?
a. septic mastitis
b. nonseptic cystic mastitis
c. GI stasis
which of the following methods definitively diagnoses Treponema paraluicuniculi?
a. complete blood count
b. skin biopsy with silver staining
c. ELISA testing
d. PCR testing
skin biopsy with sliver staining
A rabbit presents with a 2-day history of anorexia. You take radiographs and notice an ingesta-filled stomach with large amounts of gas in the intestines and cecum. This is suggestive of what condition in the rabbit?
a. acute GI dilation
b. GI foreign-body obstruction
c. GI stasis
d. GI neoplasia
which of the following can be used specifically to diagnose porphyrins in a rabbit's urine?
a. wood's lamp
b. urine dipstick
c. microscopic examination
d. urine sedimentation examination
in rabbits, pregnancy toxaemia is most likely to occur during which week(s) of gestation?
a. during the first 2 weeks
b. during the last week
c. during the 6th week
d. during the 5th week
during the last week
which of the following bacteria are most often associated with antibiotics-associated enterotoxemia in guinea pigs?
a. Escherichia coli
b. Pseudomonas aeruginosa
c. clostridium difficile
d. salmonella typhimurium
poor husbandy conditions, along with a humid environment, predispose guinea pigs to which oft he following conditions?
a. demodex caviae
b. trixacarus caviae
c. gyros ovalis
d. bordetella bronchiseptica
a 5-years old intact male chinchilla presents with a 1-week history of excessive grooming, straining to urinate, repeatedly cleaning its penis, and production of several small spots of urine in the litter box. what is the most likely cause of these signs?
a. acute renal failure
b. urinary calculi
c. penile fur ring
d. urinary tract infection
penile fur ring
what is the most common cause of alopecia and dermatitis in a pet mouse?
a. fur mites
c. contact dermatitis caused by pine shaving
which of the following factors does not contribute to cannibalism of the young by female hamsters?
a. lead diet
b. increased ambient temperature
c. low body weight
d. handling the mother and/or the young
increased ambient temperature
Hypocalcemia in the sugar glider is primarily caused by an imbalance in which of the following?
a. blood calcium, vitamin A, and phosphorus
b. dietary calcium, vitamin B, and phosphorus
c. blood calcium, vitamin D, and phosphorus
d. dietary calcium, vitamin D, and phosphorus
dietary calcium, vitamin D, and phosphorus
an intact male African hedgehog of unknown age presents to the clinic with a 3-day history of lethargy, inappetence, icterus, and diarrhea. which of the following diseases is most likely to cause these symptoms?
a. acute renal failure
b. hepatic lipidosis
c. bacterial pneumonia
which of the following vessels is primarily used for blood collection in an African hedgehog?
a. lateral saphenous
An Amazon parrot presents to the hospital with the following clinical signs: blunted choanal papillae, plantar erosions on the planter surfaces of the feet, poor-quality feathering, and poor skin. Diet consists of seeds only. Which of the following diseases is most likely to cause these signs?
a. Hypovitaminosis C
b. Hypovitaminosis A
Which of the following values is used to evaluate renal function in an avian patient?
a. uric acid
d. BUN, creatinine, and uric acid
For proper metabolization, ultraviolet lighting is necessary for which of the following?
a. vitamin D3
c. calcium and vitamin D3
d. magnesium and calcium
calcium and vitamin D3
which of the following is not present in the reptilian urinary system?
a. loop of henle
loop of henle
Many species of lizards can "drop" or detach their tails if they are grabbed or restrained too tightly. This natural predatory response is referred to as:
which of the following is most commonly obtain a heart rate in a reptilian patient?
d. palpation of pulse
which of the following vessels is most commonly used for blood collection in a lizard?
a. cephalic vein
b. jugular vein
c. ventral abdominal vein
d. caudal tail vein
caudal tail vein
total blood volume in a reptilian patient is approximately what percentage of the body weight?
total blood volume in the avian patient is approximately what percentage of the body weight?
a snake presented to the clinic for anorexia, striking at the owner, hissing, and a blue-opaque closing to the eyes and skin. what is probably the cause?
