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Terms in this set (13)
A research study looked at the effect of the prescription drug, raloxifene on fracture risk in postmenopausal women, and found that the women who took raloxifene over the same five-year period of time as the women who did not take the drug reduced their risk of clinical vertebrate fracture. What are the Factors and Levels in this study?
There are no Factors or Levels in this study
There are no Factors but there are two Levels (raloxifene, no raloxifene)
There is one Factor (drug) with two Levels (raloxifene, no raloxifene)
There is one Level (drug) with two Factors (raloxifene, no raloxifene)
There is one Factor (drug) but no Levels
There is one Level (drug) but no Factors
There is one Factor (drug) with two Levels (raloxifene, no raloxifene)
In 2003 a group of 300 North Americans with Type 1 diabetes between the ages of 21 and 30 were identified by a medical research group. In 2014 a different group of researchers used both medical histories and questionnaires to quantify key aspects of lifestyle and heart health in their subjects. Which of the following best characterizes the study design?
Stratified survey design
Experimental study design
Case-control survey design
Simple random survey
Cohort survey design
Cohort survey design
Which of the following statements is most correct about sampling error?
Can be remedied by proper study design
Is mostly associated with experimental studies
Is unavoidable
One of the common problems in flawed statistical analyses
Creates problems with interpreting the correct statistical population
Is unavoidable
A country is divided into three regions with populations of 2 million, 2 million, and 0.5 million, respectively. A survey is done asking about foreign policy opinions. Somebody proposes taking a sample of 50 people from each region. What is the study design for this survey?
Case-control survey design
Simple random survey.
Experimental study design
Cohort survey design
Stratified survey design
Stratified survey design
Consider an observational study that collected data on how long it takes to get help at computer stores. Ten random computer stores were sampled as part of the study and data on both the wait time and average price of a laptop were collected. What graph would be best suited to view the relationship between price and time spent waiting?
Bar graph
Pie graph
Histogram
Box plot
Scatter plot
Scatter plot
You are interested in whether sunscreen helps prevent skin burns. During a weekend tennis tournament, you measure the skin condition of a random subset of players and then sit back to enjoy the games. At the end of the tournament, you re-measure each players' skin condition and ask whether they wore sunscreen or not. You then compare the skin damage for each player with his or her use of sunscreen. Which of the following best describes your study design?
Simple random survey
Stratified survey design
Experimental study design
Case-control survey design
Cohort survey design
Cohort survey design
You are studying the addictiveness of vaping (e-cigarettes) in teens and design a study that takes randomly selected teens of legal age and has them use either an e-cigarette with nicotine, or an e-cigarette with the vaping liquid but no nicotine for two weeks. After two weeks, you ask each participant a series of questions that help you quantify the level of addictiveness. Following good design methods, neither you nor the participants know what treatment each participant received while the study was running. Which of the following best describe the design method detailed in the previous sentence?
Case-control design
Double-blind design
None of the answers are correct
Sham treatment
Observational design
Control treatment
Double-blind design
You are a medical researcher interested in quantifying electoral engagement rates in Canadian cities. You randomly select 20 cities across Canada, and conduct a survey within each to get a single estimate of the voting rate for each city. Which of the following best characterize the study design?
Experimental design
Double-blind design
Prospective design
Stratified design
Cluster design
Cluster design
Which of the following statements best describes the difference between observational and experimental studies?
Experimental studies suffer from problems with confounding variables, whereas observational studies can be designed to minimize these.
Observational studies create problems with interpreting the correct statistical population, while experimental studies do not.
Observational studies are prospective whereas experimental studies are retrospective.
Observational studies are correlative, whereas experimental studies are causal.
The goals for experimental and observational studies are similar; it's just that experimental studies offer more control.
Observational studies are correlative, whereas experimental studies are causal.
Which of the following best describes a person's food preference?
Continuous numerical variable
Measurement unit
Discrete numerical variable
Categorical variable
Sampling unit
Categorical variable
Iron deficiency is one of the most common nutritional disorders in humans. Your research evaluated how three different diets affect blood iron levels in males and females. Which of the following graphing methods would be most appropriate for this type of data with the goal of highlighting the difference in how males and females responded to diet?
Scatter plot with distinct symbols representing sex
Grouped box plot
Cumulative histogram
Pie chart
Line plot
Grouped box plot
3.2, 5.1, 1.2, 3.1, 6.8, 9.1, 2.4, 8.1, 10.0
Calculate the Inter Quartile Range for the above set of numbers and indicate what range the answer lies within.
2 ≤ ANSWER < 4
4 ≤ ANSWER < 6
6 ≤ ANSWER <8
8 ≤ ANSWER < 10
10 ≤ ANSWER < 12
4 ≤ ANSWER < 6
Lyme disease is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, and is carried primarily by black-legged ticks. A recent study assessed the percentage of black-legged ticks that carry Borrelia in ten randomly selected tick populations spanning a range of mean annual temperatures. In each population, they randomly selected 100 ticks and tested each for the presence of the bacteria. The goal was to quantify the relation between annual temperature among sites and the percentage of ticks with Borrelia. What is the sampling unit in this study?
The researcher
The bacterium
The tick population
The individual tick
There is no sampling unit
The tick population
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