a. contact dermatitis
b. fungal dermatoses
d. it is about the shed its skin
it is about the shed its skin
oral examinations are most commonly performed in snakes using which of the following?
a. plastic spatula
b. gauze strips
c. tape strips
d. metal specula
which of the following sites are commonly used for venipuncture in snakes?
a. heart and ventral abdominal vein
b. heart and caudal tail vein
c. heart only
d. caudal tail vein and ventral abdominal vein
heart and caudal tail vein
The bones of the tortoise shell are covered with structures called scutes. What are scutes made of?
which of the following species does not have a diaphragm?
a. African hedgehog
b. sugar glider
c. box turtle
d. golden hamster
sexing a tortoises is generally easy. the plastron in the male tortoise is usually?
c. wider and thicker compared with the female
d. narrower compared with the female
which of the following is a condition in which uric acid is deposited into the joints and visceral organs and is caused by dehydration, kidney disease, and a high-protein diet?
a. hypovitaminosis A
b. metabolic bone disease
a female tortoise presents to the clinic with the following clinical signs: straining, lethargy, anorexia, and bloody discharge from the cloaca. what is the most common cause of these symptoms?
a. GI foreign body
b. internal parasites
c. hypervitaminosis A
A complete radiographic series in the turtle and tortoise include which of the following views?
a. dorsoventral and lateral
b. ventrodorsal and lateral
c. anterior-posterior, dorsoventral, and lateral
d. anterior-posterior, ventrodorsal and lateral
anterior-posterior, dorsoventral and lateral
The normal feces of a parrot contain which of the following?
a. primarily gram-positive organisms
b. primarily gram-negative organisms
c. an equal mixture of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms
d. the feces are mostly sterile and do not contain bacteria
primarily gram-positive organisms
you have been asked to obtain a blood sample for a CBC and chemistry panel from a 100-g cocktail. which of the following vessels is most commonly used in this species?
a. medial metatarsal vein
b. cutaneous ulnar vein
c. cephalic vein
d. jugular vein
a healthy bird can only lose <10% of its blood volume safely. you have been asked to draw a blood sample from a 1-kg macaw. what is the maximum amount of blood that can be taken from this patient safely?
a. 1 ml
b. 10 ml
c. 15 ml
d. 5 ml
in an avian patient, into which of the following muscles are intramuscular injections generally administered?
a figure-8 bandage is used for immobilization of the following bones?
a. femur, tibiotarsus, and tarsometatarsus
b. femur, and tibiotarsus
c. ulna, radius, and metacarpals
d. humerus, radius and ulna
ulna, radius and metacarpals
which of the following vessels is most commonly used for blood collection in chinchillas?
b. lateral saphenous
which of the following vessels is most commonly used for intravenous catheterization in a larger lizard such as an iguana?
c. caudal tail vein
caudal tail vein
An iguana presents to the clinic with the following clinical signs: seizures, tremors, anorexia, kyphosis, pliable long bones, and a chronic femoral fracture. The patient has been housed without the proper UV lighting and has been given a diet of dog food, iceberg lettuce, and tofu. From which of the following diseases is this patient likely suffering?
b. Metabolic bone disease
d. Hypervitaminosis A
metabolic bone disease
a snake presents to the clinic 12 hours after suspected ingestion of a foreign body. which of the following diagnostics should be performed first?
a. computed tomography
b. complete blood count
c. chemistry panel
d. whole-body radiographs
Atropine is not suggested for use in which of the following species?
the hydration status in an avian patient is best evaluated by assessing which of the following?
a. capillary refill time
b. venous refill time
c. mucous membranes for tacky saliva
d. quality of the feathers
venous refill time
which of the following bones is pneumatic in the avian patient?
what percentage of body weight can be tube fed at any given time to a bird?
which of the following are daily maintenance fluid amounts for an avian patients?
which of the following two metals most commonly cause heavy metal toxicity after ingestion by birds?
a. lead and gold
b. zinc and copper
c. lead and zinc
d. cast iron and copper
lead and zinc
a bird presents to the clinic after chewing on a galvanized wire cage for the previous several days. clinical signs include weight loss, polyuria, polydipsia, anemia, weakness, and seizures. what are these signs and history indicative of?
a. lead toxicity
b. zinc toxicity
c. iron toxicity
d. copper toxicity
the pupil in birds and reptiles is made up of which type of muscle?
a. smooth muscle
b. cardiac muscle
c. striated skeletal muscle
d. a mix of smooth and skeletal muscle
striated skeletal muscle
the most common cause of penile prolapse in a chinchilla is:
b. fur ring formation
c. improper breeding with female
d. bacterial infection
fur ring formation
A hamster presents to the clinic with the following symptoms: diarrhea, matting around the tail, lethargy, and a hunched abdomen. Which of the following diseases is most likely the causative agent?
a. Gi stasis
b. Cystic calculi
c. Wet tail
d. Dental disease
which of the following drugs is contraindicated for use in a rabbit that presented for GI stasis and moderate-to-severe dental pain?
an owner calls the clinic regarding their sick guinea pig. they tell you that their pet has not eaten in 16 hours and has been "picky" with its food during the previous few weeks. they have noticed drooling, overgrowing, and small-sized feces. it sounds as if the a veterinarian should examine the guinea pig. although a diagnosis cannot be made on the phone, what is the most likely cause of the animal's signs?
a. cystic ovaries
b. dental disease
c. pasteurella multocida
the most common neoplasia in an unspayed female rabbit is:
a. uterine adenocarcinoma
b. mast cell tumors
c. squamous cell carcinoma
which of the following diseases causes upper respiratory tract signs including sinusitis, rhinitis, excessive tearing, snorting, sniffling, and nasal exudate?
a. pasteurella multocida
b. bacterial enteritis
c. allergic dermatitis
you have been asked to obtain 10 mL of blood from one ferret for blood donation to another ferret. which of the following vessels is most likely the best choice for venipuncture?
b. lateral saphenous
d. cranial vena cava
cranial vena cava
in an avian patient, what is the choana?
a. part of the urinary system where the ureter connects to the kidney
b. opening at the roof of the mouth that connects the trachea to sinuses and the nares
c. the common holding area for urine, crates, and feces before being excreted from the body
d. small metacarpal bone in the distal wing
opening at the roof of the mouth that connects the trachea to sinuses and the nares
which of the following bones are considered pneumatic in most avian species?
a. humerus and ulna
b. femur and tibiotarsus
c. tibiotarsus and tarsometatarsus
d. humerus and femur
humerus and femur
which of the following is not considered a potential complication of intraosseous catheterization?
a. difficulty maintaining patency
b. bone infection
d. hematoma formation
which of the following is the most common and largest space used for subcutaneous fluid administration in an avian patient?
a. wing web
b. between the shoulder blades
c. inguinal area
d. over the back, behind the pelvis
Moldy peanuts are a common cause of which of the following in the avian patient?
c. Escherichia coli
d. Clostridium difficile
In birds, air sac cannulas are placed into which of the following?
a. cervicocephalic air sac
b. clavicular air sac
c. caudal thoracic and abdominal air sacs
d. cranial thoracic air sac
caudal thoracic and abdominal air sacs
Alopecia at the tail tip, symmetrical alopecia along the trunk of the body, intense pruritus, and enlarged vulva are symptoms in the ferret that indicate what disease?
a. green slime disease
c. external parasites
d. adrenal disease
a ferret presents to the emergency clinic with anorexia, vomiting, lethargy, diarrhea, and generalized weakness. the owner stated that these symptoms started 36 hours earlier. a GI foreign body is suspected. which of the following diagnostics would be used to determine whether a foreign body is present?
a. magnetic resonance imaging
b. chemistry panel
d. complete blood count
which of the following is a common cause of upper respiratory disease in prairie dogs?
b. mast cell tumor
d. spindle cell sarcoma
which of the following vessels is most commonly used for collection of a complete blood count and chemistry panel in prairie dogs?
a. cephalic vein
b. lateral saphenous vein
c. jugular vein
d. caudal tail vein
which of the following vessels are most commonly used for collection of a complete blood count (CBC) and chemistry panel in the sugar glider?
a. jugular vein, cranial vena cava, medial tibial artery
b. lateral saphenous vein, femoral vein, medial tibial artery
c. cranial vena cava, cephalic vein, and lateral saphenous vein
d. jugular vein, femoral vein, lateral tail veins
jugular vein, cranial vena cava, medial tibial artery
which of the following diseases cause an acute onset of hind limb paresis or paralysis in the captive sugar glider?
a. lymphoid neoplasia
c. nutritional osteodystrophy
which of the following species is considered arboreal?
b. prairie dog
c. guinea pig
d. sugar glider
which of the following mammals has a cloaca where the gastrointestinal, urinary, and reproductive tract empty?
b. prairie dog
c. guinea pig
d. sugar glider
the captive diet of sugar gliders includes all of the following except:
pet skunks should be vaccinated against all of the following diseases except:
b. feline panleukopenia
c. canine distemper
d. canine parvovirus
a captive obese pet skunk presents with the following clinical signs: exercise intolerance, weight loss, lethargy, dyspnea, anorexia, coughing, ascites, pale mucous membranes, and cold extremities. which disease is most likely?
a. hepatic lipidosis
b. dental disease
d. canine distemper virus
Hedgehogs are which of the following, requiring a high-protein diet?
b. strict carnivores
a hospitalized hedgehog is offered part of a hardboiled egg as a treat. he suddenly become stiff and contorted, starts making licking motions with his tongue and heavily salivating. what is occurring?
a. a seizure
b. self-anointing behavior
c. anxiety toward caretaker
d. wobbling hedgehog syndrome
you have been asked to obtain a complete blood count and chemistry panel for a pet hedgehog. which vessels are most commonly used?
a. lateral saphenous and jugular
b. cephalic and cranial vena cava
c. femoral and medial saphenous
d. jugular and cranial vena cava
jugular and cranial vena cava
which of the following diseases in hedgehog is characterized by progressive ataxia, weight loss, paralysis, and eventual death?
a. wobbling hedgehog syndrome
b. tubulointerstitial nephritis
c. hepatic adenocarcinoma
wobbling hedgehog syndrome
which of the following is the causative agent of Tyzzer's disease?
a. Clostridium piliforme
b. Escherichia coli
c. lawsonia intracellularis
d. francisella tularensis
which statement about tularaemia in rabbits is true?
a. wild rabbits are highly susceptible
b. wild rabbits are the cause of most epizootic infections
c. francisella tularensis is the etiologic agent
d. all of the above
all of the above
which of the correct order in avian gastrointestinal tract descending from the oral cavity?
a. crop, gizzard, proventriculus
b. proventriculus, gizzard, crop
c. gizzard, proventriculus, crop
d. crop, proventriculus, gizzard
crop, proventriculus, gizzard
the feathered tract in birds from which feathers originate are called:
the pectoral muscles in a bird attach to which of the following anatomical structures?
what is the function of the operculum found in some psittacines?
a. to prevent the inhalation of foreign bodies
b. to humidify the air
c. to absorb saline from the nostrils
d. to connect the sinuses to the choanal slit
to prevent the inhalation of foreign bodies
which of the following is responsible for sound generation in birds?
a. infraorbital sinus
which of the following species lacks an epiglottis?
a. amazon parrot
b. German shepherd
c. Persian cat
d. New Zealand white rabbit
which of the following in birds is the final holding area for urine, crates, feces, and eggs before excretion from the body?
Because of a lack of diaphragm in the avian patient, which of the following organs surrounds the apex of the heart?
Bird diets that include only seeds are often deficient in which of the following?
a. Vitamin C
b. Vitamin D
c. Vitamin B
d. Vitamin A
clinical signs in a bird that include loose green feces, green crates, lethargy, inappetence, ascites, abnormal beak and nails, and poor feather quality are often indicative of:
a. renal failure
b. hepatic disease
c. fungal overgrowth
d. cardiac disease
most gas exchange in fish takes place in which of the following :
how many chambers does a fish heart contain?
why is it important to maintain a reptile within its preferred optimal temperature zone (POTZ)?
a. the POTZ enables animal to metabolize drugs
b. the POTZ enables animals to digest food properly
c. the POTZ enables animals to heal after an injury or surgery
d. all of the above
all of the above
the term gravid is used for reptiles that are?
in the skin of chameleons, which of the following allows reflectivity of visible light that results in a color change?
Iguanas have teeth that are replaced many times throughout life. The teeth do not have roots but are attached to the jaw. This type of dentition is called:
Large femoral pores in the iguana are indicative of:
a. Male lizard
b. Systemic infection
c. Juvenile lizard
d. Breeding female
the reproductive organ in the male lizard consists of"
a. single phallus
b. paired hemipenes
c. external testicles
d. boiled phallus
which of the following anatomical structures is located on the dorsal portion of the head and acts as a photoreceptors, helping to regulate hormone production and thermoregulatory behavior in the lizard species?
a. thyroid gland
b. Jacobson's organ
d. parietal eye
which of the following species is arboreal?
a. leopard gecko
b. Jackson's chameleon
c. bearded dragon
d. savannah monitor
which of the following statements is true regarding carnivorous lizards?
a. they do not require calcium as part of their diets
b. they do not require vitamin A in their diets
c. they do not require UV-B lighting
d. they require live prey
they do not require UV-B lighting
why us UV-B lighting so important for herbivorous, insectivorous, and omniovorous lizards?
a. UV-B lighting helps to keep these patients warm
b. UV-B lighting helps with absorption of phosphorus and conversion of vitamin A
c. UV-B lighting is required for absorption of vitamin C and normal behavior
d. UV-B lighting is required for absorption of calcium and vitamin D3 synthesis
UV-B lighting is required for absorption of calcium and vitamin D3 synthesis
Heating a reptile cage safely can be accomplished by all of the following except:
a. Heat rock
b. Heater under tank
c. Ceramic radiant heating element outside the cage
d. Incandescent light bulb placed outside the cage
Rostral abrasions in the captive lizard are most commonly caused by:
a. fungal infections
b. facial impact with terrarium walls
c. trauma from cage mates
d. trauma from feeding live prey
facial impact with terrarium walls
Dysecdysis is the abnormal shedding of the skin in a reptile. Which of the following is a common complication resulting from dysecdysis?
a. Fungal infection of the dermis
b. Subsequent systemic bacterial infection
c. Extremity necrosis, especially of the toes or tail tip
d. Constipation caused by eating the shed skin
extremity necrosis, especially of the toes or tail tip
Cloacal prolapse in the lizard is caused by all of the following except:
a. Egg laying
b. Foreign body impaction
c. Straining to defecate
Diets high in purines cause which of the following diseases?
b. Heart failure
d. Liver failure
Ferrets are vaccinated annually for which of the following diseases?
a. rabies and feline panleukopenia
b. rabies and canine distemper
c. rabies and canine parvovirus
d. rabies and canine coronavirus
rabies and canine distemper
the normal lifespan of a domestic ferret is:
a. 2-4 years
b. 7-10 years
c. 10-12 years
d. 5-7 years
you have been asked to place an intraosseous catheter in a very critical ferret. which bone is most commonly used?
which of the following white blood cells are predominant in rabbits?
a. monocytes and neutrophils
b. lymphocytes and heterophils
c. metamyelocytes and azurophils
d. eosinophils and bands
lymphocytes and heterophils
what percentage of body weight is composed of bone in rabbits?
Night feces in the rabbit are also referred to as:
Why is hay an important part of the rabbit diet?
a. High in calories and vitamin C
b. High in digestible fiber and helps wear the teeth
c. Contains indigestible fiber that helps with weight management, dental disease, and gut health
d. Helps maintain gut motility and is high in vitamins A, D, and E
contains indigestible fiber that helps with weight management, dental disease, and gut health
Oblique skull radiographs are used to evaluate which of the following in a rabbit?
b. Lower dental arcade only
c. Upper dental arcade only
d. Tooth roots
Pain in a rabbit is often exhibited by all of the following except:
d. reduced grooming and activity
female rabbits are referred to as:
Male rabbits are referred to as:
what is the range of the gestational period in a rabbit?
a. 30-35 days
b. 34-38 days
c. 31-32 days
d. 28-30 days
what is the normal rectal temperature range in rabbits?
a. 101-104 F
b. 99.5-102.5 F
c. 100-103 F
d. 98.5-100.5 F
what is the normal percentage range for packed cell volume (PCV) in the rabbit?
which of the following animals does not have molars that grow continuously throughout life?
d. guinea pigs
To keep its skin and coat healthy, a chinchilla should be offered a daily:
b. dust bain
c. vitamin C tablet
d. handful of dried papaya
Suitable bedding for the chinchilla includes all of the following except:
b. recycled newspaper products
c. aspen shaving
d. pine shaving
chinchillas are prone to all of the following diseases except:
a. dental disease
b. heat stroke
c. back fractures
the average weight of an adult chinchilla ranges between:
Female guinea pigs are called:
a guinea pig presents with hind leg lameness. physical examination finding include obesity, plantar thinning, and mild ulceration. these findings are indicative of which of the following diseases?
b. vitamin C deficiency
d. streprobacillus spp. infection
Scruffing is not recommended in chinchillas because of which of the following potential issues:
a. it is painful for them
b. fur slip
c. scruffing is actually fine in chinchillas
d. chinchillas do not have enough skin around the neck region to scruff them properly
which of the following is not a sign of dental disease in chinchillas, rabbits, and guinea pigs?
a. discharge from the ears
discharge from the ears
which of the following diets is most appropriate for a ferret?
a. Oxbow Herbivore Care
b. Oxbow Carnivore Care
c. Ground alfalfa pellets
d. sweet potato baby food
Oxbow Carnivore Care
which of the following species has a duplex uterus and two cervices?
b. guinea pig
the proper diet in a ferret contains:
a. 30-40% protein and 15-30% fat
b. 50-60% protein and 15-30% fat
c. 40-50% protein and 15-30% carbohydrates
d. 25-30% protein and 50% carbohydrates
30-40% protein and 15-30% fat
which of the following feathers are trimmed as part of an avian wing trim?
a. primary feathers
b. secondary feathers
c. tertiary feathers
d. tail feathers
which of the following does not contribute to pododermatitis in an avian patient?
b. hypovitaminosis A
c. improper perch surfaces
d. Psittacine beak and feather virus
Psittacine beak and feather virus
A blue - and - gold macaw presents to the clinic with the following signs : depression , lethargy , anorexia , dyspnea , nasal and ocular discharge , conjunctivitis , and biliverdinuria ( green urates ) . Which disease should be at the top of the differential diagnosis list ?
a . Papillomatosis
b . Psittacine beak and feather disease
c . Proventricular dilation disease
D. Avian chlamydophila
which of the following leukocytes are usually the most numerous cells in avian blood?
Azurophils are leukocytes that are only found in what group of animals?
clinical signs of dystocia in the chelonian include all of the following except:
The upper and lower shells of a turtle are referred to as:
a. Plastron and carapace
b. Anterior shell and posterior shell
c. Epiplastral and endoplastral
d. Hypoplastral and xiphiplastral
plastron and carapace
Where is the heart located in a snake?
a. in the middle of the body, similar to a monitor lizard
b. about 25% down the length of the body from the nares
c. just below the base of the skull
d. about 2 inches below the skull
about 25% down the length of the body from the nares
which of the following statements is correct regarding the snake respiratory tract?
a. snakes have air sacs similar to those in birds
b. snakes have complete cartilaginous tracheal rings
c. most species have a single right lung and a nonfunctioning left lung
d. the lungs run the entire length of the snake's body
most species have a single right lung and a nonfunctioning left lung
which of the following is not considered an appropriate bedding substrate for a snake?
a. indoor/outdoor carpet
c. gravel/corncob bedding
d. cypress mulch
the term gravid is used for reptiles that are?
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